EP0467441B1 - Process for cooling technical gases - Google Patents

Process for cooling technical gases Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0467441B1
EP0467441B1 EP91201732A EP91201732A EP0467441B1 EP 0467441 B1 EP0467441 B1 EP 0467441B1 EP 91201732 A EP91201732 A EP 91201732A EP 91201732 A EP91201732 A EP 91201732A EP 0467441 B1 EP0467441 B1 EP 0467441B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
gas
fluidised bed
solids
characterised
stationary
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP91201732A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0467441A1 (en
Inventor
Martin Hirsch
Wolfgang Frank
Manfred Heil
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GEA Group AG
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GEA Group AG
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE4023060A priority Critical patent/DE4023060A1/en
Priority to DE4023060 priority
Application filed by GEA Group AG filed Critical GEA Group AG
Publication of EP0467441A1 publication Critical patent/EP0467441A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0467441B1 publication Critical patent/EP0467441B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D13/00Heat-exchange apparatus using a fluidised bed
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • C10K1/02Dust removal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • C10K1/04Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide by cooling to condense non-gaseous materials

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for cooling hot process gases, the process gases being passed into a stationary fluidized bed equipped with cooling elements, in the dust space above the fluidized bed some of the solids suspended in the gas stream being separated and returned to the fluidized bed, and from the exhaust gas in a Dust is removed from the solid and returned to the fluidized bed.
  • Some processes produce hot process gases, the cooling of which presents considerable difficulties. For example, process gases can contain condensable components or entrained liquid droplets, e.g. Contain metals or slag, which lead to deposits on the cooling surfaces when cooling. The process gases can contain fine dust with poor flow properties, which also lead to batches at process gas temperature or when cooled. Furthermore, the process gases may contain SO₃, or SO₃ is formed on cooling and undesirable sulfation occurs.
  • From DE-PS 34 39 600 a method for cooling process gases from the gasification of carbon-containing solids is known, in which the hot process gas is passed into a stationary fluidized bed of sulfur-binding solids and is cooled there. Cooling elements, through which a cooling medium flows, are arranged in the fluidized bed. A partial stream of the process gas emerging from the fluidized bed reactor is returned as the fluidizing gas. The process gas is introduced into the fluidized bed from the side or from above. The cooled process gas emerging from the fluidized bed is dedusted in a cyclone, cooled further in a heat exchanger and passed to a gas cleaning system. The one in the cyclone and in the Solids separated by gas cleaning are returned to the fluidized bed. Contact between the process gas and cooling surfaces is not avoided, which creates the risk of build-up. The mixture between process gas and solid is not optimal.
  • From US Pat. No. 3,977,846 it is known to cool a process gas containing hydrocarbons in a stationary fluidized bed, cooling surfaces being arranged in the lower part of the fluidized bed and through which a cooling medium flows. A hydrocarbon-free foreign gas is used as the fluidizing gas. The process gas is introduced above the cooling surfaces by means of nozzles arranged in the fluidized bed. The nozzles are thermally insulated to avoid deposits. The cooled process gas emerging from the reactor is passed into a dust separator. Solid loaded with condensed hydrocarbons is withdrawn from the fluidized bed and fresh solid is charged into the fluidized bed. Corrosive constituents and solids in the process gas are expected to cause severe wear on the nozzles. There is also a risk of constipation.
  • From US Pat. No. 4,120,668 it is known to cool a process gas containing molten salt particles and volatile constituents in a stationary fluidized bed, the process gas being introduced as fluidizing gas into the fluidized bed. Cooling surfaces are arranged in the fluidized bed above the introduction of the process gas. The cooled gas is dedusted in a cyclone and the separated solid is returned to the fluidized bed. Part of the solid is drawn down from the fluidized bed and fresh solid is charged into the fluidized bed. The disadvantages mentioned above also apply here.
  • From WO 88/08741 it is known to cool process gases in a circulating fluidized bed, the process gas being cooled in a mixing chamber with recirculated, cooled process gas and recirculated, cooled solid, the bottom of the mixing chamber being conical and an opening for introduction of the process gas and the recirculated gas. The suspension emerging from the mixing chamber can be cooled further on cooling surfaces in the upper part of the reactor, then the solid separated in cyclones and returned to the reactor, and a partial stream of the gas can be recirculated into the reactor. The suspension can also be discharged without further cooling, the solid separated in cyclones and returned to the reactor, the gas cooled and some of it recirculated to the reactor. The suspension density of the circulating fluidized bed is adjusted to 1 to 5 kg / m³ and lower values by recycling 75 to 100% of the process gas quantity and by recycling solid in an amount of 0.92 to 11.5 kg / Nm³. The large volume of exhaust gases caused by the large gas recirculation leads to complex gas cleaning. Because of the low suspension density, a relatively large heat exchange area is required.
  • The invention has for its object to cool hot process gases in the most economical manner while avoiding formation and sulfate formation.
  • This object is achieved according to the invention in that the stationary fluidized bed equipped with cooling elements is annular and trough-shaped, fluidizing gas is passed through the inflow floor of the trough into the fluidized bed, the process gas is introduced through the central opening of the fluidized bed, cooled solid from the fluidized bed the inner edge of the tub flows into and from the process gas stream is entrained into the dust space above the surface of the fluidized bed, the solid separated in the dust space falls back into the annular fluidized bed, the cooled solid gas containing the remaining solid is passed into a gas cooler equipped with cooling surfaces, the gas emerging from the upper part of the gas cooler into one Dust separator is passed, and the separated solid is returned to the stationary fluidized bed. The stationary fluidized bed is characterized by a clear density jump between the dense phase and the dust space above. The annular configuration of the stationary fluidized bed can be round, rectangular or polygonal. The cooling surfaces arranged in the fluidized bed are expediently arranged to be exchangeable. The cooling surfaces can be switched as evaporators and / or superheaters. The cooling surfaces generally consist of tube bundles. The walls of the tub are provided with cooling pipes. The inner wall of the tub forms the central opening of the fluidized bed through which the process gas is introduced. The cooled solid flows from the stationary fluidized bed into the central opening over the edge of the inner wall of the tub, is mixed with the process gas stream and entrained as a dense suspension in a central jet into the dust space above the fluidized bed. The process gas cools down rapidly and strongly. Due to the increase in volume in the dust chamber, most of the solid is separated from the central jet in the dust chamber, falls back into the stationary fluidized bed and is cooled there again. The process gas is cooled to the temperature desired in the dust chamber by appropriate cooling of the solid in the stationary fluidized bed and by introducing a corresponding amount of solid into the central opening. The wall of the dust room is cooled by cooling pipes. The gas mixture of process gas and fluidizing gas containing the remaining solid is passed into a gas cooler and further cooled there. The gas cooler is preferably arranged above the dust chamber. The gas cooler is provided with wall cooling and can have additional cooling surfaces. Part of the solid still suspended in the gas separates out in the gas cooler, falls into the dust chamber and from there into the stationary fluidized bed. Water is generally used as the cooling medium and the gas cooler is switched as an evaporator. The cooled gas contains only relatively small amounts of solids. It is passed into a dust separator, such as a cyclone, filter or EGR, where it is largely dedusted and discharged as exhaust gas or fed to further gas cleaning. All or part of the solid matter separated out in the dust separator is returned to the stationary fluidized bed. Depending on the composition of the process gas, part of the solid is drawn off and replaced by fresh solid. This prevents the solid from accumulating too much with separated substances. Any gas that does not interfere with the cooling or downstream processes can be used as the fluidizing gas. In the cases where air is required for the further treatment of the exhaust gas, such as gases with high SO₂ contents, or does not interfere, air can be used as the fluidizing gas. Otherwise, part of the exhaust gas can also be recirculated. This must first be cleaned of substances that would damage the inflow floor. In order to keep the amount of fluidizing gas as small as possible, it is advisable to keep the grain size of the solid in the fluidized bed smaller than 1 mm with d₅₀ below 0.5 mm.
  • A preferred embodiment is that the suspension density in the stationary fluidized bed is 300 to 1500 kg / m³ reactor space, preferably 500 to 1000 kg / m³. Particularly good operating conditions are achieved in these areas, since the heat transfer numbers are high.
  • A preferred embodiment is that 1 to 10 kg / Nm³ solid, preferably 2.5 to 6 kg / Nm³, are fed from the stationary fluidized bed to the process gas stream. These areas provide the desired rapid cooling of the process gas without the need for very large cooling surfaces.
  • A preferred embodiment is that the loading of the gas emerging from the upper part of the gas cooler is 0.1 to 1 kg of solid, preferably 0.2 to 0.6 kg of solid / Nm³. This results in a relatively low pressure drop in the gas cooler and good cooling of the gas.
  • A preferred embodiment consists in that the volume of the fluidizing gas passed through the inflow floor into the stationary fluidized bed is 10 to 30%, preferably 15 to 20%, of the volume of the process gas. As a result, the energy requirement for the fluidizing gas is relatively low and, in the case of recirculated exhaust gas, the costs for the required gas cleaning are also reduced.
  • A preferred embodiment consists in that the solid matter separated in the dust separator is returned to the stationary fluidized bed in a controlled manner. The amount of solid separated in the dust separator per unit of time is not constant. In the case of a direct, uncontrolled return, the fluctuating amount can lead to deteriorated results. This is avoided by the controlled, even return. An intermediate vessel, which serves as a buffer and from which the solid is drawn off in a controlled manner, is arranged between the dust separator and the return line in the fluidized bed. The solid in the intermediate vessel is expediently slightly fluidized.
  • A preferred embodiment consists in that the central opening of the stationary fluidized bed is insulated by a refractory lining. The central opening consists of a sheet metal jacket with cooling surfaces on the outside. A fireproof lining is attached to the inside of the sheet metal jacket. This prevents the formation of batches from solidified components of the process gas. Molten components contained in the process gas, which are deposited on the lining, flow back into the reactor.
  • A preferred embodiment is that solids are used as the fluidized bed material, which enable further processing together with the deposited materials.
  • The invention is explained in more detail with reference to a figure and an example.
  • The figure shows schematically a cooling system for performing the method in longitudinal section. The blower (2) blows fluidizing air through the inflow floor into the annular trough (1). Cooling elements (3) are arranged in the tub (1). The inner wall of the tub (1) forms a central feed (4) for the process gas. From the stationary fluidized bed (5) located in the tub (1), solid flows over the inner edge of the tub (1) into the feed (4) into the process gas stream (6) and mixes with it to form a dense suspension, with a simultaneous one rapid and strong cooling of the process gas takes place. This suspension is blown as a central jet into the dust chamber (21), where most of the solid is separated out due to the increase in volume and falls back into the fluidized bed (5). The gas containing the remaining solid flows into the gas cooler (7), which is equipped with a schematically illustrated, continuous wall cooling (8) and suspended cooling surfaces (9). The further cooled gas flows into the cyclone (11) via the outlet (10). The separated solid falls into the intermediate vessel (12), which serves as a buffer. A controlled amount of solid is returned to the fluidized bed (5) via the discharge member (13) and line (14). The dust-free gas is discharged via line (15). A portion of the solid is withdrawn from the fluidized bed via line (16). Fresh solids can be fed into the fluidized bed (5) from the bunker (17) to start up and to balance the bed height. The gas can be cooled further in the cooler (18), for example feed water being heated. The cooling elements for cooling the outer wall of the tub (1) and the wall of the dust chamber (21) are only shown schematically by the upper tubes (19) and the lower tubes (20).
  • EXAMPLE
  • An exhaust gas from the smelting of lead ore is cooled in a QSL reactor. The exhaust gas occurs at a temperature of 1010 to 1050 ° C in an amount of 21800 Nm³ / h. The dust load is 215 g / Nm³. The composition is:
  • 10.80%
    SO₂
    15.67%
    CO₂
    22.90%
    H₂O
    7.83%
    O₂
    39.80%
    N₂.
  • The exhaust gas is blown through the feed (4), which has a diameter of 100 cm. 5000 Nm³ / h of air with a temperature of 60 ° C and a pressure of 250 mbar are passed through the inflow floor of the tub (1) blown stationary fluidized bed. Cooling bundles (3) with an area of 42 m² are arranged in the fluidized bed. Cooled solid flows from the trough (1) at a temperature of approximately 480 ° C. into the feed (4) in such an amount that the solid loading of the exhaust gas is approximately 5 kg / Nm 3. About 3.78 MW of the heat supplied with the exhaust gas of 5.27 MW is dissipated to the cooling bundles in the fluidized bed. The cooled exhaust gas enters the gas cooler (7), which is equipped with 250 m² cooling surfaces, at a temperature of 600 ° C and a speed of 5.5 m / s. The further cooled exhaust gas leaves the gas cooler (7) via outlet (10) at a temperature of 350 ° C, a dust load of 0.5 kg / Nm³ at a speed of 4 m / s. The gas discharged from the cyclone (11) via line (15) has a dust loading of 5 to 10 g / Nm³. From the intermediate container (12), 13.4 t / h are returned to the fluidized bed (5) at a temperature of 350 ° C. 4.5 t / h of solid are drawn off from the fluidized bed (5) via line (16). The amount of steam generated is 12.1 t / h at 40 bar and 250 ° C. As a solid, sand with a grain size of less than 1 mm is introduced into the trough (1) to start up.
  • Advantages of the invention are that the cooling of the process gases takes place with relatively small heat exchanger areas and a small additional amount of gas, while avoiding formation and sulfation. If the upstream unit comes to a standstill and the process gas fails, the falling through of solid from the fluidized bed into the upstream units can be prevented by reducing or switching off the fluidizing gas.

Claims (8)

  1. A method for cooling hot process gases, in which the process gases are passed into a stationary fluidised bed equipped with cooling elements, a portion of the solids suspended in the gas stream is separated off in the dust space above the fluidised bed and is recycled into the fluidised bed, and solids are separated off from the waste gas in a dust-removal stage and recycled into the fluidised bed, characterised in that the stationary fluidised bed which is equipped with cooling elements is designed in annular and trough-shaped manner, fluidising gas is passed into the fluidised bed through the gas-permeable bottom of the trough, the process gas is introduced through the central opening in the fluidised bed, cooled solids flow out of the fluidised bed across the inner edge of the trough and into the process gas stream and are entrained thereby into the dust space above the surface of the fluidised bed, the solids separated off in the dust space fall back into the annular fluidised bed, the cooled gas containing the remaining solids is passed into a gas cooler equipped with cooling surfaces, the gas emerging from the upper part of the gas cooler is passed into a dust collector, and the solids which are separated off are recycled into the stationary fluidised bed.
  2. A method according to Claim 1, characterised in that the suspension density in the stationary fluidised bed is 300 to 1500 kg/m³ reactor space, preferably 500 to 1000 kg/m³.
  3. A method according to Claim 1 or 2, characterised in that 1 to 10 kg/Nm³ solids, preferably 2.5 to 6 kg/Nm³, are fed to the process gas stream from the stationary fluidised bed.
  4. A method according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterised in that the load of the gas emerging from the upper part of the gas cooler is 0.1 to 1 kg solids, preferably 0.2 to 0.6 kg solids/Nm³.
  5. A method according to one of Claims 1 to 4, characterised in that the volume of the fluidising gas passed through the gas-permeable bottom into the stationary fluidised bed is 10 to 30%, preferably 15 to 20%, of the volume of the process gas.
  6. A method according to one of Claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the solids separated off in the dust collector are recycled into the stationary fluidised bed in controlled manner.
  7. A method according to one of Claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the central opening of the stationary fluidised bed is insulated by a refractory lining.
  8. A method according to one of Claims 1 to 7, characterised in that solids which permit further processing together with the materials which have been separated off are used as the fluidised bed material.
EP91201732A 1990-07-20 1991-07-04 Process for cooling technical gases Expired - Lifetime EP0467441B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE4023060A DE4023060A1 (en) 1990-07-20 1990-07-20 Method for cooling hot process gas
DE4023060 1990-07-20

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT91201732T AT95556T (en) 1990-07-20 1991-07-04 Method for cooling hot process gas.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0467441A1 EP0467441A1 (en) 1992-01-22
EP0467441B1 true EP0467441B1 (en) 1993-10-06

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EP91201732A Expired - Lifetime EP0467441B1 (en) 1990-07-20 1991-07-04 Process for cooling technical gases

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US (1) US5205350A (en)
EP (1) EP0467441B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH06341777A (en)
AT (1) AT95556T (en)
AU (1) AU633748B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2047362C (en)
DE (1) DE4023060A1 (en)
ES (1) ES2046844T3 (en)
FI (1) FI97081C (en)
NO (1) NO301131B1 (en)
PT (1) PT98379B (en)
TR (1) TR25189A (en)
ZA (1) ZA9105692B (en)

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US5772969A (en) * 1992-11-10 1998-06-30 Foster Wheeler Energia Oy Method and apparatus for recovering heat in a fluidized bed reactor
NL9300666A (en) * 1993-04-20 1994-11-16 Bronswerk Heat Transfer Bv Device for carrying out a physical and / or chemical process, such as a heat exchanger.
FI93701C (en) * 1993-06-11 1995-05-26 Ahlstroem Oy Method and apparatus for treating hot gases
FI93274C (en) * 1993-06-23 1995-03-10 Ahlstroem Oy Method and apparatus for treating or recovering a hot gas stream
FI97424C (en) * 1993-06-23 1996-12-10 Foster Wheeler Energia Oy Method and apparatus for treating or recovering hot gas
US5464597A (en) * 1994-02-18 1995-11-07 Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation Method for cleaning and cooling synthesized gas
US5567228A (en) * 1995-07-03 1996-10-22 Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation System for cooling and cleaning synthesized gas using ahot gravel bed
NL1005518C2 (en) * 1997-03-12 1998-09-15 Bronswerk Heat Transfer Bv Device for carrying out a physical and / or chemical process, such as a heat exchanger.
NL1005517C2 (en) * 1997-03-12 1998-09-15 Bronswerk Heat Transfer Bv Device for carrying out a physical and / or chemical process, such as a heat exchanger.
NL1005514C2 (en) * 1997-03-12 1998-09-15 Bronswerk Heat Transfer Bv Device for carrying out a physical and / or chemical process, such as a heat exchanger.
DE19813286A1 (en) * 1998-03-26 1999-09-30 Metallgesellschaft Ag Process for separating vaporous phthalic anhydride from a gas stream
FI107164B (en) * 1999-11-04 2001-06-15 Valtion Teknillinen Method and equipment for purifying product gas from a gasification reactor
DE10048516B4 (en) * 2000-09-29 2006-01-05 Fritz Curtius Device for heat and mass exchanges
DE10260741A1 (en) 2002-12-23 2004-07-08 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the heat treatment of fine-grained solids
DE10260734B4 (en) * 2002-12-23 2005-05-04 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the production of carbon coke
DE10260737B4 (en) 2002-12-23 2005-06-30 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the heat treatment of titanium-containing solids
DE10260745A1 (en) * 2002-12-23 2004-07-01 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the thermal treatment of granular solids
DE10260739B3 (en) 2002-12-23 2004-09-16 Outokumpu Oy Process and plant for producing metal oxide from metal compounds
DE10260733B4 (en) * 2002-12-23 2010-08-12 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the heat treatment of iron oxide-containing solids
DE10260731B4 (en) * 2002-12-23 2005-04-14 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for the heat treatment of iron oxide-containing solids
DE10260738A1 (en) * 2002-12-23 2004-07-15 Outokumpu Oyj Process and plant for conveying fine-grained solids
DE102004042430A1 (en) * 2004-08-31 2006-03-16 Outokumpu Oyj Fluidized bed reactor for the thermal treatment of vortex substances in a microwave-heated fluidized bed
DE102007041427A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2009-03-05 Outotec Oyj Process and plant for the heat treatment of fine-grained solids
DE102012100883A1 (en) * 2012-02-02 2013-08-08 Sascha, Dr. Schröder Method for treatment of crude gas from gasification of carbonaceous materials in fluidized bed cooler, involves using crude gas as fluidized medium, and carrying out cooling and removal of tar components from crude gas

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NO912596D0 (en) 1991-07-02
ES2046844T3 (en) 1994-02-01
AU8112891A (en) 1992-01-23
FI97081B (en) 1996-06-28
JPH06341777A (en) 1994-12-13
PT98379B (en) 1999-01-29
CA2047362A1 (en) 1992-01-21
DE4023060A1 (en) 1992-01-23
FI913416A0 (en) 1991-07-15
TR25189A (en) 1993-01-01
NO301131B1 (en) 1997-09-15
PT98379A (en) 1993-09-30
EP0467441A1 (en) 1992-01-22
CA2047362C (en) 1999-08-31
AU633748B2 (en) 1993-02-04
FI913416A (en) 1992-01-21
US5205350A (en) 1993-04-27
FI913416D0 (en)
FI97081C (en) 1996-10-10
AT95556T (en) 1993-10-15
ZA9105692B (en) 1993-03-31
NO912596L (en) 1992-01-21

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