EP0579592B1 - Internal combustion engine comprising a camshaft with axial moving device - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine comprising a camshaft with axial moving device Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0579592B1
EP0579592B1 EP93890134A EP93890134A EP0579592B1 EP 0579592 B1 EP0579592 B1 EP 0579592B1 EP 93890134 A EP93890134 A EP 93890134A EP 93890134 A EP93890134 A EP 93890134A EP 0579592 B1 EP0579592 B1 EP 0579592B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
camshaft
internal combustion
combustion engine
characterized
engine according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP93890134A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0579592A1 (en
Inventor
William John Hurr
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
AVL List GmbH
Original Assignee
AVL List GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to AT1437/92 priority Critical
Priority to AT0143792A priority patent/AT408127B/en
Application filed by AVL List GmbH filed Critical AVL List GmbH
Publication of EP0579592A1 publication Critical patent/EP0579592A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0579592B1 publication Critical patent/EP0579592B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L13/00Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations
    • F01L13/0015Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for optimising engine performances by modifying valve lift according to various working parameters, e.g. rotational speed, load, torque
    • F01L13/0036Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for optimising engine performances by modifying valve lift according to various working parameters, e.g. rotational speed, load, torque the valves being driven by two or more cams with different shape, size or timing or a single cam profiled in axial and radial direction
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L1/00Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear
    • F01L1/26Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear characterised by the provision of two or more valves operated simultaneously by same transmitting-gear; peculiar to machines or engines with more than two lift-valves per cylinder
    • F01L1/267Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear characterised by the provision of two or more valves operated simultaneously by same transmitting-gear; peculiar to machines or engines with more than two lift-valves per cylinder with means for varying the timing or the lift of the valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L13/00Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations
    • F01L13/0015Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for optimising engine performances by modifying valve lift according to various working parameters, e.g. rotational speed, load, torque
    • F01L13/0036Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for optimising engine performances by modifying valve lift according to various working parameters, e.g. rotational speed, load, torque the valves being driven by two or more cams with different shape, size or timing or a single cam profiled in axial and radial direction
    • F01L2013/0052Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for optimising engine performances by modifying valve lift according to various working parameters, e.g. rotational speed, load, torque the valves being driven by two or more cams with different shape, size or timing or a single cam profiled in axial and radial direction with cams provided on an axially slidable sleeve
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L2305/00Valve arrangements comprising rollers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L2820/00Details on specific features characterising valve gear arrangements
    • F01L2820/01Absolute values
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/21Elements
    • Y10T74/2101Cams
    • Y10T74/2102Adjustable

Description

  • The invention relates to an internal combustion engine with at least one camshaft axially displaceable by an adjusting device with a plurality of switchable cams having different axial offsets per valve.
  • In order to vary the valve lift curve during operation of the engine and thus to be able to adapt the optimal opening and closing times to the respective engine operating state, it is desirable to switch between several cam shapes per valve during operation. This can be done expediently by an axially displaceable camshaft with different cams per valve.
  • From DE-OS 35 03 740 an internal combustion engine of the type mentioned is known, in which the camshaft is axially displaced by a hydraulic adjusting device. The cams used to actuate a valve each have identical, rising cam tracks for the valve opening. The different control times required for different speed ranges are achieved by a relative rotation of the camshaft by means of a helical toothing of the camshaft gear. Switching between two cams is made possible by the fact that the rising part of adjacent cams assigned to a valve forms a common surface. The blocking of the axial movement during the shifting process by the stages is avoided by the end faces of the cam stages being offset by a certain amount in the order of valve actuation compared to the immediately preceding ones. Switching is triggered by a mechanical or electrical speed pulse, which is, however, independent of the respective camshaft angle. Due to the lack of a relationship between camshaft displacement and camshaft angle, the bucket tappet or transmission lever strikes the end faces of the selected cams at the beginning of the shifting process until the tappet or transmission lever reaches the transition surface between the cams on the base circle or the rising cam track can reach and switch. This causes additional noise and increasing wear on the valve actuation, but can also lead to pinching damage.
  • The object of the invention is to avoid these disadvantages and to provide an adjusting device for camshafts with which a controlled and stop-free axial displacement of the camshaft is made possible.
  • According to the invention this is achieved in that the adjusting device consists of a sliding link with at least two helical guide grooves arranged in opposite directions of rotation, which end in annular clearance grooves, and a driver which can be steered into the guide grooves by a trigger element, with the driver being steered into one of the Clearance grooves different operating positions of the camshaft can be defined. The slope and the position of the helical guide grooves and the position of the individual cams on the camshaft is chosen so that switching between two cams of a valve takes place while the bucket tappet or transmission lever faces a common tangential plane of both cams. This avoids shear stress on the end faces of the cams. During a changeover process, the camshaft automatically pushes itself from the first operating position in the axial direction into the second operating position by the driver engaging in the guide grooves, the two operating positions being predetermined by annular release grooves. No additional force is therefore required to displace the camshaft, so that the release element, which only brings the driver into an initial position, can be dimensioned relatively small.
  • It is preferably provided that the two guide grooves, which are helical in the opposite direction of rotation, are machined into the camshaft, and the driver is secured against rotation about the camshaft axis, preferably connected to the cylinder head via a housing of the adjusting device. This space-saving arrangement is characterized by simple and inexpensive manufacture. However, it is also conceivable for the driver to be rigid with the camshaft train, and to arrange the sliding link in the cylinder head.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention it is provided that the driver is designed as an open spring ring arranged concentrically around the camshaft, which is secured against rotation with the camshaft and in a region, preferably diametrically opposite the free ends of the spring ring, in the area of the cylinder head or in the housing Adjustment device is mounted securely in the axial direction, one of the two free ends being bendable in the direction of the camshaft axis by the release member. At the beginning of each switching operation, one end of the spring ring is bent into an initial position by the release element, as a result of which the spring ring is deflected into the guide groove which moves relative to the spring ring.
  • Instead of the spring ring, it can also be provided in an embodiment which is favorable in terms of friction losses that the driver is formed by a first cylindrical pin and a second cylindrical pin, the geometrical longitudinal axes of which are approximately normal to the camshaft axis, and both pins, preferably rotatable, in the cylinder head or are mounted in a housing of the adjusting device, wherein the second pin is also displaceably mounted in the direction of the camshaft axis and can be deflected in the direction of the camshaft axis by the release element.
  • In the context of the invention it is provided that the trigger member is actuated hydraulically. The hydraulic release element itself can be dimensioned very small, since the axial displacement forces of the camshaft are provided by the camshaft drive.
  • In an embodiment of the invention with several valves of one valve type per cylinder, the cams belonging to different operating positions of the camshaft are designed for different valve lift curves. This means that the optimal valve lift and timing can be used for different engine operating states.
  • In an embodiment of the invention it is provided that those activated in at least one operating position of the camshaft Cams of valves of the same type of valve per cylinder are designed for different valve lift curves. This is particularly favorable in the part-load range if, for example, one of two intake valves per cylinder follows a valve lift curve with a small stroke and a short opening time, while the second inlet valve is actuated with an even smaller stroke and a shorter opening time. The second inlet valve can also remain completely closed in the partial load range, which means that the opening force required to overcome the spring force and the friction can be saved.
  • It is preferably provided that an activated cam, preferably via a forked rocker arm, actuates a plurality of valves in at least one operating position of the camshaft. As a result, the number of cams on a camshaft can be reduced, which has a favorable effect on the size and the manufacturing costs.
  • The invention is explained in more detail below on the basis of exemplary embodiments illustrated in the drawings.
  • Show it:
  • Fig. 1
    2 shows a longitudinal view of a camshaft with an adjusting device according to the invention,
    Fig. 2
    2 shows a detailed view of the adjusting device according to line II-II in FIG. 1,
    Fig. 3
    a detail of the adjustment device,
    Fig. 3a
    2 shows an oblique view of a schematically illustrated trigger element,
    Fig. 3b
    a variant of the adjustment device according to the invention,
    Fig. 3c
    3b shows a section through the adjusting device along the line III-III in FIG.
    Fig. 4
    2 shows a longitudinal view of the drive-side end of the camshaft,
    Fig. 5
    2 shows a longitudinal view of another embodiment of the invention with the camshaft partially cut away,
    Fig. 6
    5 shows a section of a valve actuation along the line VI-VI in FIG. 5,
    Fig. 7
    another longitudinal section of this embodiment,
    Fig. 8
    a longitudinal section of a further embodiment of the invention.
  • Parts with the same function have the same reference symbols.
  • The exemplary embodiments relate to an internal combustion engine with four cylinders arranged in series. 1 shows part of a cylinder head 1 of this internal combustion engine with partially removed camshaft bearing brackets 5a. The camshaft 3 has two cams 4a, 4b per valve 6a, 6b. The cams 4a are for a valve lift curve with a large stroke and a long opening time of the valves 6a, 6b for use at full load and high speed, the nockers 4b are for a short stroke and a short opening time of the valves 6a, 6b designed for partial load operation and / or low speed. In the position of the camshaft 3 shown, the cams 4b are activated and actuate the valves 6a, 6b via beads 7 on the tappets 8. The laterally released beads 7 provide the neighboring deactivated cams 4a with the necessary scope for free rotation. The tappets 8 themselves are secured against rotation about the valve axis.
  • The adjusting device 9 is provided at one end of the camshaft 3. This consists of the sliding link 10 formed as part of the camshaft 3, the driver 11 and the trigger element 12.
  • As can be seen in FIG. 2, the sliding link 10 has two guide grooves 10 ′, which are machined into the camshaft 3 in a helical manner in the opposite direction of rotation. Both guide grooves 10 'end in the clearance grooves 10' 'machined into the camshaft in a ring. The driver 11, designed as a spring ring 11 ', is connected to the housing 13 or the cylinder head 1 in a body-fixed and rotationally secure manner in a region 14c diametrically opposite the free ends 14a, 14b, as can be seen from FIG. 3a. At the free end 14a of the spring ring 11 ', the pistons 16 of the triggering element 12 engage, which trigger the camshaft displacement. The movement of the pistons 16 is indicated by the arrows 16 ', the displacement of the camshaft 3 triggered thereby by the arrow 3'. In order to ensure reliable triggering of the axial camshaft displacement, the free ends 14a, 14b of the spring ring 11 'in the direction of the camshaft axis 3a in the housing 13 or cylinder head 1 must have sufficient scope 14'. The maximum displacement length of the camshaft corresponds. the width of the sliding link 10 and is marked with 20.
  • The camshaft displacement is triggered by the hydraulically actuated trigger element 12 shown in FIG. 3. The oil supply is designated 18, the oil return 19. In the housing 13, pistons 16 preloaded by springs 15 are slidably mounted. Apart from the triggering process for the camshaft movement, the spring ring 11 'and the trigger member 12 remain in the rest position. At a certain speed, the electrically operated valve 17 opens the oil supply 18 one of the two release pistons 16, whereby a bending moment is exerted on the spring ring 11 '. As soon as the free end 14a of the spring ring 11 'reaches the beginning of the guide groove 10', the spring ring 11 'automatically slides along the guide groove 10' of the rotating camshaft 3, while the camshaft 3 moves in the direction of the camshaft axis 3a. The change between the cams 4a and 4b takes place when the relevant tappets face a common tangential plane 4 'spanned by the flanks of two adjacent cams 4a, 4b (FIG. 1). As soon as the spring ring 11 'reaches the release groove 10'', the camshaft displacement ends. Analog, functionally identical parts are provided for the displacement movement in the opposite direction, the spring ring 11 'being pressed in the opposite direction.
  • Instead of the spring ring 11 ', two pins 22, 23 rotatable about their longitudinal axes 22a, 23a can be used, the longitudinal axes 22a, 23a being normal to the camshaft axis 3. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 3b and 3c, the two pins 22, 23 are diametrically opposed. The switching process is initiated by moving the pin 23 through one of the two pistons 16 of the triggering element 12 in the direction of the camshaft axis 3a.
  • The camshaft 3 is driven on the opposite end face of the cylinder head 1, as can be seen in FIG. 4, via a sliding element 21 rotatably mounted in the cylinder head 1, in which the camshaft 3 is accommodated in a longitudinally displaceable manner and to which a camshaft drive wheel (not shown) is flanged can.
  • In one embodiment of the variants described above, the displacement length 20 of the camshaft 3 is 18 mm. Because of the phase shift of the individual cams 4a, 4b, not all cams can be switched over at the same time. The camshaft shift gradually triggers the following processes: the lateral play is overcome between 0 and 2 mm; according to the firing sequence ACDB, the cam 4a of cylinder A is activated after 2 mm, the cam 4a of cylinder C after 4 mm, the cam 4a of cylinder D after 6 mm and the cam 4a of cylinder B after 8 mm. During the remaining displacement length of 8 to 18 mm, the full width of the cams 4a over the Beaded 7 of the tappets 8 effective. During this displacement movement, the camshaft 3 makes two and a quarter revolutions.
  • Instead of providing separate pairs of cams for each valve, three switchable cams 4a, 4b, 4c are provided in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 5 to 7 for controlling two valves 6a, 6b of the same type of valve per cylinder. The valves 6a, 6b are actuated via rocker arms 24, 25, each of which has a roller 24 'or 25' for reducing friction. Using the forked rocker arm 25, the actuation of both valves 6a, 6b is possible by overcoming the force of the valve springs 6 'by means of a single cam 4a, 4b or 4c. The forked rocker arm acts directly on a valve 6a and indirectly on the second valve 6b by deflecting the smaller rocker arm 24.
  • With the three differently designed cams 4a, 4b and 4c, three different engine operating areas can be covered. These are: Range B1 - full load at high speed, requires synchronous actuation of valves 6a, 6b by cams 4a with a large stroke and long opening time; Range B2 - full load at low speed, requires synchronous actuation of the valves 6a, 6b by a cam 4b with a small stroke and a short opening time; Area B3 - partial load, requires asynchronous actuation of the valves 6a and 6b, one valve 6a being actuated by the cam 4b with a small stroke and short opening time, the other valve 6b being actuated by the cam 4c with a very small stroke.
  • In the middle operating position shown in FIGS. 5 and 7, the cam 4c designed for a flat valve lift curve with a very short stroke and short opening time opens both valves 6a and 6b via the forked rocker arm 25. The resulting stroke movement of the valve 6a is, however, superimposed by the deflection transmitted from the cam 6b via the rocker arm 24 to the valve 6a, so that the opening of the valve 6a is significantly larger than the opening of the valve 6b. If the camshaft 3 is shifted to the right by the adjusting device 9 in FIG. 5 or 7, the cam 4b assumes a position above the forked rocker arm 25 and can synchronize both valves 6a and 6b, Act according to area B2. The deflection of the camshaft from the middle operating position in the opposite direction positions the cam 4a above the forked rocker arm 25, as a result of which the valves 6a and 6b can be opened synchronously with a large stroke - corresponding to the range B1. The outermost deflection positions of the cams are indicated by dashed lines in FIG. 7.
  • While in the embodiment variant shown in FIGS. 5 to 7 the same cams 4b designed for short stroke and short opening time are used for motor operating areas B2 and B3, the arrangement of an additional cam 4b ', as can be seen in FIG. 8, offers the possibility a better adaptation to engine operating areas B2 and B3. Compared to the previously described embodiment, the positions of the cams 4c and 4b are interchanged. The drawn operating position of the camshaft 3 corresponds to the engine operating range B3, the valves 6a and 6b being opened asynchronously. By moving the camshaft 3 from the position shown to the left, the cam 4b comes to rest on the forked rocker arm 28. A synchronous actuation of the two valves 6a and 6b by the cam 4b in the engine operating area B2 is thus possible. A further displacement of the camshaft 3 to the left positions the cam 4a over the forked rocker arm 28 and the cam 4b over the rocker arm 27. The deflection of the cam 4a is superimposed on the deflection of the cam 4b, so that both valves 6a and 6b are opened synchronously with a large stroke become, which corresponds to the engine operating range B1. With 5 'tunnel bearings for the camshaft are designated, which are moved when the camshaft is moved. The maximum deflection of the cam 4b 'and the tunnel bearing 5' is indicated by dashed lines.
  • The proposed adjustment device can be used both in valve controls with bucket tappets and in valve controls with rocker arms or rocker arms.

Claims (8)

  1. Internal combustion engine with at least one camshaft which can be shifted axially by means of a shifting device and has several switchable cams for each valve, with different axial positions relative to each other, characterized in that the shifting device (9) comprises a shifting profile (10) consisting of two or more guide grooves (10'), which are configured as oppositely oriented helixes and end in ring-shaped idling grooves (10''), and that it further comprises an engaging element (11), which may be introduced into the guide grooves (10') by means of an activating element (12), the engaging element (11) running in one of the idling grooves (10'') defining different operating positions of the camshaft (3).
  2. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the two guide grooves (10'), which are configured as oppositely oriented helixes, are cut into the camshaft (3), and that the engaging element (11) is secured against rotation about the camshaft axis (3a) and is connected with the cylinder head (1), preferably by means of a housing (13) of the shifting device (9).
  3. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the engaging element (11) is configured as an open spring ring (11') placed concentrically around the camshaft (3), which is prevented from rotating together with the camshaft and is attached to the cylinder head (1) or the housing (13) of the shifting device (9) at a point (14c) preferably diametrically opposite of the free ends (14a, 14b) of the spring ring (11'), so as to be secured against axial shifting, where one of the two free ends (14a, 14b) may be bent by the activating element (12) parallel to the camshaft axis (3a).
  4. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the engaging element (11) is formed by a first cylindrical pin (22) and a second cylindrical pin (23) whose geometrical longitudinal axes (22a, 23a) are approximately normal to the camshaft axis (3a), both pins (22, 23) being held in the cylinder head (1) or in a housing (13') of the shifting device (9'), preferably so as to be rotatable, the second pin (23) also being capable of sliding parallel to the camshaft axis (3a) and the sliding motion being effected by the activating element (12).
  5. Internal combustion engine according to any of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the activating element (12) is operated hydraulically.
  6. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 with several valves of one and the same type for each cylinder, characterized in that the cams (4a, 4b, 4c) used in different operating positions of the camshaft (3) are designed for different valve lift curves.
  7. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 6, characterized in that the cams (4a, 4b, 4c) used with valves (6a, 6b) of the same type for each cylinder (A, B, C, D), which are activated in at least one operating position of the camshaft (3), are designed for different valve lift curves.
  8. Internal combustion engine according to any of claims 1, 6 or 7, characterized in that in at least one operating position of the camshaft (3) one activated cam (4a, 4b, 4c) operates several valves (6a, 6b), preferably by means of a forked rocker lever (25).
EP93890134A 1992-07-13 1993-07-05 Internal combustion engine comprising a camshaft with axial moving device Expired - Lifetime EP0579592B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT1437/92 1992-07-13
AT0143792A AT408127B (en) 1992-07-13 1992-07-13 Internal combustion engine with at least one camshaft that can be axially displaced by an adjusting device

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0579592A1 EP0579592A1 (en) 1994-01-19
EP0579592B1 true EP0579592B1 (en) 1995-10-18

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EP93890134A Expired - Lifetime EP0579592B1 (en) 1992-07-13 1993-07-05 Internal combustion engine comprising a camshaft with axial moving device

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US (1) US5289806A (en)
EP (1) EP0579592B1 (en)
KR (1) KR950014408B1 (en)
AT (1) AT408127B (en)
DE (1) DE59300780D1 (en)

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EP0579592A1 (en) 1994-01-19
US5289806A (en) 1994-03-01
DE59300780D1 (en) 1995-11-23
KR940002480A (en) 1994-02-17
KR950014408B1 (en) 1995-11-27
ATA143792A (en) 2001-01-15
AT408127B (en) 2001-09-25

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