EP0468891A1 - Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe with radio transmission means - Google Patents

Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe with radio transmission means

Info

Publication number
EP0468891A1
EP0468891A1 EP19910402073 EP91402073A EP0468891A1 EP 0468891 A1 EP0468891 A1 EP 0468891A1 EP 19910402073 EP19910402073 EP 19910402073 EP 91402073 A EP91402073 A EP 91402073A EP 0468891 A1 EP0468891 A1 EP 0468891A1
Authority
EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
radio
measuring
means
assembly
transmission
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP19910402073
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0468891B1 (en )
Inventor
Henry Henneuse
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Elf Aquitaine
Original Assignee
Elf Aquitaine
Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production) Ste
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/12Means for transmitting measuring-signals or control signals from the well to the surface or from the surface to the well, e.g. for logging while drilling
    • E21B47/122Means for transmitting measuring-signals or control signals from the well to the surface or from the surface to the well, e.g. for logging while drilling by electromagnetic energy, e.g. radio frequency
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/0006Measuring stresses in a well bore pipe string or casing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08CTRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR MEASURED VALUES, CONTROL OR SIMILAR SIGNALS
    • G08C17/00Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link
    • G08C17/02Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link using a radio link

Abstract

Ensemble de mesure dynamométrique pour tige de forage formé d'un dispositif de mesure comprenant, solidaires de la tige tournante (10), des capteurs (18-40) et un premier circuit électronique (42) de conditionnement des signaux fournis par ces capteurs, un émetteur radio (44) monté fixe sur la tige tournante (10), et une unité d'acquisition (60). Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe formed of a measuring device comprising, integral with the rotating shaft (10), sensors (18-40) and a first electronic circuit (42) for conditioning the signals supplied by these sensors, a radio transmitter (44) fixedly mounted on the rotating shaft (10), and an acquisition unit (60).
Selon l'invention, l'ensemble de mesure comprend de plus un récepteur radio (46) monté sur la tige tournante (10) et destiné à permettre la commande à distance du dispositif de mesure. According to the invention, the measuring unit further comprises a radio receiver (46) mounted on the rotating stem (10) and for allowing the remote control of the measuring device.

Description

  • [0001]
    La présente invention concerne un ensemble de mesure dynamométrique pour tige de forage. The present invention relates to a dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe.
  • [0002]
    Pour réaliser un dispositif dynamométrique de mesure des accélérations et forces exercées sur la tige de forage, le problème majeur n'est pas de prélever la mesure mais de la transmettre dans des conditions optimales vers l'ensemble d'acquisition chargé de la traiter. To achieve a force measuring device for measuring accelerations and forces acting on the drill pipe, the main problem is not to collect the measurement but to transmit it in optimal conditions to the acquisition unit responsible for processing it. Ainsi, il est capital de prévenir toutes les causes de dégradation des signaux à transmettre. Thus, it is crucial to prevent all causes of degradation to transmit signals.
  • [0003]
    Par ailleurs, il est nécessaire de transmettre les signaux électriques de l'ensemble en rotation constitué par la garniture de forage vers un repère fixe éloigné du mât. Furthermore, it is necessary to transmit the electrical signals of the rotating assembly consisting of the drill string to a remote fixed reference mast.
  • [0004]
    La demande de brevet français n° 89 08749 du 28 Juin 1989 décrit un dispositif de mesure dynamométrique pour tige de forage qui est relié à un ensemble d'acquisition de données par un câble électrique. French patent application No. 89 08749 of 28 June 1989 discloses a torque measuring device for drill pipe which is connected to a set of data acquisition by an electric cable. L'utilisation d'un tel câble nécessite que le dispositif soit muni d'un ensemble collecteur tournant disposé autour de la tige. The use of such a cable requires that the device be provided with a slip ring assembly disposed around the rod. De plus, il faut immobiliser l'enveloppe extérieure du dispositif par un bras d'arrêt en rotation. In addition, is to secure the outer casing of the device by a rotational stop arm. Outre une mise en place délicate et un entretien conséquent des câbles ombilicaux, ce type de dispositif compromet sérieusement l'adaptabilité d'un mât de forage à un autre. Besides a delicate implementation and maintenance of umbilicals Therefore, this type of device seriously compromises the adaptability of a drill mast to another.
  • [0005]
    L'usage d'un câble ombilical où chaque mesure transite par une paire de contacts électriques soulève également des difficultés pour assurer la sécurité anti-déflagration. The use of an umbilical cable where every measure passes through a pair of electrical contacts also raises difficulties to ensure explosion proof security.
  • [0006]
    Un but de la présente invention est de pallier ces inconvénients. An object of the present invention to overcome these drawbacks.
  • [0007]
    Pour ce faire, l'invention propose un ensemble de mesure dynamométrique pour tige de forage formé d'un dispositif de mesure comprenant, solidaires de la tige tournante, des capteurs et un premier circuit électronique de conditionnement des signaux fournis par ces capteurs, un émetteur radio monté fixe sur la tige tournante, et une unité d'acquisition éloignée, caractérisé en ce que l'ensemble de mesure comprend de plus un récepteur radio monté sur la tige tournante et destiné à permettre la commande à distance du dispositif de mesure. To do this, the invention provides a dynamometric measuring assembly formed for a measuring device comprising drill rod, integral with the rotating stem, sensors and a first electronic circuit for conditioning the signals supplied by these sensors, a transmitter radio fixedly mounted on the rotating shaft, and a remote acquisition unit, characterized in that the measurement assembly further comprises a radio receiver mounted on the rotating shaft and for allowing the remote control of the measuring device.
  • [0008]
    D'autres particularités et avantages de la présente invention apparaîtront plus clairement à la lecture de la description ci-après faite en référence aux dessins annexés dans lesquels : Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from reading the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
    • la figure 1 représente un dispositif de mesure dynamométrique ; 1 shows a torque measuring device; et and
    • la figure 2 représente le schéma d'un ensemble de mesure dynamométrique selon la présente invention. 2 shows the diagram of a dynamometric measuring assembly according to the present invention.
  • [0009]
    Comme représenté sur la figure 1, un dispositif de mesure dynamométrique représenté généralement en 5 est placé sur une tige de forage 10 dans un espace délimité par une collerette supérieure 12 montée fixe sur la tige 10. As shown in Figure 1, a generally represented in 5 dynamometric measuring device is placed on a drill rod 10 in a space defined by an upper flange 12 fixedly mounted on the rod 10.
  • [0010]
    Un fourreau 14 vient se mettre en place sur la collerette supérieure 12 pour former un volume étanche autour de la tige 10. A sleeve 14 comes into place on the upper flange 12 to form a sealed space around the rod 10.
  • [0011]
    A l'intérieur du volume annulaire compris entre le fourreau 14 et la tige 10, on dispose, dans une gorge 16 de cette tige, des jauges de traction 18, 20, des jauges de torsion 22, 24 , une jauge de température 26, un couple d'accéléromètres longitudinaux 28, 30, trois accéléromètres transversaux 32, 34, 36 et deux accéléromètres radiaux 38-40. Inside the annular volume between the sheath 14 and shaft 10, is arranged in a groove 16 of the rod, tension gauges 18, 20, torsion gauges 22, 24, a temperature gauge 26, a pair of longitudinal accelerometers 28, 30, three transverse accelerometers 32, 34, 36 and two radial accelerometers 38-40. Chacun de ces capteurs constitue une voie de mesure. Each sensor provides a measurement channel. Un circuit électronique 42 de traitement des signaux fournis par ces différents capteurs est monté solidaire de la tige de forage 10 à l'intérieur du volume délimité par le fourreau 14. An electronic circuit 42 for processing the signals provided by these sensors is mounted integral with the drill string 10 within the volume defined by the sleeve 14.
  • [0012]
    Selon l'invention, l'ensemble de mesure dynamométrique comprend un émetteur radio 44 et un récepteur radio 46 montés fixes sur la tige 10 et reliés au circuit électronique 42 de traitement. According to the invention, the dynamometric measuring assembly comprises a radio transmitter 44 and radio receiver 46 fixedly mounted on the rod 10 and connected to the electronic circuit 42 of treatment. Deux ensembles de batteries 48 et 50 sont montés sur la tige 10 et assurent une autonomie de 200 heures au dispositif de mesure, temps qui correspond à la durée maximale séparant deux changements d'outils de forage. Two sets of batteries 48 and 50 are mounted on the rod 10 and provide a range of 200 hours at the measuring device, which time corresponds to the maximum interval between two drill bits changes. La collerette supérieure 12 est munie d'une antenne radio 52 ainsi que d'une antenne de secours 54 et d'une prise électrique multiple 56 destinée à permettre le chargement des batteries. The upper flange 12 is provided with a radio antenna 52 and a backup antenna 54 and a multiple electrical socket 56 for allowing battery charging. La prise 56 permet également à un opérateur de procéder à des tests des circuits électroniques ou une programmation de l'équipement si l'option radio bidirectionnelle n'est pas retenue. Decision 56 also allows an operator to conduct tests of electronic circuits or programming of the device if the two-way radio option is not selected.
  • [0013]
    Comme il est représenté schématiquement sur la figure 2, le dispositif de mesure dynamométrique 5 est monté sur l'extrémité supérieure d'une tige de forage accrochée à un mât 58. Une unité d'acquisition 60 des données transmises par l'émetteur 44 est disposée à une certaine distance, par exemple 100 m, du mât 58. As shown schematically in Figure 2, the chassis 5 measuring device is mounted on the upper end of a drill string hanging on a mast 58. An acquisition unit 60 of the data transmitted by the transmitter 44 is disposed at a distance, for example 100 m, the mast 58.
  • [0014]
    L'ensemble de mesure dynamométrique selon l'invention permet une transmission entre une unité éloignée et le récepteur radio 46, ce qui permet de paramétrer le dispositif de mesure à distance sans qu'il soit nécessaire de le démonter. The dynamometric measuring assembly according to the invention allows a transmission between a remote unit and the radio receiver 46, which allows to set the distance measuring device without the need to disassemble it. L'ensemble selon l'invention respecte, en plus, les normes d'anti-déflagration qui s'appliquent aux sites de forage. The assembly according to the invention meets, in addition, the explosion proof standards that apply to drilling sites.
  • [0015]
    Comme l'ensemble n'utilise pas de câbles électriques, son installation sur une tige de forage est très simple, ne demandant que 5 minutes environ pour monter la tige 10 entre une tête d'injection motorisée classique et la garniture. As the set does not use electric cables, installation on a drill rod is very simple, requiring only about 5 minutes for mounting the rod 10 between a conventional power swivel and the packing. Pour un mât muni d'une table de rotation, le temps de montage est de l'ordre de 45 mn. For a mast provided with a rotary table, the mounting time is of the order of 45 minutes.
  • [0016]
    Comme exemples de signaux qui peuvent être transmis entre le dispositif 5 et l'unité d'acquisition 60, on peut citer : Examples of signals that can be transmitted between the device 5 and the acquisition unit 60, there may be mentioned:
    • signaux représentatifs de mesures, representative measurement signals,
    • échos, accusés de réception, ordres de l'utilisateur, echoes, acknowledgments, user commands,
    • renvoi de messages erronés, return false positives,
    • retour auto-diagnostic (défaillance partielle). self-diagnosis return (partial failure).
  • [0017]
    En ce qui concerne les transmissions entre l'unité d'acquisition 60 et le dispositif 5, on peut assurer : As regards the communications between the acquisition unit 60 and the device 5, it can ensure that:
    • la mise en service ou veille à distance, commissioning or distance before,
    • le paramétrage ou le réglage du dispositif ou the setting or adjustment of the device or
    • la téléprogrammation ou la télé-maintenance du dispositif. remote programming or remote maintenance of the device.
  • [0018]
    En ce qui concerne le paramétrage du dispositif, on peut citer comme exemple le choix des voies de mesure par multiplexage, ce qui permet de prévoir plus de capteurs que de mesures transmissibles. Regarding the setting of the device, one example is the choice of measurement channels by multiplexing, which predicts more sensors that transmitted measurements. On peut également assurer le réglage des étages de conditionnement, utilisant des amplificateurs à gain programmable, ou modifier les caractéristiques des filtres passe-bandes ou anti-repliement. Can also ensure the adjustment of the conditioning stages, using programmable gain amplifiers, or modify the characteristics of bandpass filters or anti-aliasing. L'intérêt en est d'accroître artificiellement la qualité de la conversion analogique/numérique permettant, par exemple, un gain de 1000 + 12 bits équivalent à 22 bits de résolution, la dynamique restant naturellement de 12 bits. The interest is to artificially increase the quality of the analog / digital conversion to, for example, a gain of 1000 + 12 bits equivalent to 22 bits of resolution, the remaining dynamic course of 12 bits. De plus, on peut assurer le réglage du dispositif conformément à la capacité des voies de transmission, soit de la bande passante (fréquence d'échantillonnage) de chaque voie, soit de la résolution de conversion numérique/analogique. In addition, the adjustment device can be ensured in accordance with the capacity of transmission channels or bandwidth (sampling frequency) of each channel, either the resolution digital / analog conversion.
  • [0019]
    Selon un autre aspect de l'invention, le dispositif de mesure dynamométrique peut comporter des moyens lui permettant d'émettre sur plusieurs fréquences radio afin de s'affranchir d'un environnement radio très encombré. According to another aspect of the invention, the torque measuring device may comprise means allowing it to transmit on multiple radio frequencies in order to overcome a very crowded radio environment. A cette fin, le dispositif comprend des moyens lui permettant de rechercher par scanning les fréquences qui, à un moment donné, répondent le mieux au souci de qualité de transmission, tant du point de vue du niveau des champs radio-électriques, par exemple, que de l'environnement des opérations ou que des perturbations électromagnétiques instantanées ou continues. To this end, the device comprises means allowing it to search by scanning the frequencies, at some point, respond best to the transmission to quality, both in terms of the level of radio-electric fields, for example, that the operations environment or instant or continuous electromagnetic interference.

Claims (2)

  1. 1 - Dispositif de mesure dynamométrique pour tige de forage comprenant, solidaires de la tige tournante (10), des capteurs (18-40) et un premier circuit électronique (42) de conditionnement des signaux fournis par ces capteurs, les signaux étant envoyés à une unité d'acquisition (60) éloignée par un émetteur radio (44) monté fixe sur la tige tournante (10), le dispositif comprenant, de plus, un récepteur radio (46) destiné à recevoir des signaux émis par une unité éloignée, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend, de plus, des moyens permettant le paramétrage ou le réglage à distance du dispositif de mesure par l'unité éloignée. 1 - Torque measuring device for drill pipe comprising, integral with the rotating shaft (10), sensors (18-40) and a first electronic circuit (42) for conditioning the signals supplied by these sensors, the signals being sent to an acquisition unit (60) distant by a radio transmitter (44) fixedly mounted on the rotating shaft (10), the apparatus further comprising a radio receiver (46) for receiving signals transmitted by a remote unit, characterized in that it further comprises, means for setting or adjusting the distance of the measuring device by the remote unit.
  2. 2 - Dispositif selon la revendication 1 caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend, de plus, des moyens lui permettant de rechercher par scanning la plus adaptée des fréquences de transmission. 2 - Device according to claim 1 characterized in that it further comprises, means enabling it to search through the most suitable scanning transmission frequencies.
EP19910402073 1990-07-27 1991-07-25 Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe with radio transmission means Expired - Lifetime EP0468891B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR9009638 1990-07-27
FR9009638A FR2665215B1 (en) 1990-07-27 1990-07-27 Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe provided with radio transmission means.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0468891A1 true true EP0468891A1 (en) 1992-01-29
EP0468891B1 EP0468891B1 (en) 1994-06-08

Family

ID=9399182

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19910402073 Expired - Lifetime EP0468891B1 (en) 1990-07-27 1991-07-25 Dynamometric measuring assembly for drill pipe with radio transmission means

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US5144298A (en)
EP (1) EP0468891B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH0681573A (en)
CA (1) CA2047881C (en)
DE (2) DE69102363T2 (en)
DK (1) DK0468891T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2057813T3 (en)
FR (1) FR2665215B1 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1994019579A1 (en) * 1993-02-18 1994-09-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for detecting impending sticking of a drillstring
GB2293522A (en) * 1994-09-02 1996-03-27 Ultra Electronics Ltd Contactless communication with rotary apparatus; propeller de-icing
WO1997010580A1 (en) * 1995-09-12 1997-03-20 Liberty Technologies - Beta Apparatus for wireless transmission of shaft position information
WO2011128068A2 (en) 2010-04-12 2011-10-20 Universität Siegen Communication system for transmitting information relating to drilling rods

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US5555457A (en) * 1995-04-28 1996-09-10 Board Of Control Of Michigan Technological University Microwave telemetry for sensing conditions in enclosed rotating and/or reciprocating machinery
US6429787B1 (en) * 1999-09-10 2002-08-06 Crosslink, Inc. Rotating RF system
US7385523B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2008-06-10 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Apparatus and method for downhole well equipment and process management, identification, and operation
US6989764B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2006-01-24 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Apparatus and method for downhole well equipment and process management, identification, and actuation
US6536520B1 (en) 2000-04-17 2003-03-25 Weatherford/Lamb, Inc. Top drive casing system
US6742596B2 (en) * 2001-05-17 2004-06-01 Weatherford/Lamb, Inc. Apparatus and methods for tubular makeup interlock
US6776240B2 (en) 2002-07-30 2004-08-17 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole valve
US6915848B2 (en) 2002-07-30 2005-07-12 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Universal downhole tool control apparatus and methods
US7956742B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2011-06-07 Motedata Inc. Method and system for storing, retrieving, and managing data for tags
US7388488B2 (en) * 2003-10-30 2008-06-17 Peter Lupoli Method and system for storing, retrieving, and managing data for tags
US8544564B2 (en) 2005-04-05 2013-10-01 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Wireless communications in a drilling operations environment
GB201012355D0 (en) * 2005-05-10 2010-09-08 Baker Hughes Inc Bidirectional telemetry apparatus and methods for wellbore operations
US20070030167A1 (en) * 2005-08-04 2007-02-08 Qiming Li Surface communication apparatus and method for use with drill string telemetry
GB2437647B (en) 2006-04-27 2011-02-09 Weatherford Lamb Torque sub for use with top drive
US8525690B2 (en) * 2009-02-20 2013-09-03 Aps Technology, Inc. Synchronized telemetry from a rotating element
US8631882B1 (en) * 2010-12-07 2014-01-21 Larry G. Keast Drilling rig with torque measuring top drive
US8727039B1 (en) * 2010-12-07 2014-05-20 Larry G. Keast Torque measuring top drive
US9091604B2 (en) * 2011-03-03 2015-07-28 Vetco Gray Inc. Apparatus and method for measuring weight and torque at downhole locations while landing, setting, and testing subsea wellhead consumables
US9903974B2 (en) 2011-09-26 2018-02-27 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Apparatus, computer readable medium, and program code for evaluating rock properties while drilling using downhole acoustic sensors and telemetry system
US9447681B2 (en) 2011-09-26 2016-09-20 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Apparatus, program product, and methods of evaluating rock properties while drilling using downhole acoustic sensors and a downhole broadband transmitting system
US9624768B2 (en) 2011-09-26 2017-04-18 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Methods of evaluating rock properties while drilling using downhole acoustic sensors and telemetry system
US9234974B2 (en) 2011-09-26 2016-01-12 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Apparatus for evaluating rock properties while drilling using drilling rig-mounted acoustic sensors
US9074467B2 (en) * 2011-09-26 2015-07-07 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Methods for evaluating rock properties while drilling using drilling rig-mounted acoustic sensors
US20170016756A1 (en) * 2015-07-17 2017-01-19 Tesco Corporation Strain gauge span block
CN106646589A (en) * 2016-10-18 2017-05-10 上海建工集团股份有限公司 Sound-wave-principle based large-scale slope body detection device and detection method thereof

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US4197500A (en) * 1976-11-01 1980-04-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Automatic channel selection
US4285236A (en) * 1979-11-23 1981-08-25 Dresser Industries, Inc. Rotary torque and rpm indicator for oil well drilling rigs
US4715451A (en) * 1986-09-17 1987-12-29 Atlantic Richfield Company Measuring drillstem loading and behavior

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US3876972A (en) * 1972-06-19 1975-04-08 Smith International Kelly
US4197500A (en) * 1976-11-01 1980-04-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Automatic channel selection
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US4715451A (en) * 1986-09-17 1987-12-29 Atlantic Richfield Company Measuring drillstem loading and behavior

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1994019579A1 (en) * 1993-02-18 1994-09-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for detecting impending sticking of a drillstring
GB2293522A (en) * 1994-09-02 1996-03-27 Ultra Electronics Ltd Contactless communication with rotary apparatus; propeller de-icing
GB2293522B (en) * 1994-09-02 1999-01-20 Ultra Electronics Ltd Rotary apparatus
WO1997010580A1 (en) * 1995-09-12 1997-03-20 Liberty Technologies - Beta Apparatus for wireless transmission of shaft position information
WO2011128068A2 (en) 2010-04-12 2011-10-20 Universität Siegen Communication system for transmitting information relating to drilling rods
DE102010047568A1 (en) 2010-04-12 2011-12-15 Peter Jantz Means for transmitting information on drill pipe
US9982529B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2018-05-29 Universitaet Siegen Communication system for transmitting information via drilling rods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DK0468891T3 (en) 1994-11-07 grant
ES2057813T3 (en) 1994-10-16 grant
FR2665215B1 (en) 1997-12-26 grant
US5144298A (en) 1992-09-01 grant
DE69102363D1 (en) 1994-07-14 grant
EP0468891B1 (en) 1994-06-08 grant
DE69102363T2 (en) 1995-01-05 grant
CA2047881C (en) 1999-12-14 grant
CA2047881A1 (en) 1992-01-28 application
JPH0681573A (en) 1994-03-22 application
FR2665215A1 (en) 1992-01-31 application

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