EP0498014B1 - Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation - Google Patents

Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0498014B1
EP0498014B1 EP19910101711 EP91101711A EP0498014B1 EP 0498014 B1 EP0498014 B1 EP 0498014B1 EP 19910101711 EP19910101711 EP 19910101711 EP 91101711 A EP91101711 A EP 91101711A EP 0498014 B1 EP0498014 B1 EP 0498014B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
grate
exhaust gas
combustion air
air
combustion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP19910101711
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0498014A1 (en
EP0498014B2 (en
Inventor
Johannes Dipl.-Ing. Martin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Martin GmbH fuer Umwelt und Energietechnik
Original Assignee
Martin GmbH fuer Umwelt und Energietechnik
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Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Application filed by Martin GmbH fuer Umwelt und Energietechnik filed Critical Martin GmbH fuer Umwelt und Energietechnik
Priority to EP19910101711 priority Critical patent/EP0498014B2/en
Publication of EP0498014A1 publication Critical patent/EP0498014A1/en
Publication of EP0498014B1 publication Critical patent/EP0498014B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=8206382&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP0498014(B1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0498014B2 publication Critical patent/EP0498014B2/en
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Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B7/00Combustion techniques; Other solid-fuel combustion apparatus
    • F23B7/002Combustion techniques; Other solid-fuel combustion apparatus characterised by gas flow arrangements
    • F23B7/007Combustion techniques; Other solid-fuel combustion apparatus characterised by gas flow arrangements with fluegas recirculation to combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B1/00Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel
    • F23B1/16Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel the combustion apparatus being modified according to the form of grate or other fuel support
    • F23B1/18Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel the combustion apparatus being modified according to the form of grate or other fuel support using inclined grate
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L1/00Passages or apertures for delivering primary air for combustion 
    • F23L1/02Passages or apertures for delivering primary air for combustion  by discharging the air below the fire
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L9/00Passages or apertures for delivering secondary air for completing combustion of fuel 
    • F23L9/02Passages or apertures for delivering secondary air for completing combustion of fuel  by discharging the air above the fire

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for combustion air supply in grate furnaces, in which primary combustion air is introduced through the fuel and secondary combustion air directly into the exhaust gas stream, and in which a part of the exhaust gas is branched off from the exhaust gas stream and fed back to the combustion process, the exhaust gas immediately above the fuel in the area of a high unused primary air portion and sucked back to the combustion air. The invention also relates to a firing system for carrying out the method.
  • In a known method of this type (DE-B-1 019 788), the exhaust gas which is sucked off is fed exclusively to the nozzles for supplying the secondary combustion air in order to achieve intensive post-combustion, producing a vigorous swirling and circulating movement of the gas-air mixture, as a result of the air circulating in the combustion chamber, the heavy fuels blown up from the coal bed are returned to the grate. This great mixing depth effect leads to complete combustion with very little excess air and very high temperatures. This intensive mixing would only be possible with a particularly large amount of fresh air, whereby the excess air would be increased unnecessarily high, on the one hand to avoid excessive air excess and on the other hand to obtain a particularly large amount of gas for achieving the intensive mixing and swirling, is with the known method this flue gas recirculation was used. A reduction in the amount of fresh air, neither in the primary air nor in the secondary air, is not carried out here. Rather, the total amount of exhaust gas increases.
  • This increased exhaust gas volume requires a larger design of the device downstream of the firing grate, e.g. Waste heat boilers and emission control devices.
  • Since the exhaust gas recirculation is carried out in the known method explained at the outset to avoid an increased proportion of fresh air in order to achieve intensive turbulence and better combustion, the proportion of fresh air is still as high as in other known combustion plants in which the combustion air is superstichometric with a stitch geometry ratio is supplied in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Any superstichometric mode of operation, however, inevitably entails a reduction in the efficiency of a waste heat boiler connected downstream of the furnace grate system, since the excess combustion air has to be heated up as ballast. Furthermore, an excessive amount of air also causes a larger amount of pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
  • The object of the invention is to provide a method and a firing system for carrying out the method, with the aid of which the amount of exhaust gas flow and thus the disadvantageous consequences resulting from the air excess explained can be reduced.
  • This object is achieved by the measures specified in claim 1. As a result, the total exhaust gas flow is reduced by the proportion that is extracted in the rear combustion chamber area and fed back to the combustion air, which is reduced in accordance with this proportion. This exhaust gas can therefore serve as a replacement for a portion of the fresh combustion air because, due to the absence of a chemical reaction in the rear part of the grate, the composition of the exhaust gas almost corresponds to the fresh combustion air.
  • Due to the reduction in the total volume of exhaust gas, the units downstream of the combustion chamber can be smaller, which means that the installation costs can be saved considerably. Another advantage of this mode of operation according to the invention is a reduction in pollutant emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. In the case of carbon monoxide, this effect is based on the one hand on more intensive post-combustion of a gas stream that is relatively highly contaminated with this pollutant. In the case of nitrogen oxides, the observed decrease in concentration can be explained by lowering the oxygen content in the exhaust gas.
  • The amount of exhaust gas withdrawn can be mixed with the primary combustion air and the secondary combustion air. When incinerating domestic waste, it is advantageous if the amount of gas extracted is used exclusively as secondary combustion air, since the proportion of combustion air that is fed into the rear grate area and is then extracted corresponds relatively exactly to the proportion of quantity that is required as secondary combustion air.
  • If, in an advantageous embodiment of the method, the amount of exhaust gas drawn off corresponds to the volume after that primary air which is supplied in the rear primary air zones and which has a high unused primary air proportion, the achievable benefit can be maximized.
  • However, it can also be advantageous that the volume of exhaust gas drawn off is less or greater in volume than the amount of primary air which is fed to the firing grate in the rear primary air zones which have a high unused primary air content.
  • Advantageous configurations of the firing system for carrying out the method result from claims 8 to 11.
  • The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to several exemplary embodiments shown in the drawing. The drawing shows:
    • 1: a longitudinal section through a first embodiment of a furnace in a schematic representation;
    • 2: a representation corresponding to FIG. 1 of a second exemplary embodiment; and
    • 3 shows a cross section through a furnace according to a further embodiment.
  • As can be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2, a firing system has a feed hopper 1 with a subsequent feed chute 2 for feeding the fired goods onto a feed table 3, on which loading pistons 4 are provided so as to be movable back and forth in order to feed the firing material coming from the feed chute 2 onto a firing grate 5 , on which the combustion of the fired material takes place, it is irrelevant whether it is an inclined or horizontal grate, regardless of which principle.
  • Arranged beneath the firing grate 5 is a device, generally designated 6, for supplying primary combustion air, which can comprise a plurality of chambers 7 to 11, to which primary combustion air is supplied by means of a fan 12 via a line 13. The arrangement of the chambers 7 to 11 divides the firing grate into several underwind zones, so that the primary combustion air can be set differently according to the needs on the firing grate.
  • Above the firing grate 5 is the combustion chamber 14, which merges in the front part into an exhaust gas duct 15 to which units, not shown, such as e.g. B. connect a waste heat boiler and an exhaust gas cleaning system. In the rear area, the combustion chamber 14 is delimited by a ceiling 16, a rear wall 17 and side walls 18, the latter being particularly evident from FIG. 3.
  • The combustion of the material to be labeled 19 takes place on the front part of the grate 5, above which the exhaust gas duct 15 is located. In this area, most of the primary combustion air is supplied through the chambers 7, 8 and 9. On the rear part of the combustion grate 5 there is only burned-out firing material, i. H. Slag and in this area primary combustion air is supplied via the chambers 10 and 11 essentially only for cooling this slag and in particular for cooling the grate in order to maintain its operability.
  • The burned-out parts then fall into a slag discharge 20 at the end of the combustion grate 5. In the lower area of the exhaust gas duct 15, nozzles 21 and 22 are provided, which feed the secondary combustion air to the rising exhaust gas in order to cause intensive combustion of the combustible components in the exhaust gas.
  • In the illustrated exemplary embodiments, exhaust gas is now extracted essentially in the rear part of the combustion chamber, which is delimited by the ceiling 16, the rear wall 17 and the side walls 18. For this purpose, a suction opening 23 is provided in the ceiling 16 in the exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 1, so that exhaust gas can be sucked off via a suction line 24 by means of a fan 25, which is connected to the suction side of the fan. A line 26 is connected to the pressure side of the fan, which presses the exhaust gas quantity extracted into line 13, via which the primary combustion air is supplied to the chambers 7 to 11.
  • 2, the suction opening 23 is provided in the rear wall 17. In this exemplary embodiment, the line 26 connected to the pressure side of the fan 25 is connected, for example, to the nozzle 21, which is used to supply part of the secondary combustion air.
  • The exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 3 shows the arrangement of two suction openings 23 in the side walls 18 of the combustion chamber 14, the connected suction lines 24 of which are connected to the suction side of the fan 12. The suction lines have pipe sockets 27 with butterfly valves 28, through which additional fresh air can be drawn in and mixed with the exhaust gas.

Claims (11)

1. Method of supplying combustion air in grate firing, in which primary combustion air is passed through the fuel and secondary combustion air is introduced directly into the exhaust gas flow, and in which, furthermore, some of the exhaust gas is tapped off from the exhaust gas flow and returned to the combustion process, the exhaust gas being tapped off immediately above the fuel in the region of a large unused primary air portion and being returned to the combustion air, characterised in that the combustion air is reduced in accordance with the quantity of exhaust gas to be mixed with it, so that the entire exhaust gas flow is reduced by that portion tapped off in the rear combustion chamber region and returned to the combustion air.
2. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off is mixed with the primary combustion air.
3. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off is mixed with the secondary combustion air.
4. Method according to claim 1 in the combustion of household waste, characterised in that the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off is used exclusively as secondary combustion air.
5. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterised in that, with respect to volume, the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off corresponds to that quantity of primary combustion air supplied to the grate in the rear primary air zones having a large unused primary air portion.
6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterised in that, with respect to volume, the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off is smaller than the quantity of primary combustion air supplied to the grate in the rear primary air zones having a large unused primary air portion.
7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterised in that, with respect to volume, the quantity of exhaust gas tapped off is greater than the quantity of primary air supplied to the grate in the rear primary air zones having a large unused primary air portion.
8. Firing installation for carrying out the method according to claim 1 or claim 2, comprising a grate (5), a device (7-11) below the grate (5) for supplying primary combustion air through the grate (5), and nozzles (21, 22) opening into the combustion chamber (14) above the grate (5) for supplying secondary combustion air, at least one exhaust line (23, 24) for exhaust gas being provided in the combustion chamber (14) above the grate (5), characterised in that the exhaust line (24) is connected to the suction end of a ventilator (25), the pressure end of which is connected via a line (26) to the line (13) for primary combustion air.
9. Firing installation for carrying out the method according to claims 1 and 3 or claim 4, comprising a grate (5), a device (7-11) below the grate (5) for supplying primary combustion air through the grate (5), and nozzles (21, 22) opening into the combustion chamber (14) above the grate (5) for supplying secondary combustion air, at least one exhaust line (23, 24) for exhaust gas being provided in the combustion chamber (14) above the grate (5), characterised in that the exhaust line (24) is connected to the suction end of a ventilator (25), the pressure end of which is connected via a line (26) to the nozzles (21, 22) opening into the combustion chamber (14) above the grate (5) for supplying secondary combustion air.
10. Firing installation according to claim 8 or claim 9, characterised in that the inlet opening (23) of the exhaust line (24) is provided above the grate (5) in at least one side wall (18) of the combustion chamber (14).
11. Firing installation according to claim 8 or claim 9, characterised in that the inlet opening (23) of the exhaust line (24) is provided above the grate (5) in the rear wall (17) of the combustion chamber (14).
EP19910101711 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation Expired - Lifetime EP0498014B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP19910101711 EP0498014B2 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation

Applications Claiming Priority (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP19910101711 EP0498014B2 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation
DE1991501576 DE59101576D1 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Combustion air supply method and furnace.
DK91101711T DK0498014T3 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Combustion air supply method and combustion plant
ES91101711T ES2055466T5 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Procedure for combustion air supply and home installation.
AT9191101711T AT105396T (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Method for combustion air supply and combustion system.
US07/829,963 US5241916A (en) 1991-02-07 1992-02-03 Procedure for supplying combustion air and a furnace therefor
CA 2060776 CA2060776C (en) 1991-02-07 1992-02-06 Procedure for supplying combustion air and a furnace
BR9200411A BR9200411A (en) 1991-02-07 1992-02-06 Process for combusting and furnishing air feed
JP4022421A JP2575256B2 (en) 1991-02-07 1992-02-07 Combustion air introduction method and combustion apparatus
TW81105748A TW201814B (en) 1991-02-07 1992-07-21
JP19277495A JP2650879B2 (en) 1991-02-07 1995-07-28 Combustion air introduction method and combustion apparatus

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0498014A1 EP0498014A1 (en) 1992-08-12
EP0498014B1 true EP0498014B1 (en) 1994-05-04
EP0498014B2 EP0498014B2 (en) 1996-10-30

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ID=8206382

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19910101711 Expired - Lifetime EP0498014B2 (en) 1991-02-07 1991-02-07 Method of supplying combustion air and firing installation

Country Status (10)

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US (1) US5241916A (en)
EP (1) EP0498014B2 (en)
JP (2) JP2575256B2 (en)
AT (1) AT105396T (en)
BR (1) BR9200411A (en)
CA (1) CA2060776C (en)
DE (1) DE59101576D1 (en)
DK (1) DK0498014T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2055466T5 (en)
TW (1) TW201814B (en)

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DE102017008123A1 (en) * 2017-08-30 2019-02-28 Martin GmbH für Umwelt- und Energietechnik Furnace and method for operating a furnace

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US7975628B2 (en) * 2006-09-13 2011-07-12 Martin GmbH für Umwelt- und Energietechnik Method for supplying combustion gas in incineration systems
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JP5308847B2 (en) * 2009-01-30 2013-10-09 株式会社タクマ Water-cooled stoker furnace
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DE102012000262B4 (en) 2012-01-10 2015-12-17 Jörg Krüger Method and device for improving the burnout of slags on combustion grates
JP5950299B2 (en) * 2012-05-15 2016-07-13 株式会社タクマ Stoker-type incinerator and combustion method thereof
US20140151943A1 (en) * 2012-11-30 2014-06-05 Nippon Crucible Co., Ltd. Valuable metal recovery apparatus
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH08233233A (en) 1996-09-10
DK0498014T3 (en) 1994-09-12
CA2060776A1 (en) 1992-08-08
US5241916A (en) 1993-09-07
JP2575256B2 (en) 1997-01-22
EP0498014A1 (en) 1992-08-12
ES2055466T3 (en) 1994-08-16
EP0498014B2 (en) 1996-10-30
CA2060776C (en) 1995-10-03
TW201814B (en) 1993-03-11
BR9200411A (en) 1992-10-13
ES2055466T5 (en) 1997-02-01
DE59101576D1 (en) 1994-06-09
AT105396T (en) 1994-05-15
JP2650879B2 (en) 1997-09-10
JPH0560313A (en) 1993-03-09

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