EP0456987B1 - Terminal block for telecommunications - Google Patents

Terminal block for telecommunications Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0456987B1
EP0456987B1 EP19910103990 EP91103990A EP0456987B1 EP 0456987 B1 EP0456987 B1 EP 0456987B1 EP 19910103990 EP19910103990 EP 19910103990 EP 91103990 A EP91103990 A EP 91103990A EP 0456987 B1 EP0456987 B1 EP 0456987B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
contact
elements
element
connection
bottom
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP19910103990
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0456987A1 (en
Inventor
Dieter Gerke
Andrzey Janczak
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ADC GmbH
Original Assignee
ADC GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19904015238 priority Critical patent/DE4015238C2/de
Priority to DE4015238 priority
Application filed by ADC GmbH filed Critical ADC GmbH
Publication of EP0456987A1 publication Critical patent/EP0456987A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0456987B1 publication Critical patent/EP0456987B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R12/00Structural associations of a plurality of mutually-insulated electrical connecting elements, specially adapted for printed circuits, e.g. printed circuit boards [PCBs], flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures, e.g. terminal strips, terminal blocks; Coupling devices specially adapted for printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures; Terminals specially adapted for contact with, or insertion into, printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures
    • H01R12/70Coupling devices
    • H01R12/71Coupling devices for rigid printing circuits or like structures
    • H01R12/712Coupling devices for rigid printing circuits or like structures co-operating with the surface of the printed circuit or with a coupling device exclusively provided on the surface of the printed circuit
    • H01R12/716Coupling device provided on the PCB
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R2201/00Connectors or connections adapted for particular applications
    • H01R2201/16Connectors or connections adapted for particular applications for telephony
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R4/00Electrically-conductive connections between two or more conductive members in direct contact, i.e. touching one another; Means for effecting or maintaining such contact; Electrically-conductive connections having two or more spaced connecting locations for conductors and using contact members penetrating insulation
    • H01R4/24Connections using contact members penetrating or cutting insulation or cable strands
    • H01R4/2416Connections using contact members penetrating or cutting insulation or cable strands the contact members having insulation-cutting edges, e.g. of tuning fork type
    • H01R4/242Connections using contact members penetrating or cutting insulation or cable strands the contact members having insulation-cutting edges, e.g. of tuning fork type the contact members being plates having a single slot
    • H01R4/2425Flat plates, e.g. multi-layered flat plates
    • H01R4/2429Flat plates, e.g. multi-layered flat plates mounted in an insulating base
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S439/00Electrical connectors
    • Y10S439/922Telephone switchboard protector

Description

  • Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf eine Anschlußleiste für die Fernmeldetechnik gemäß dem Oberbegriff des Anspruches 1. The invention relates to a connector bank for telecommunications according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • Aus der Veröffentlichung "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin Band 32, Nr. 5A, Oktober 1989, Seiten 62-66; "High-density/high performance cable I/O connector system " ist ein Anschlußsystem bekannt, welches im wesentlichen aus einer wannenförmigen Aufnahme für mehrere Steckkarten besteht, wobei diese Aufnahme ein Unterteil aufweist mit einer Bodenplatte, die wiederum in ein zweites Gehäuse aufgenommen wird. Dieses zweite Gehäuse besitzt Schlitze, in die Kontaktelemente gehalten sind, die durch die Bodenplatte des ersten Gehäuses durchgreifen, um somit die Kontaktelemente der Steckkarte zu kontaktieren. Bei diesem Anschlußsystem besteht keine Notwendigkeit, Kabeladern nachträglich an das System anzuschließen, so daß die Steckkarte und damit die in dem zweiten Gehäuse in den Schlitzen eingesteckten Kontaktelemente keine Beschaltungskräfte aufnehmen müssen. From the publication "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin Volume 32, No. 5A, October 1989, pages 62-66;." High-density / high performance cable I / O connector system "is a connection system is known which essentially consists of a trough-shaped receptacle for a plurality of plug-in cards, wherein this receptacle comprises a lower part with a base plate which is in turn received in a second housing. this second housing has slots that are held in the contact elements, which engage through the bottom plate of the first housing so as to the contact elements of the plug-in card contact. in this connection system, there is no need to connect the cable wires to the system later, so that the plug-in card and the inserted into the second housing in the slots contact elements must not absorb Beschaltungskräfte.
  • Eine Anschlußleiste der gattungsgemäßen Art ist aus der DE-A-37 30 662 vorbekannt. A terminal strip of the generic type is already known from DE-A-37 30 662nd Bei dieser sind die Kontaktelemente als Lötstifte an die Anschlußelemente angeformt und durchdringen eine Bodenöffnung des Kunststoffgehäuses der Anschlußleiste, um in Bohrungen einer Leiterplatte zur elektrischen Verbindung der Anschlußelemente mit den Leiterbahnen der Leiterplatte verlötet zu werden. With this, the contact elements are formed as solder pins to the connection elements and penetrate through a bottom opening of the plastic housing of the terminal block to be soldered in bores in a printed circuit board for electrical connection of the connecting elements to the conductor tracks of the circuit board. Jede Anschlußstelle einer Anschlußleiste muß während der langjährigen Einsatzzeit einer Anschlußleiste bis zu 200 Mal be- und entschaltet werden. Each connection point of a terminal block must be loaded during the many years of service time of a terminal block up to 200 times and entschaltet. Beim Beschalten von Kabeladern an die Anschlußelemente, deren Kontaktelemente mit den Bohrungen der Leiterplatte verlötet sind, treten beim Eindrücken der Kabeladern in die Schneid-Klemm-Kontaktschlitze der Anschlußelemente hohe Beschaltungskräfte auf. With connection of the cable wires to the connecting elements, the contact elements are soldered to the holes of the printed circuit board, experience high Beschaltungskräfte when pressing the cable wires into the insulation displacement contact slots of the connection elements. Beim Entschalten von Kabeladern aus den Anschlußelementen treten entsprechend geringe Entschaltungskräfte auf. When shelled from cable wires from the terminal elements low Entschaltungskräfte occur accordingly. Da sich die Anschlußelemente aufgrund von Fertigungstoleranzen im Gehäuse der Anschlußleiste bewegen können, können sich die Kontaktelemente beim Beschalten und beim Entschalten nicht immer am Gehäuse abstützen. Since the connecting elements can move due to manufacturing tolerances in the housing of the terminal block, the contact elements can not always be supported on the housing when wiring and when shelled. Somit wirken dann die gesamten Be- oder Entschaltungskräfte direkt auf die Lötstelle zwischen dem Kontaktelement und der Leiterplatte. Thus, then the entire working or Entschaltungskräfte act directly on the solder joint between the contact element and the printed circuit board. Wenn die Be- oder Entschaltungskräfte zu groß sind, können entweder die Lötstelle oder die Leiterplatte bzw. deren Leiterbahnen in der Nähe der Lötstelle beschädigt werden. If the working or Entschaltungskräfte are too large, either the solder or printed circuit board or their traces may be damaged near the solder joint. Die Folge sind Kontaktunterbrechungen durch Haarrisse und durch gegebenenfalls erfolgende Zerstörung der Lötstelle. The result is loss of contact by hairline cracks and by optionally success destruction of the solder joint.
  • Der Erfindung liegt von daher die Aufgabe zugrunde, eine Anschlußleiste der gattungsgemäßen Art zu schaffen, bei welcher keine Gefahr der Kontaktunterbrechung zwischen dem Kontaktelement und der Leiterbahn (in der Nähe der Lötstelle) beim mehrmaligen Anschalten und Entschalten von Kabeladern an die zugehörigen Anschlußelemente besteht. The invention is therefore based on the object to provide a terminal block of the generic type in which there is no danger of breaking the contact between the contact element and the conductor track (near the solder joint) during repeated switching on and shelled of cable wires to the associated connection elements.
  • Die Lösung dieser Aufgabe ergibt sich aus den kennzeichnenden Merkmalen des Anspruches 1. Durch die Ausbildung der Kontaktelemente als separate Bauteile besteht keine unmittelbare körperliche Verbindung der Anschlußelemente mit den Kontaktelementen mehr, sondern die Kontaktelemente sind über ein Steckelement mit dem zugehörigen Anschlußelement verbunden, wobei das Steckelement wiederum einstückig mit einem an dieses anschließenden Kontaktstift versehen ist. The solution of this object is achieved by the characterizing features of claim 1. By the formation of the contact elements as separate components, there is no direct physical connection of the connection elements with the contact elements more, but the contact elements are connected via a plug-in element to the associated connection element, wherein the plug member is in turn provided integral with an adjoining this contact pin. Beim Anschluß von Kabeladern an die Anschlußelemente wird daher die Beschaltungskraft nicht zwischen dem Anschlußelement und dem Steckelement des Kontaktelementes übertragen, da das Steckelement gegenüber dem Anschlußelement beweglich ist. Therefore, when connecting cable wires to the connecting elements, the wiring force is not transmitted between the terminal element and the plug element of the contact element, since the plug-in element opposite the connecting element is movable. Somit wird die Beschaltungskraft auch nicht auf den Kontaktstift des Kontaktelementes übertragen, so daß keine Gefahr von Beschädigungen an der Lötstelle beim Beschalten der Anschlußelemente mit Kabeladern mehr besteht. Thus, the wiring force is not transmitted to the contact pin of the contact element, so that no risk of damage to the solder joint when wiring of the terminals is more with cable wires. Entsprechendes gilt für den Entschaltungsvorgang. The same applies to the Entschaltungsvorgang.
  • In der bevorzugten Ausführungsform ist das Steckelement für aus Flachmaterial gebildete Anschlußelemente als Gabelkontakt ausgebildet, welcher gleitbar auf einem flachen Bereich des Anschlußelementes verschiebbar ist. In the preferred embodiment, the plug element is formed from sheet material for connection elements is configured as a fork contact, which is slidably movable on a flat portion of the connecting element. Zur Begrenzung der Einstecktiefe des separaten Kontaktelementes im Kunststoffgehäuse der Anschlußleiste ist zwischen dem Kontaktstift und dem Steckelement jedes Kontaktelementes eine Steckschulter angeformt. In order to limit the insertion depth of the separate contact element in the plastic housing of the terminal block of each contact element is formed a plug-in shoulder between the contact pin and the plug element.
  • Die Erfindung ist nachfolgend anhand dreier verschiedener Ausführungsformen von Anschlußleisten der Fernmeldetechnik näher erläutert. The invention is explained below with reference to three different embodiments of connection strips of telecommunications. Es zeigen: Show it:
  • Fig. 1 Fig. 1
    einen Querschnitt durch eine Anschlußleiste mit Anschlußkontakten, a cross-section through a connection strip with connection contacts,
    Fig. 2 Fig. 2
    einen Querschnitt durch eine Anschlußleiste mit Trennkontakten, a cross section through a connector bank with isolating contacts,
    Fig. 3 Fig. 3
    einen Querschnitt durch eine Anschlußleiste mit Schaltkontakten, a cross section through a connector bank with switching contacts,
    Fig. 4 Fig. 4
    die Seitenansicht einer Anschlußleiste, the side view of a terminal block,
    Fig. 5 Fig. 5
    die Untersicht der Anschlußleiste und the bottom view of the terminal block and
    Fig. 6 Fig. 6
    eine Ansicht des Kontaktelementes. a view of the contact element.
  • Die Anschlußleiste gemäß Fig. 1 besteht aus einem Kunststoffgehäuse 1, aus Gehäuseoberteil 2 und Gehäuseunterteil 3, die miteinander verrastet sind. The terminal block according to Fig. 1 consists of a plastic housing 1 from the upper housing part 2 and lower housing part 3, which are latched to one another. In das Kunststoffgehäuse 1 sind Anschlußelemente 4 aus Flachmaterial eingesetzt, die aus zwei von der Oberseite her mittels Kabeladern beschaltbaren Schneid-Klemm-Anschlußelementen 5 und einem Mittenkontakt 6 bestehen, die über einen am Boden des Gehäuseunterteiles 3 verlaufenden Steg 7 miteinander verbunden sind. In the plastic housing 1 connecting elements 4 are inserted from flat material, consisting of two from the upper side wirable means of cable cores the insulation displacement terminal elements 5 and a center contact 6, which are interconnected by a passage extending in the bottom of the lower housing part 3 web. 7 Die beiden Schneid-Klemm-Anschlußelemente 5 stehen unter 45° zur Längsachse des Kunststoffgehäuses 1, so daß diese aus der in Fig. 1 dargestellten Zeichenebene um 45° abgewinkelt sind. The two cutting and clamping terminal elements 5 are at 45 ° to the longitudinal axis of the plastic housing 1, so that they are bent from the position shown in Fig. 1 plane by 45 °. Beide Kontaktelemente 5 sind parallel zueinander ausgerichtet. Both contact elements 5 are aligned parallel to each other.
  • Im Boden 8 des Gehäuseunterteiles 3 sind, wie es in Fig.5 dargestellt ist, Schlitze 9 in zwei parallelen Reihen ausgeformt, wobei jeweils zwei gegenüberliegende Schlitze 9 zu einem Schneid-Klemm-Anschlußelement 5 gehören. are in the bottom 8 of the lower housing part 3, as shown in Figure 5, slits 9 formed in two parallel rows, with two opposite slots 9 belong to an insulation displacement terminal member. 5 In die Schlitze 9 sind von der Unterseite des Kunststoffgehäuses 1 Kontaktelemente 10 einsetzbar, von denen eines in Fig.6 in Ansicht dargestellt ist. In the slots 9 1 contact elements 10 are inserted from the underside of the plastic housing, one of which is shown in Figure 6 in view. Das Kontaktelement 10 bildet ein separates Bauteil und besteht aus einem Kontaktstift 11 und einem einstückig an diesen anschließenden Steckelement 12 in Form eines Gabelkontaktes mit zwei federnden Schenkeln 13, 14, die am freien Ende nach innen abgeschrägt und mit Kontaktnasen 15 versehen sind. The contact element 10 forms a separate component and consists of a contact pin 11 and an integrally adjoining the male element 12 in the form of a fork contact having two resilient legs 13, 14 which are bevelled and at the free end inwardly provided with tabs 15 °. Zwischen dem Kontaktstift 11 und dem Steckelement 12 sind zwei Paare von Steckschultern 16, 17 ausgeformt, die zur Lagesicherung des Kontaktelementes 10 im Boden 8 des Kunststoffgehäuses dienen. Between the contact pin 11 and the plug member 12, two pairs of plug-in shoulders 16, 17 are formed which serve to secure the position of the contact element 10 in the bottom 8 of the plastic housing.
  • Wie es die Fig. 1 zeigt, ist jeweils ein Kontaktelement 10 durch einen Schlitz 9 im Boden 8 des Kunststoffgehäuses 1 nach innen durchgesteckt, wobei die Steckschultern 16, 17 das Kontaktelement 10 am Boden 8 verklammert sind. As shown in the Fig. 1, a contact element is inserted in each case by 10 through a slot 9 in the bottom 8 of the plastic housing 1 to the inside, wherein the plug shoulders 16, 17 the contact member are clamped 10 at the bottom 8. Hierzu sind die oberen Steckschultern 17, die an den federnden Gabelschenkeln 13, 14 angebracht sind, kürzer ausgebildet als die Steckschultern 16, die am Kontaktstift 11 ausgebildet sind. For this purpose, the upper plug shoulders 17 which are mounted on the resilient fork legs 13, 14 are formed shorter than the plug shoulders 16 which are formed on the contact pin. 11 Der Gabelschlitz 18 umgreift den seitlichen Bereich des flachen Steges 7 des Anschlußelementes 4, wobei die Kontaktnasen 15 in eine elektrische Kontaktverbindung mit dem Anschlußelement 4 kommen. The fork slot 18 engages around the lateral portion of the flat-bar 7 of the connecting element 4, wherein the tabs come into an electrical contact connection with the connecting element 4 15th
  • Die aus dem Kunststoffgehäuse 1 nach unten herausragenden Kontaktstifte 11 dienen als Lötstifte zum elektrisch leitfähigen Eingriff in eine einer Leiterbahn zugeordneten Bohrung 19 einer Leiterplatte 20, auf welche die Anschlußleiste 1 aufgesteckt ist. The projecting from the plastic housing 1 to the bottom pins 11 serve as solder pins for electrically conductive engagement with one of a conductor track associated bore 19 of a circuit board 20 on which the terminal block is fitted. 1
  • Das Gehäuseunterteil 3 des Kunststoffgehäuses 1 weist zusätzlich Kunststoffstifte 21 auf, welche weitere Bohrungen 22 der Leiterplatte 20 durchdringen und welche anschließend durch Warmumformung vernietet werden, um die Anschlußleiste fest auf der Leiterplatte 20 zu fixieren. The lower housing part 3 of the plastic housing 1 has, in addition to plastic pins 21 penetrate and which additional holes 22 of the printed circuit board 20 which are then riveted by hot working to fix the terminal block fixed on the circuit board 20th
  • In der in Fig. 2 dargestellten zweiten Ausführungsform der Anschlußleiste sind anstelle der Anschlußelemente 4 Trennelemente 25 vorgesehen, die mittlere Trennkontaktfahnen 23 aufweisen. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 2 second embodiment of the terminal block 4 partitions 25 separating the middle contact lugs are provided instead of the connection elements 23 have. In der in Fig. 3 dargestellten dritten Ausführungsform der Anschlußleiste sind anstelle der Anschlußelemente 5 Schaltelemente 26 vorgesehen, die mittlere Anschlußstellen 27 aufweisen, die durch an Gehäuseinnenflächen anliegende Abwinklungen 28 auf Abstand gehalten werden. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 3 third embodiment of the terminal block 5 switching elements 26 are provided instead of the connection elements having the average connection points 27, which are held by bearing against the housing inner surfaces angled portions 28 at a distance. In beiden Ausführungsformen weist der Fußbereich 24 der Trenn- bzw. Schaltelemente 25, 26 einen flachen Bereich auf, auf welchen der Gabelkontakt 12 der Kontaktelemente 10 aufsteckbar ist. In both embodiments, 24 26, the base region of the separating or switching elements 25, a flat portion on to which the fork contact 12 of the contact elements is plugged 10th Die Kontaktelemente 10 können nach der Montage einer mit herkömmlichen Anschlußelementen 4 oder Trennelementen 25 oder Schaltelementen 26 versehenen Anschlußleiste durch die Schlitze 9 des Kunststoffgehäuses 1 wahlweise eingesteckt werden. The contact elements 10 can be inserted after the mounting provided with a conventional connection elements 4 or separating elements 25 or switching elements 26 connecting strip through the slits 9 of the plastic housing 1 selectively. Es ist somit keine Änderung herkömmlicher Anschlußelemente 4, Trennelemente 25 oder Schaltelemente 26 erforderlich. It is thus no change of conventional connecting elements 4, partitions 25 or switching elements 26 is required.

Claims (1)

  1. A terminal block for telecommunications, comprising a plastic housing (1) with a bottom (8), connection elements (4) for cable wires provided in the plastic housing (1) and contact elements (10) passing through openings in the bottom (8) for the electrical connection of the connection elements (4) to the circuit tracks of a printed-circuit board (20), characterised by that the flat-shaped contact elements (10) are formed of a contact pin (11) and of a fork contact (12) following as one piece therewith and having two resilient legs (13, 14) enclosing a flat web (7) of the connection element (4), and that the contact elements (10) in the openings (9) are firmly connected to the bottom (8) of the housing (1), between the contact pin (11) and the fork-type plug-in element (12) plug shoulders (16, 17) being formed which are clamped to the bottom (8) for firmly connecting the contact element (10).
EP19910103990 1990-05-10 1991-03-15 Terminal block for telecommunications Expired - Lifetime EP0456987B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19904015238 DE4015238C2 (en) 1990-05-10 1990-05-10
DE4015238 1990-05-10

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0456987A1 EP0456987A1 (en) 1991-11-21
EP0456987B1 true EP0456987B1 (en) 1995-05-03

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19910103990 Expired - Lifetime EP0456987B1 (en) 1990-05-10 1991-03-15 Terminal block for telecommunications

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US (1) US5163855A (en)
EP (1) EP0456987B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH04229570A (en)
KR (1) KR100267161B1 (en)
AR (1) AR244022A1 (en)
AT (1) AT122179T (en)
AU (1) AU646028B2 (en)
BR (1) BR9101840A (en)
CA (1) CA2041929C (en)
CZ (1) CZ279938B6 (en)
DE (2) DE4015238C2 (en)
DK (1) DK0456987T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2071853T3 (en)
FI (1) FI100838B (en)
HK (1) HK115295A (en)
IE (1) IE66348B1 (en)
IL (1) IL97635D0 (en)
MX (1) MX174171B (en)
NO (1) NO302005B1 (en)
RU (1) RU2092945C1 (en)
SK (1) SK278440B6 (en)
TR (1) TR25950A (en)
YU (1) YU47853B (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
YU51391A (en) 1994-11-15
CA2041929C (en) 1996-04-23
ES2071853T3 (en) 1995-07-01
MX174171B (en) 1994-04-25
IL97635D0 (en) 1992-06-21
HK115295A (en) 1995-07-21
DK0456987T3 (en) 1995-07-17
NO302005B1 (en) 1998-01-05
FI911702A (en) 1991-11-11
YU47853B (en) 1996-02-19
FI100838B (en) 1998-02-27
BR9101840A (en) 1991-12-17
NO911502L (en) 1991-11-11
AT122179T (en) 1995-05-15
DE4015238C2 (en) 1993-05-06
AR244022A1 (en) 1993-09-30
CA2041929A1 (en) 1991-11-11
FI911702A0 (en) 1991-04-09
CS132991A3 (en) 1992-01-15
DE59105360D1 (en) 1995-06-08
AU7410391A (en) 1991-11-14
FI911702D0 (en)
DE4015238A1 (en) 1991-11-14
TR25950A (en) 1993-11-01
KR100267161B1 (en) 2000-11-01
RU2092945C1 (en) 1997-10-10
IE66348B1 (en) 1995-12-27
US5163855A (en) 1992-11-17
AU646028B2 (en) 1994-02-03
NO911502D0 (en) 1991-04-17
IE911118A1 (en) 1991-11-20
SK278440B6 (en) 1997-05-07
FI100838B1 (en)
EP0456987A1 (en) 1991-11-21
JPH04229570A (en) 1992-08-19
CZ279938B6 (en) 1995-09-13

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