EP0424597B1 - Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method - Google Patents

Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0424597B1
EP0424597B1 EP90100344A EP90100344A EP0424597B1 EP 0424597 B1 EP0424597 B1 EP 0424597B1 EP 90100344 A EP90100344 A EP 90100344A EP 90100344 A EP90100344 A EP 90100344A EP 0424597 B1 EP0424597 B1 EP 0424597B1
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Prior art keywords
burner
sensor
voltage
predetermined
control circuit
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EP90100344A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0424597A1 (en
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Jan C. Ing. Van Bemmel
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ZIBROWIUS GmbH
Toyotomi Kogyo Co Ltd
Toyotomi Co Ltd
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ZIBROWIUS GmbH
Toyotomi Kogyo Co Ltd
Toyotomi Co Ltd
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Priority to PCT/DE1989/000692 priority Critical patent/WO1991006808A1/en
Priority to WOPCT/DE89/00692 priority
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N5/00Systems for controlling combustion
    • F23N5/003Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties
    • F23N5/006Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties the detector being sensitive to oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N2237/00Controlling
    • F23N2237/24Controlling height of burner
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N2241/00Applications
    • F23N2241/02Space-heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N5/00Systems for controlling combustion
    • F23N5/003Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for monitoring and maintaining the safety of the operation of a stove without a fireplace, in particular a petroleum stove, in an interior both in the normal heating state, in which the flame height generated by the burner of the stove is within a predetermined range, the exceeding of which is detected as radiation-sensitive, as also outside the normal heating state, with a corresponding control signal being generated when an excess or falling below the predetermined range is entered and an electronic control circuit is input so that on the one hand the normal heating state can be restored and on the other hand during continued operation of the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height generates a warning signal over a predetermined period of time and, after a corresponding delay, the burner is switched off automatically.
  • The invention further relates to a safety device for monitoring and safety-related compliance with the operation of a stove without a fireplace, in particular a petroleum stove, as described in the preamble of claim 12 for carrying out the method according to the invention.
  • The safety regulations in connection with indoor pollution, which can be caused by chimney-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, are the latter Time in European countries have been tightened and require strict monitoring and safety compliance with the operation of such fireplace-free stoves, such as petroleum stoves with one or two-stage burners (see US-A-43 90 003).
  • A safety device for stoves, in particular for petroleum stoves (WO-A-86 05860) is known in which, after normal operation has been reached, the height of the flames generated by the burner come outside a predetermined range and / or the extent of heating of the heating device such as the burner head and assigned pipe can be so high that there is an undesirable operating state of the furnace. The known safety device has a sensor device which detects that the predetermined range of the flame height has been exceeded and generates a corresponding measurement and / or control signal which is fed to an actuating device by which the petroleum oven is returned to the desired operating state or switched off. For a petroleum stove with a single-stage burner, the sensor device of the known safety device has two light sensors or sensors that detect the thermal radiation, each of which is assigned to the upper or lower limit of the predetermined range of the flame height during normal operation of the petroleum stove. According to the measurement signals generated by the light sensors when the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, the burner's wick is automatically adjusted or readjusted by hand or its shutdown is forcibly switched off by means of a falling control lever if the predetermined range of the flame height is continuously exceeded for a predetermined time.
  • This known safety device, which is based solely on the principle of radiation-sensitive detection of the flame height, does not meet the latest safety requirements, since it contains some uncertainty factors. If e.g. the burner is operated from the beginning only at the lowest possible flame height, this is not detected at all by the light sensor which is assigned to the lower limit of the predetermined range of the flame height. The burner now burns for a long time at the lowest flame height because the user e.g. forgot to switch off the stove, there is a risk of an inadmissibly high CO₂ content in the indoor air, since the stove is not switched off automatically due to the lack of light-sensitive detection of the lowest flame height.
  • Since there are always bumps in the wick fabric, the burner flame can often briefly exceed the upper limit of the predetermined range of the flame height in normal heating operation of the furnace, which in the known safety device can lead to a premature automatic switch-off of the burner, although the maximum permissible CO₂ value in the indoor air has not yet been reached. Such a rapid switch-off of the burner is associated with an intensive formation of odors and soot in a furnace equipped with the known safety device, since there is not sufficient time for and cooling the hot tube of the burner and the petroleum contained in the wick fabric is thus caused by the heat radiation of the Brenners evaporated with strong odors.
  • In indoor areas in which a chimney-free petroleum stove burns and the air ventilation is insufficient, the CO₂ concentration increases and the O₂ concentration decreases (CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O). However, a lack of oxygen results in incomplete combustion, which leads to an increase in the CO and CO₂ concentration. There is therefore a direct relationship on the one hand between the O₂ and the CO₂ or the CO concentration and on the other hand between the CO₂ and the CO concentration. If the CO₂ concentration increases, the CO concentration also increases.
  • Gas sensors, e.g. in connection with microcomputers for the automatic control of air cleaning devices or fans and record the proportion of CO, H₂ and some other gaseous organic components via electrical resistance changes, e.g. Components of kitchen fumes, cigarette smoke or car exhaust fumes are known per se (Figaro Eng. Inc. type TGS 800).
  • From US - A -4 449 919 a method and a device for monitoring a fireplace without stove emerges, in which an O₂ sensor is used, which responds to a certain flame height and delivers a shutdown signal to the burner.
  • The use of O₂ sensors is also known in the medical field, specifically for monitoring oxygen enrichment in ventilators (US Pat. No. 4,495,051). Such an O₂ sensor is e.g. formed as a galvanic cell, which has an anode made of lead, an oxygen cathode made of gold and a weakly acidic electrolyte.
  • The invention is based on the object of specifying a method of the type mentioned at the outset and an apparatus for carrying out the method in which the aforementioned disadvantages are avoided and the increased security requirements Enough is done. In particular, monitoring and safety compliance with the operation of petroleum stoves should be ensured, which are not necessarily dependent on radiation-sensitive detection of the flame height.
  • The object underlying the invention is achieved according to the invention in that the proportion of O₂ in the exhaust gas of the burner inside the petroleum oven is sensed and used as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO₂ contained in the exhaust gas of the burner and converted into a voltage signal forming the control signal , When operating the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height, the sensitive O₂ detection program-controlled serves both to restore the normal heating state and to monitor operation at the lowest flame height and via the electronic control circuit the generation of the warning signal and the delayed automatic switch-off of the burner each take place at a predetermined first or a predetermined second lower O₂ content in the exhaust gas of the burner, each corresponding to a predetermined CO₂ content in the indoor air.
  • Advantageous further developments of the method according to the invention result from patent claims 2 to 11.
  • The inventive method is preferably characterized in that the generation of the warning signal and the automatic shutdown of the burner take place when the O₂ content in the exhaust gas of the burner has reached the value of the maximum permissible proportion of 0.8% CO₂ in the indoor air corresponds.
  • The burner is preferably switched off automatically, e.g. 90 sec. After triggering the too low O₂ or. the warning signal indicating too high Co-CO₂ levels in the indoor air.
  • The safety device according to the invention for monitoring and maintaining the operation of a stove without a fireplace, in particular a stove without a fireplace, according to the preamble of claim 12 is used to carry out the method according to the claims 1 to 11 and is characterized in that the sensor device is additionally coupled to a microprocessor Has O₂ sensor, which is held within the housing of the petroleum stove in the lower housing area, detects the proportion of O₂ in the exhaust gas of the burner within the petroleum oven, which serves as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO contained in the exhaust gas of the burner and in a Control signal-forming voltage signal of the electronic control circuit can be converted and can be entered by the electronic control circuit of the wick adjusting device, the warning device and the switch-off device for the burner, which are each connected to the electronic control circuit, where in operation of the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height, the voltage signal of the O₂ sensor causes an actuation of the wick adjustment device to restore the normal heating state and to monitor the operation at the lowest flame height such that at a predetermined first and a predetermined second, lower from O₂ sensor detected O₂ concentration in the exhaust gas of the burner, the warning device or the automatic switch-off device of the burner is set in function by the electronic control circuit, and that vibration protection is provided.
  • Advantageously, a CO sensor can also be provided on an electronic circuit board, which is arranged on a holder in an upper corner of the housing of the petroleum oven behind a screen which reflects the heat radiated by the burner and has a passage opening such that a through the passage opening of the The minimal exhaust gas flow that hits the reflector screen hits the CO sensor.
  • With the method according to the invention and the device according to the invention for carrying it out, it is possible to correctly monitor the operation of chimney-free stoves, in particular of petroleum stoves, in indoor spaces under - compared to the official safety regulations - even stricter safety parameters and to comply with them in terms of safety. In particular, the detection of the height of the flames of the burner is not absolutely necessary for exact CO₂ monitoring.
  • If, for example, the oxygen concentration in the indoor air decreases, the flame height also decreases, which means that, for example, in a petroleum stove with a two-stage burner, the second burner stage is no longer functional, which means a higher CO emission and thus an increased CO₂ concentration in the indoor air. The safety device according to the invention detects exactly and immediately a reduction in the oxygen concentration in the casing of the petroleum stove, as a result of which an increase in the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air is precisely monitored. At the same time, the safety device according to the invention can precisely and directly detect the higher CO concentration already inside the casing of the petroleum stove and thus ensures exact monitoring of the minimum flame height of the burner of the petroleum stove.
  • The safety device according to the invention detects the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air by measuring the O₂ concentration in the exhaust gas of the burner in the casing of the petroleum stove and transforms the respective O₂ concentration into a voltage signal. The setpoint is the voltage which corresponds to the maximum permissible CO₂ concentration in the indoor air, which is set at 0.8% for the safety device according to the invention. If the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air exceeds 0.8% (the maximum permissible value according to TÜV is 1%), the burner is automatically switched off by the switch-off device of the safety device according to the invention. I.e. the safety regulations prescribed by the safety device according to the invention lie considerably below the officially prescribed guidelines.
  • The measurement of the CO₂ content in the indoor air takes place with the O₂ sensor designed as a galvanic cell, which is arranged on a circuit board held by the housing of the petroleum oven.
  • The CO₂ content is checked in the following procedure:
    • 1. A time delay of the control of the CO₂ content after switching on the petroleum heater, for example 4 minutes, so that the sensor voltage stabilizes in this period,
    • 2. an alarm delay of 30 seconds, for example, to rule out temporal disturbances,
    • 3. Generation of an intermittent, for example consisting of 3 tones buzzer signals with a maximum duration of 90 sec, which indicates that the CO-CO₂ content in the Indoor air is too high. During this period, the interior ventilation can be improved, for example by opening a door or a window, and thus the CO-CO₂ concentration can be reduced.
    • 4. Switching off the petroleum stove by the action of the electromagnet if the ventilation of the interior has not been improved within 90 seconds.
  • Malfunctions of the O₂ sensor due to its operation at very low temperatures or due to the end of its service life result in a sensor output voltage U sensor of less than 30 mV, which status is indicated by an intermittent buzzer signal consisting of 7 beeps 90 seconds after the petroleum oven is switched off becomes.
  • The O₂ sensor used in the safety device according to the invention has the following advantages:
    • 1. Extremely long lifespan (5 to 10 years).
    • 2. Insensitivity to CO₂ and other acidic components.
    • 3. Increased reliability and accuracy, since there is a direct relationship between an O₂ decrease and a CO / CO₂ increase, which occurs due to the combustion process in non-ventilated rooms.
    • 4. Possibility of determining the alarm voltage U a of the O₂ sensor.
    • 5. Own power supply of the O₂ sensor designed as a galvanic cell, so that a DC voltage 3 V of the petroleum stove's electronic control circuit can be maintained.
  • It could only be noted that there can be a very small voltage difference between the operating voltage U o and the voltage, which corresponds to the CO₂ content of 0.8% in the indoor air. As can be seen from the test results listed in Table 1 below, the alarm voltage of the O₂ sensor U a is 2 mV. It is therefore necessary with a view to the stability and the noise / signal ratio and with regard to the insensitivity of the O₂ sensor to temperature fluctuations, a high quality operational amplifier, with a U a gain factor of K = 100. The accuracy of the CO₂ control depends Mainly from voltage deviations in the hardware of the electronic control circuit of the petroleum stove and from the voltage deviation (drift) of the O₂ sensor. The average voltage deviations of the O₂ sensor of the safety device according to the invention during one year is 2%.
  • If it is assumed that the output signal of the O₂ sensor has a voltage of 50 mV, this means a voltage deviation of one millivolt per year. At U a = 2 mV, a fixed operating voltage U o during the manufacture of the petroleum stove using a potentiometer results in high reliability of the CO₂ control over the course of a year.
  • During the test period, the operating voltage U o fluctuates slightly from day to day. If the petroleum stove equipped with an O₂ sensor is switched on in a well-ventilated room, the sensor voltage U sensor increases over 90 minutes to approx. 2 mV due to the temperature effects.
  • By installing a microprocessor in the control system of the safety device according to the invention, it is possible to get the problems shown above under control. The operating voltage U o can be determined with the aid of the microprocessor as the maximum voltage value each time the burner of the petroleum stove is switched on before the sensor voltage drops due to poor ventilation of the interior. The sensor voltage is recorded every 4 minutes and compared with the previous voltage value. After determining the operating voltage U o , the alarm voltage of the sensor U a results from the formula U a = U o - Δ U a .
    Figure imgb0001
  • By determining the operating voltage U o after each switching on of the burner, there is the advantage that the influence of a voltage drift on the CO₂ control is switched off. A problem arises in the situation when the ventilation of the interior after switching off the burner has not improved due to a too high CO₂ level in a poorly ventilated room and the petroleum oven is switched on again carelessly, although the CO₂ content of the room is still is way too high. The corresponding sensor voltage, which deviates from the voltage in a well-ventilated state of the interior, would then be used disadvantageously as the operating voltage U o . This would have the consequence that a shutdown at an excessively high CO₂ level would result in a further increase each time the petroleum stove was switched on.
  • This problem can be solved in that the operating voltage U o is fixed for a period of 45 minutes in the event that the burner has been switched off due to a high CO₂ level in the indoor air. If the burner is switched on again during this period, the specified operating voltage U o is used for the CO₂ control. It is assumed that after the period of 45 minutes, the CO₂ level has returned to normal, so that the operating voltage U o is determined again in the manner described above .
  • If the burner flame exceeds the predetermined range of the flame height, soot or smoke can arise and there is a risk of fire. The light sensor of the safety device according to the invention which is assigned to the maximum permissible flame height and which is arranged at a corresponding height next to the combustion chamber of the petroleum stove ensures interaction with the electronic one Control circuit of the safety device according to the invention for the necessary control functions such as
    • 1. a time delay of 3 seconds, for example, to rule out temporal disturbances,
    • 2. an acoustic intermittent alarm generation (eg 5 tones) when the upper limit of the predetermined range of the flame height of the burner is exceeded and
    • 3. An automatic switch-off of the burner if the flame height has not been reset to the predetermined range of the flame height within 60 seconds after the alarm signal has been triggered.
  • Since inadequate interior ventilation when operating the petroleum stove with too high a burner flame, the lack of oxygen that occurs results in incomplete combustion and thus an increase in the CO-CO₂ concentration in the indoor air, the O₂ sensor of the safety device according to the invention is in addition to monitoring by the light sensor additional monitoring is provided when the burner is operated with an impermissibly high burner flame.
  • It is important to prevent smoke and associated odors when the burner is switched off automatically, as occurs in petroleum ovens equipped with conventional safety devices.
  • The method according to the invention and the safety device according to the invention ensure that the burner is switched off automatically in an almost odor-preventing manner.
  • The safety device according to the invention enables the burner to be switched off automatically to prevent odors, namely by the following process steps: The adjusting knob of the wick adjustment device of the burner is set according to a very low flame height. The correct setting is indicated by a colored marking and an acoustic intermittent signal from e.g. Displayed for 3 seconds. In this setting of the wick setting device, the burner then burns e.g. 4 more minutes to reduce the emission of odor-producing components. During this period, the heating pipe and burner head can cool down sufficiently. An activated electromagnet of the switch-off device then switches the burner off with a minimal odor. The cooling process can also be ended at any time by turning the wick upwards using the adjusting knob on the wick adjusting device of the burner.
  • In the safety device according to the invention there is an exchangeable battery set for supplying all electrical current collectors of the petroleum stove, such as the ignition coil, the electronic control circuit with the microprocessor, the heating element of the CO sensor.
  • Turning the wick adjuster clockwise operates the main switch that closes the electronic circuit. First a battery test is carried out. If the voltage of the battery U b is less than 2.3 V, ignition is not possible and a continuous buzzer signal sounds for 30 seconds, for example, which indicates that the battery must be replaced. After 30 seconds, the alarm signal is interrupted and the heating or heating process of the petroleum heater is interrupted by the action of the electromagnet, which causes the wick to reset.
  • If the battery voltage is in the normal range, ignition is possible and must be within e.g. 15 seconds. If the ignition is not made after 15 seconds, an intermittent buzzer signal sounds, e.g. 90 sec., During which the ignition of the petroleum stove is still possible. If the ignition has not taken place after 90 seconds, the activation of the petroleum stove is canceled by the action of the electromagnet.
  • After successful ignition, a periodic monitoring cycle begins, during which the battery voltage is checked in the manner described above, and the flame level and the CO₂ content in the exhaust gas are checked 4 minutes after the petroleum stove has started to heat up.
  • In the safety device according to the invention it proves to be advantageous that the required frequency of the microprocessor allows the power consumption I of the electronic control circuit to be made relatively low. The microprocessor works satisfactorily between 0.5 and 5 MHz. At f = 0.5 MHz, I is 2.5 mA as selected. At f = 5 MHz I = 30 mA. At f = 0.5 MHz, the microprocessor is slower than at f = 5 MHz, but this is of no importance in the present use of the microprocessor.
  • Finally, it is important that the safety device according to the invention has a mechanism arranged in the housing of the petroleum oven, by means of which, in the absence or incorrect insertion of the battery in the battery housing, the ignition device of the burner or the wick adjustment device are prevented from functioning.
  • The fuel level is checked continuously using a conventional circuit at the bottom of the fuel tank. If the level of the fuel is too low, e.g. An intermittent buzzer signal is generated for 3 minutes together with a floor flashing light. The fuel in this state at the bottom of the fuel tank is sufficient to keep the burner burning for approx. 30 minutes.
  • The method according to the invention and the safety device according to the invention for its implementation will now be explained with reference to the drawings. In these are:
  • Fig. 1
    1 shows a schematic sectional view of a petroleum oven equipped with the safety device,
    Fig. 2
    2 shows a perspective view of the petroleum oven according to FIG. 1,
    Fig. 3
    a diagram from which the determination of the operating voltage U o of the O₂ sensor emerges,
    Fig. 4
    a diagram showing the relationship between the oxygen content of the indoor air over time and the CO-CO₂ concentration,
    Fig. 5
    1 is a block diagram showing the procedure for monitoring and maintaining the operation of the petroleum stove.
    6a and 6b
    Perspective view of two embodiments of a mechanism of the safety device according to the invention, by which the burner is ignited or not when the battery is inserted or incorrectly inserted into the battery housing. an adjustment of the wick adjustment device is prevented.
  • The petroleum oven 1 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 has a housing 2, in the center of which a burner 4 having a wick adjustment device 3 is arranged, which can be of one or two stages, and a partially perforated top, forming a combustion chamber 5 has open burner housing 6. Between the burner housing 6 and the left rear wall 7 in FIG. 1 of the housing 2 of the petroleum oven 1, a vertically downward-extending heat reflection screen 8 is held, which has a passage opening 10 in the vicinity of the upper wall 9 of the housing 2 of the petroleum oven 1 which a part of the exhaust gas flowing out of the burner housing 6 (arrow A) of the burner 4 can exit. On an attached to the bottom of the housing 2 vertical bracket 12 is designed as a galvanic cell O₂ sensor 13 is attached in the lower region of the housing 2 and coupled to a microprocessor of an electronic control circuit 14. Behind the heat reflection screen 8, a CO sensor 11 is mounted on a circuit board 15 for CO monitoring in the upper left corner of the housing 2 in FIG. 1 in such a way that the exhaust gas fraction flowing through the passage opening 10 of the heat reflection screen 9 strikes it. The circuit board 15 is connected to the electronic control circuit 14 of the safety device, which in turn is connected to a warning signal device, not shown, and to an automatic switch-off device 16 for the burner 4. A light sensor 19 assigned to the upper limit 17 of a predetermined 3 range of the heights of the flames 18 of the burner 4 is arranged behind the heat reflection screen 8 such that the flames 18 exceed the upper limit 17 of the predetermined range of the flame height detected. The light sensor 19 is connected to the electronic control circuit 14. If the light sensor 19 detects the flames 18 when the upper limit 17 of the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, it generates a measurement signal which is input to the electronic control circuit 14 and which generates an acoustic warning signal. The user of the petroleum heater 1 must now actuate the wick adjustment device 3 within 90 seconds and reset the height of the flames 18 of the burner 4 to the predetermined range of the flame height corresponding to the normal heating state of the burner 4. If this reset does not take place within the stated 90 seconds, the switch-off device 16 is actuated via the electronic control circuit 14 and the burner 4 is switched off automatically.
  • If the petroleum oven 1 is switched on in a well-ventilated room, the voltage U sensor of the O₂ sensor 13 of the safety device increases to about 2 mV in the course of 90 minutes due to the temperature influences. During the operation of the petroleum oven 1, the O₂ sensor 13 continuously detects the O₂ content of the air in the housing 2 and converts it continuously into a corresponding voltage signal. Due to the direct relationship between an O₂ decrease and a CO₂ increase, the voltage signal indicating the O₂ content is in each case a measure of the CO₂ content in the indoor air. The operating voltage U o of the O₂ sensor 13 is, as can be seen from FIG. 3, determined after switching on the burner 4 with the aid of the microprocessor of the electronic control circuit 14 as the maximum voltage value before the sensor voltage U sensor drops due to poor ventilation of the interior. As shown in FIG. 3, the sensor voltage U sensor is recorded every 4 minutes and compared with the previous voltage value. In Fig. 3, U₄ is the maximum voltage value before the sensor voltage U sensor drops due to poor ventilation of the interior (see U₅ is smaller than U₄). Therefore: U gilt = U o . The alarm voltage U a of the O₂ sensor 13 thus results after determining the operating voltage to U a = U o - Δ U a . If the oxygen fraction detected by the O₂ sensor 13 corresponds to the voltage value of the alarm voltage U a , an alarm signal is generated. If the ventilation of the interior is not improved within 90 seconds, the O₂ content is further reduced and the petroleum oven is switched off by the action of an electromagnet forming the automatic switch-off device 16 at a voltage value U sensor supplied by the O₂ sensor 13, the smaller than the alarm voltage U a .
  • During the operation of the petroleum heater 1, the CO sensor 11 can also continuously detect the CO content in the exhaust gas (arrow A) of the burner 4 in the housing 2, the measured CO concentration continuously by means of the electronic circuit of the CO monitoring in a corresponding manner electrical voltage can be converted. The CO concentration can also be used as a measure of the CO₂ concentration contained in the indoor air. 4, the percentage CO and CO₂ concentration in relation to the percentage oxygen content in the indoor air is plotted over the period of operation of the petroleum heater 1. It can be seen that a direct relationship between the decrease in O₂ and the increase in CO₂ gives a corresponding relationship between the decrease in O₂ and a decrease in CO by the dependence of the increase in CO₂ and CO.
  • 5 illustrates the individual process steps for monitoring and safety-related compliance with the operation of the petroleum stove in an interior both in the normal pickling state and outside the latter, the identifications of individual blocks, to which reference is made, clarify the functional relationships of the individual procedural measures.
  • 6a and 6b show two embodiments of a mechanism of the safety device, from which, in the absence or incorrect insertion of the battery 20 in the battery housing 21, ignition of an ignition device of the burner 4 is prevented or an adjustment of the wick adjustment device 3 is blocked and thus ignition of the wick by a match is not possible.
  • The mechanism has a functional spring 22 which, when the battery is used correctly, e.g. when they are in contact with a sensor plate 23 in the battery housing 21, is in the compressed state, with a trigger wire 24, one end of which, as shown in FIG. 6a, with a trigger plate 25, a fuse 26 responding to vibrations (for example also to earthquakes) and the other end thereof the sensor plate 23 is connected, is loose, so that ignition of the burner 4 is possible. If the battery 20 is removed from the battery housing 21 or if the latter is not in exact contact with the sensor plate 23, the latter is pressed forward by the compressed functional spring 22, as a result of which the release wire 24 is tensioned and the release plate 25 is moved, which causes the fuse 26 to function occurs and ignition is prevented or wick adjustment is blocked or burner 4 is switched off. In the embodiment according to FIG. 6b, the release plate 25 of the fuse 26 is replaced by a locking lever 27, to which one end of the trigger wire 24 is connected, which sets the locking lever 27 in motion when the function spring 22 moves, thereby triggering the fuse 26 becomes.

Claims (15)

  1. A process of monitoring and ensuring the safe operation of an unvented oven and particularly of a kerosene heater in an indoorspace in the normal heating condition in which the height of the flames produced by the burner is within a predetermined range which is monitored by radiation-response means to detect flame heights outside said range, as well as in operation outside said normal heating condition, wherein flame heights higher and lower than said predetermined range causing corresponding control signals to be generated and to be coupled to an electronic control circuit so as to enable the normal heating condition to be restored or, if the burner consistently operates outside said predetermined flame height range for more than a predetermined period of time, to generate a warning signal and to automatically shut down the burner after a corresponding timeout delay, characterized in that the O₂ percentage in the burner off-gases inside the kerosene heater is detected sensitively and used as a measure for monitoring the amount of CO₂ in the burner off-gases and converted to a voltage signal forming said control signal, that in burner operation outside the predetermined flame height range the sensitive O₂ detection is effected under program control both for restoring the normal heating condition and for monitoring burner operation at minimum flame height, and that the electronic control circuit is used to generate the alarm signal and to automatically shut down the burner after a delay at predetermined first and second O₂ concentrations in the burner off-gases each corresponding to a predetermined CO₂ concentration in the indoor air, said second concentration being lower than said first concentration.
  2. A process as in claim 1, characterized by the alarmsignal being generated and the burner shut down automatically when the O₂ concentration in the burner off-gas has reached a level corresponding to the maximum CO₂ concentration of 0,8 % permissible in the indoor air.
  3. A process as in claim 1 and 2, characterized in that the automatic shut down of the burner is effected 90 seconds after the triggering of the warn signal indicating too low a level of O₂ or too high a level of CO/CO₂ in the burner offgas.
  4. A process as. in claim 1 to 3, characterized in that each time the burner is switched on a maximum value of the voltage characterizing a sufficient ventilationcondition and again allowing the burner operation only after shut down the burner is determined as operating voltage Uo and being fixed for a predetermined length of time by a microprocessor of the electronic control circuit, whenn the burner has been shut down.
  5. A process as in claim 4, characterized by the operating voltage being fixed for 45 minutes when the burner has shut down because of an excessive CO₂level in the indoor air.
  6. A process as in claim 1, characterized in that the voltage from O₂ sensor is detected cyclically and compared with the preceding sensor voltage value.
  7. A process as in claim 6, characterized in that the voltage from the O₂ sensor is detected every four minutes.
  8. A process as in claim 1, characterized in that the electronic control circuit is powered by a battery which is connected through a mechanismn with the electronic control circuit and the voltage Ub is checked automatically for the stability of a prescribed value, with a battery voltage Ub lower than said prescribed value causing an ignition of the burner to be prevented and an alarm signal indicating the necessity of a battery replacement being generated and the warm-up or heating operating of the kerosene heater being terminated automatically.
  9. A process as in claim 1 and 8 characterized in that an uncorrect working position of the battery or its removal from the working position the mechanismn connected with the control circuit cause ignition of the burner to be prevented automatically.
  10. A process as in claim 9, characterized in that burner ignition is prevented by mechanical means.
  11. A process as in claim 1, characterized in that the electronic control circuit is used to continuously check the fuel level and to generate an intermittent signal in response to the fuel dropping below a predetermined level.
  12. Safety apparatus for monitoring and ensuring the safe operation of an unvented oven and particularly of a kerosene heater in an indoor space in the normal heating condition in which the height of the flames produced by the burner is within a predetermined range which is monitored to detect flame heights outside the range by a light sensor of a sensor means mounted in the housing of the kerosene heater in association with the top limit of a predetermined range of flame heights, defining the normal heating condition of the kerosene heater, as well in operation outside said normal heating condition, wherein flame heights higher and lower than said predetermined range causing a corresponding control signal to be generated and to be coupled to an electronic control circuit which is connected to the battery and through which wick adjusting means of the burner may be adjusted according with a measuring signal from the light sensor in response to the flame height being outside said predetermined flame height range, said wick adjusting means also being adjustable by hand, and compri ing timing means being coupled to warning means and means for automatically shutting the burner down and actuatable with delay when the burner is operated above said predetermined flame height range to a time longer than predetermined, for practicing the process of claim 1 to 11, character ized by the sensor means additionally comprising an O₂ sensor (13) coupled to a microprocessor, said sensor (13) being mounted within housing (2) of kerosene heater (1) in the bottom housing position, detecting the O₂ percentage in the burner off-gases inside the kerosene heater (1), said O₂ percentage is used as a measure for monitoring the amount of CO₂ in the burner off-gases and converted to a voltage signal forming said control signal in the electronic control circuit (14) coupling said control signal to the wick adjusting means (3), the warning means and shut down means (16) for the burner (4), each of them are connected with the electronic control circuit (14), wherein, when the burner (4) is operating outside said predetermined flame height range, the voltage signal of the O₂ Sensor is causing the wick adjusting means (3) to re-establish the normal heating condition of the kerosene heater (1) and is serving to monitor the operation of the burner (4) at the lowest flame height in a manner, that with predetermined first and second O₂ concentration in the off-gases of burner (4) warning means and the automatic shut down means (16) of burner (4) are operated by the electronic control circuit (14) with said second concentration being lower than said first concentration. and that a vibration protection means (26) is provided.
  13. Apparatus as in claim 12, characterized by a mechanism (22, 24) coupled with vibration-responsive protecting means (26) to prevent the igniting means of burner (4) from being activated or to cause wick adjusting means (3) to be latched in its basic position in which the wick cannot be ignited by hand if the battery is missing or improperly placed in battery case (21).
  14. Apparatus as in claim 13, characterized by mechanism (22, 24) comprising a functional spring (22) engaging a sensor plate 823) of battery case (21) and compressed in the rest condition ofmechanism (22, 24) as well as a triggering wire (24) having its ends connected to sensor plate (23) and to a triggering plate (25) of protection means (26), respectively, said triggering wire being slack in the rest position of mechanism (22, 24), wherein the absence or an inproper placement of battery (20) causes sensor plate (23) to be displaced in the battery case (21) by functional spring (22) of the activated mechanism (22, 24), triggering wire (24) to be stretched taut and triggering plate (25) of protection device (26) to be activated.
  15. Apparatus as in claim 14, characterized by triggering plate (25) of protection device (26) being replaced by a pivotable latch (27).
EP90100344A 1989-10-26 1990-01-09 Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method Expired - Lifetime EP0424597B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/DE1989/000692 WO1991006808A1 (en) 1989-10-26 1989-10-26 Process for monitoring the operation of flueless heaters, especially paraffin heaters, and keeping it safe, and device for implementing the process
WOPCT/DE89/00692 1989-10-26

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0424597A1 EP0424597A1 (en) 1991-05-02
EP0424597B1 true EP0424597B1 (en) 1995-06-28

Family

ID=6835279

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP90100344A Expired - Lifetime EP0424597B1 (en) 1989-10-26 1990-01-09 Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method

Country Status (12)

Country Link
US (1) US5165883A (en)
EP (1) EP0424597B1 (en)
KR (1) KR0152092B1 (en)
AT (1) AT124526T (en)
DE (1) DE59009328D1 (en)
DK (1) DK170432B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2078248T3 (en)
FI (1) FI100678B (en)
GR (1) GR3017594T3 (en)
NO (1) NO174863C (en)
RU (1) RU2067728C1 (en)
WO (1) WO1991006808A1 (en)

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US5549470A (en) * 1994-12-29 1996-08-27 Henderson; Richard W. Anti-flareup device for liquid fuel burners
US5662468A (en) * 1995-08-14 1997-09-02 Henderson; Richard W. Device that prevents flareup in liquid fuel burners
US5551865A (en) * 1995-11-17 1996-09-03 Henderson; Richard W. Safety shut-off device for liquid fuel burners
US5752818A (en) * 1996-03-04 1998-05-19 Forster; James Andrew Carbon monoxide detection and automatic deactivation system
US5730115A (en) * 1996-07-19 1998-03-24 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by regulating fuel flow into the fuel chamber
US5772425A (en) * 1996-07-19 1998-06-30 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by containing sump vapors
US5899682A (en) * 1997-03-31 1999-05-04 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by regulating fuel flow from the removable fuel tank
FR2761756B1 (en) * 1997-04-04 1999-06-04 Dtn Fr Sa Safety device for a stove comprising a sensor measuring the thermal conductivity of gases
US5967765A (en) * 1997-08-19 1999-10-19 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid-fuel burners by providing constant-rate fuel flow from removable fuel tank
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US5165883A (en) 1992-11-24
NO911865L (en) 1991-05-16
WO1991006808A1 (en) 1991-05-16
FI100678B (en) 1998-01-30
KR0152092B1 (en) 1998-10-01
FI913027D0 (en)
ES2078248T3 (en) 1995-12-16
DE59009328D1 (en) 1995-08-03
DK90791A (en) 1991-05-16
NO174863C (en) 1994-07-20
FI100678B1 (en)
KR920702885A (en) 1992-10-28
NO174863B (en) 1994-04-11
RU2067728C1 (en) 1996-10-10
AT124526T (en) 1995-07-15
DK90791D0 (en) 1991-05-14
EP0424597A1 (en) 1991-05-02
NO911865D0 (en) 1991-05-14
GR3017594T3 (en) 1995-12-31
FI913027A0 (en) 1991-06-20
DK170432B1 (en) 1995-08-28

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