EP0424597A1 - Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method - Google Patents

Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0424597A1
EP0424597A1 EP90100344A EP90100344A EP0424597A1 EP 0424597 A1 EP0424597 A1 EP 0424597A1 EP 90100344 A EP90100344 A EP 90100344A EP 90100344 A EP90100344 A EP 90100344A EP 0424597 A1 EP0424597 A1 EP 0424597A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
burner
sensor
predetermined
petroleum
flame height
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP90100344A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0424597B1 (en
Inventor
Jan C. Ing. Van Bemmel
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ZIBROWIUS GmbH
Toyotomi Kogyo Co Ltd
Toyotomi Co Ltd
Original Assignee
ZIBROWIUS GmbH
Toyotomi Kogyo Co Ltd
Toyotomi Co Ltd
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Publication date
Priority to PCT/DE1989/000692 priority Critical patent/WO1991006808A1/en
Priority to WOPCT/DE89/00692 priority
Application filed by ZIBROWIUS GmbH, Toyotomi Kogyo Co Ltd, Toyotomi Co Ltd filed Critical ZIBROWIUS GmbH
Publication of EP0424597A1 publication Critical patent/EP0424597A1/en
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Publication of EP0424597B1 publication Critical patent/EP0424597B1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N5/00Systems for controlling combustion
    • F23N5/003Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties
    • F23N5/006Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties the detector being sensitive to oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N2237/00Controlling
    • F23N2237/24Controlling height of burner
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N2241/00Applications
    • F23N2241/02Space-heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23NREGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION
    • F23N5/00Systems for controlling combustion
    • F23N5/003Systems for controlling combustion using detectors sensitive to combustion gas properties

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and a device for monitoring and ensuring that the operation of fireplace-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, is maintained indoors, both in the normal heating state and outside the latter. If the normal heating state is exited, there is a risk of incomplete combustion and thus a reduction in the O2 content and an increase in the CO2 concentration in the indoor air. The aim of the invention is to enable extremely precise and rapid monitoring of the CO2 content of the indoor air and, in particular, to ensure, regardless of the flame height of the burner, that exact monitoring and safe maintenance of the operation of the petroleum oven are independent of radiation-sensitive detection of the flame height becomes possible. This is achieved according to the invention in that the proportion of O2 in the exhaust gas of the burner inside the petroleum stove is detected sensitively and used as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO2 contained in the indoor air and converted into a voltage signal serving as a control signal, during operation of the burner outside of a predetermined range of flame height, the sensitive O2 detection is used both to restore normal heating and to monitor operation at the lowest flame height, and to generate a warning signal and a delayed automatic switch-off of the burner at a predetermined first or at a predetermined one second, lower O2 content in the exhaust gas of the burner, which corresponds to the corresponding predetermined CO2 content in the indoor air. In addition, the proportion of CO in the burner exhaust gas inside the petroleum stove can be detected sensitively and also used as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO2 contained in the indoor air and converted into a corresponding control signal.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for monitoring and safety compliance with the operation of fireplace-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, indoors both in the normal heating state, in which the flame height generated by the burner is within a predetermined range, the exceeding of which is detected in a radiation-sensitive manner, and in operation outside of the normal heating state, a corresponding control signal being generated when an excess or falling below the predetermined range is entered and an electronic control circuit is input so that the normal heating state can be restored on the one hand and / on the other hand during continued operation of the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height generates a warning signal over a predetermined period of time and, after a corresponding delay, the burner is switched off automatically.
  • The invention further relates to a device for performing the method according to the invention, as described above Concept of claim 12 is described.
  • The safety regulations in connection with indoor air pollution, which can be caused by chimney-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, have recently been tightened in European countries and require strict monitoring and safety compliance with the operation of such chimney-free stoves, e.g. of petroleum ovens with one or two-stage burners (see. US-PS 43 90 003).
  • A safety device for stoves is known, in particular for petroleum stoves (PCT-NL 86/000 10), in which, after normal operation has been reached, the height of the flames generated by the burner falls outside a predetermined range and / or the extent of heating of the heating device such as the burner head and associated pipe can be so high that an undesirable operating state of the furnace is given. The known safety device has a sensor device which detects that the predetermined range of the flame height has been exceeded and generates a corresponding measurement and / or control signal which is fed to an actuating device by which the petroleum oven is reset to the desired operating state or switched off. For a petroleum oven with a single-stage burner, the sensor device of the known safety device has two light sensors or sensors which detect the thermal radiation, each of which is assigned to the upper or lower limit of the predetermined range of the flame height during normal operation of the petroleum oven. In accordance with the measurement signals generated by the light sensors when the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, an automatic readjustment or readjustment by hand of the burner's wick or its forced off takes place switching by means of a falling switching lever if the predetermined range of flame height is continuously exceeded over its predetermined time.
  • This known safety device, which is based solely on the principle of radiation-sensitive detection of the flame height, does not meet the latest safety requirements, since it contains some uncertainty factors. If e.g. the burner is operated from the beginning only at the lowest possible flame height, this is not detected at all by the light sensor which is assigned to the lower limit of the predetermined range of the flame height. The burner now burns at the lowest flame height for a long time because the user e.g. forgot to switch off the stove, there is a risk of an impermissibly high CO₂ content in the indoor air, since the stove is not switched off automatically in the absence of a light-sensitive detection of the lowest flame height.
  • Since there are always bumps in the wick fabric, the burner flame can often briefly exceed the upper limit of the predetermined range of the flame height in normal heating operation of the furnace, which in the known safety device can lead to a premature automatic switch-off of the burner, although the maximum permissible CO₂ value has not yet been reached in the indoor air. Such a rapid switch-off of the burner is associated with an intensive formation of odors and soot in an oven equipped with the known safety device, since there is not sufficient time for the hot tube of the burner to cool down and the petroleum contained in the wick fabric is thus caused by the heat radiation of the Burner tube evaporated with strong odors.
  • In indoor areas where a chimney-free petroleum stove burns and the air ventilation is insufficient, the CO₂ concentration increases and the O₂ concentration decreases (CH₄ + 2O₂ CO₂ + 2H₂O). However, a lack of oxygen leads to incomplete combustion, which leads to an increase in the CO and CO₂ concentrations. There is thus a direct relationship on the one hand between the O₂ and the CO₂ or the CO concentration and on the other hand between the CO₂ and the CO concentration. If the CO₂ concentration increases, the CO concentration also increases.
  • Gas sensors, e.g. used in conjunction with microcomputers for automatic control of air purification devices or fans and registering the proportion of CO, H₂ and some other gaseous organic components via electrical resistance changes, e.g. Components of kitchen fumes, cigarette smoke or car exhaust fumes are known per se (Figaro Eng. Inc. type TGS 800).
  • In the medical field, the use of O₂ sensors is known for monitoring oxygen enrichment in ventilators (US Pat. No. 4,495,051). Such an O₂ sensor is e.g. formed as a galvanic cell which has an anode made of lead, an oxygen cathode made of gold and a weakly acidic electrolyte. A resistor and a thermistor for temperature compensation are connected between the cathode and the anode, so that the galvanic cell in the form of a lead-oxygen battery is always discharged.
  • The invention is based on the object of specifying a method of the type mentioned at the outset and an apparatus for carrying out the method in which the aforementioned disadvantages are avoided and increased security requirements are satisfied. In particular, monitoring and safety compliance with the operation of petroleum stoves should be ensured, which are not necessarily dependent on radiation-sensitive detection of the flame height.
  • The object on which the invention is based is achieved in that the proportion of O₂ in the exhaust gas of the burner inside the petroleum oven is detected sensitively and used as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO₂ contained in the exhaust gas of the burner and converted into a voltage signal forming the control signal , With operation of the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height, the sensitive O₂ detection program-controlled serves both to restore the normal heating state and to monitor operation at the lowest flame height, and via the electronic control circuit the generation of the warning signal and the delayed automatic switch-off of the burner each take place at a predetermined first or a predetermined second lower O₂ content in the exhaust gas of the burner, each corresponding to a predetermined CO₂ content in the indoor air.
  • Advantageous further developments of the method according to the invention result from patent claims 2 to 11.
  • The inventive method is preferably characterized in that in addition the CO portion is used as a measure for monitoring the CO₂ content contained in the indoor air and that the warning signal is generated and the burner is automatically switched off when the O₂ or CO content in the burner's exhaust gas has reached the value that corresponds to the maximum permissible content of 0.8% CO₂ in the indoor air.
  • The burner is preferably switched off automatically, e.g. 90 seconds after triggering the warning signal indicating the low O₂ or the too high CO-CO₂ level in the indoor air.
  • The safety device according to the invention for chimney-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, for carrying out the method according to the invention is equipped with a sensor device with a light sensor which is held in the casing of the petroleum stove in association with the upper limit of a predetermined area of the flame height which determines the normal heating state of the petroleum stove a battery, an electronic control circuit connected to this, via which a wick-actuating device, which can also be operated by hand, can be adjusted in accordance with a measurement signal from the light sensor when the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, with a warning device and a device for automatically switching off the burner, each with a time control device of the electronic control circuit and, when the burner is in operation, above the predetermined range of the flame height over a predetermined period of time can be replaced. According to the invention, this safety device is characterized in that the sensor device additionally has an O₂ sensor coupled to a microprocessor, which is held within the housing of the petroleum oven in the lower housing area and via the electronic control circuit with the wick adjusting device, the warning device and the automatic switch-off device for the burner is connected, with a predetermined first and a predetermined second, lower O₂ concentration in the exhaust gas of the burner, the warning device or the switch-off device of the burner is in operation.
  • Advantageously, a CO sensor can also be provided on an electronic circuit board, which is arranged on a holder in an upper corner of the housing of the petroleum oven behind a screen that reflects the heat radiated by the burner and has a passage opening such that a through the passage opening of the The minimal exhaust gas flow that hits the reflector screen hits the CO sensor.
  • With the method according to the invention and the device according to the invention for carrying it out, it is possible to correctly monitor the operation of chimney-free stoves, in particular petroleum stoves, in indoor spaces under - compared to the official safety regulations - even stricter safety parameters and to comply with them in terms of safety. In particular, the detection of the height of the flames of the burner is not absolutely necessary for exact CO₂ monitoring.
  • For example, the oxygen concentration in the indoor air decreases, so does the flame height, which means that, for example, in a petroleum stove with a two-stage burner, the second burner stage is no longer functional, which means a higher CO emission and thus an increased CO₂ concentration in the indoor air. The safety device according to the invention precisely and immediately detects a reduction in the oxygen concentration in the casing of the petroleum stove, as a result of which an increase in the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air is precisely monitored. At the same time, the safety device according to the invention can precisely and directly detect the higher CO concentration inside the casing of the petroleum stove and thus ensures exact monitoring of the minimum flame height of the burner of the petroleum stove.
  • The safety device according to the invention detects the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air by measuring the O₂ concentration in the exhaust gas of the burner in the casing of the petroleum stove and transforms the respective O₂ concentration into a voltage signal. The target value is the voltage which corresponds to the maximum permissible CO₂ concentration in the indoor air, which is set at 0.8% for the safety device according to the invention. If the CO₂ concentration in the indoor air exceeds 0.8% (the maximum permissible value according to TÜV is 1%), the burner is automatically switched off by the switch-off device of the safety device according to the invention. I.e. the safety regulations specified by the safety device according to the invention are considerably below the officially specified guidelines.
  • The measurement of the CO₂ content in the indoor air takes place with the O₂ sensor designed as a galvanic cell, which is arranged on a circuit board held by the housing of the petroleum oven.
  • The CO₂ content is checked in the following procedure:
    • 1. A time delay of the control of the CO₂ content after switching on the petroleum oven, for example 4 minutes, so that the sensor voltage stabilizes in this period,
    • 2. an alarm delay of 30 seconds, for example, to rule out temporal disturbances,
    • 3. Generation of an intermittent, for example consisting of 3 tones buzzer signals with a maximum duration of 90 sec, which indicates that the CO-CO₂ content in the Indoor air is too high. During this period, the interior ventilation can be improved, for example by opening a door or a window, and thus the CO-CO₂ concentration can be reduced.
    • 4. Switching off the petroleum stove by the action of the electromagnet if the ventilation of the interior has not been improved within 90 seconds.
  • Malfunctions of the O₂ sensor as a result of its operation at very low temperatures or due to the end of its service life result in a sensor output voltage U sensor of less than 30 mV, which is indicated by an intermittent buzzer signal, for example consisting of 7 beeps, 90 seconds after the petroleum oven is switched off becomes.
  • The O₂ sensor used in the safety device according to the invention has the following advantages:
    • 1. Extremely long lifespan (5 to 10 years).
    • 2. Insensitivity to CO₂ and other acidic components.
    • 3. Increased reliability and accuracy, since there is a direct relationship between an O₂ decrease and a CO / CO₂ increase, which occurs due to the combustion process in non-ventilated rooms.
    • 4. Possibility of determining the alarm voltage U a of the O₂ sensor.
    • 5. Own power supply of the O₂ sensor designed as a galvanic cell, so that a DC voltage 3 V of the petroleum stove's electronic control circuit can be maintained.
  • It could only be noted that there can be a very small voltage difference between the operating voltage U o and the voltage, which corresponds to the CO₂ content of 0.8% in the indoor air. As can be seen from the test results listed in Table 1 below, the alarm voltage of the O₂ sensor U a is 2 mV. It is therefore necessary with a view to the stability and the noise / signal ratio and in terms of the insensitivity of the O₂ sensor to temperature fluctuations, a high quality operational amplifier, with a U a gain factor of K = 100. The accuracy of the CO₂ control depends mainly from voltage deviations in the hardware of the electronic control circuit of the petroleum stove and from the voltage deviation (drift) of the O₂ sensor. The average voltage deviations of the O₂ sensor of the safety device according to the invention during one year is 2%.
  • If it is assumed that the output signal of the O₂ sensor has a voltage of 50 mV, this means a voltage deviation of one millivolt per year. At U a = 2 mV, a fixed operating voltage U o during the manufacture of the petroleum stove using a potentiometer results in high reliability of the CO₂ control over the course of a year.
  • During the test period, the operating voltage U o fluctuates slightly from day to day. If the petroleum stove equipped with an O₂ sensor is switched on in a well-ventilated room, the sensor voltage U Sensor increases over 90 minutes to approx. 2 mV due to the temperature effects.
  • By installing a microprocessor in the control system of the safety device according to the invention, it is possible to get the problems outlined above under control. The operating voltage U o can be determined with the aid of the microprocessor as the maximum voltage value each time the burner of the petroleum heater is switched on before the sensor voltage drops due to poor ventilation of the interior. The sensor voltage is recorded every 4 minutes and compared with the previous voltage value. After determining the operating voltage U o , the alarm voltage of the sensor U a results from the formula U a = U o - U ′ a . Table 1 (Analysis of the test results obtained with an O₂ sensor of the KE-50 type when the O₂ sensor is coupled to the microprocessor of the electronic control circuit of the safety device according to the invention) Test No. U₀ (mV) U 0.8% (mV) ΔU 0.8% (mV) U a (mV) ΔU a (mV) CO₂% T sensor o C 1 45.70 43.83 1.87 43.71 1.99 0.875 17-37 2nd 45.52 - - 43.39 2.13 0.77 29-45 3rd 46.58 44.52 2.06 44.52 2.06 0.80 9-24 4th 46.85 - - 44.95 1.90 0.725 8-21 5 46.67 - - 44.70 1.97 0.75 13-25 6 47.55 45.1 2.45 44.16 3.39 1.18 3-25 7 45.39 44.0 1.39 43.83 1.56 1.09 - 8th 47.23 45.2 2.03 44.85 2.38 0.93 3-21 9 45.80 44.6 1.20 44.28 1.52 1.13 - 10th 45.52 44.1 1.42 43.90 1.62 0.84 - 11 45.76 44.17 1.59 44.12 1.64 0.845 - Average: 1.75 2.01 0.903 Test No. U₀ U 0.8% U 0.8% 7a 45.36 42.84 2.52 9a 44.97 42.70 2.27 10a 45.41 43.40 2.01
  • By determining the operating voltage U o after each switching on of the burner, there is the advantage that the influence of a voltage drift on the CO₂ control is switched off. A problem arises in the situation when the ventilation of the interior after switching off the burner has not improved due to a too high CO₂ level in a poorly ventilated room and the petroleum oven is switched on again carelessly, although the CO₂ content of the room is still is way too high. The corresponding sensor voltage, which deviates from the voltage in a well-ventilated state of the interior, would then be used disadvantageously as the operating voltage U o . This would have the consequence that a shutdown at an excessively high CO₂ level would result in a further increase each time the petroleum stove was switched on.
  • This problem can be solved in that the operating voltage U o is fixed for a period of 45 minutes in the event that the burner has been switched off due to a high CO₂ level in the indoor air. If the burner is switched on again during this period, the fixed operating voltage U o is used for the CO₂ control. It is assumed that after the period of 45 minutes, the CO₂ level has returned to normal, so that the operating voltage U o is determined again in the manner described above .
  • If the burner flame exceeds the predetermined range of the flame height, soot or smoke can arise and there is a risk of fire. The light sensor of the safety device according to the invention which is assigned to the maximum permissible flame height and which is arranged at a corresponding height next to the combustion chamber of the petroleum stove ensures interaction with the electronic one
  • Control circuit of the safety device according to the invention for the necessary control functions such as
    • 1. a time delay of, for example, 3 seconds to rule out temporal disturbances,
    • 2. an acoustic intermittent alarm generation (eg 5 tones) when the upper limit of the predetermined range of the flame height of the burner is exceeded and
    • 3. an automatic switch-off of the burner if the flame height has not been reset to the predetermined range of the flame height within, for example, 60 seconds after the alarm signal has been triggered.
  • Since inadequate indoor ventilation when operating the petroleum stove with too high a burner flame, the lack of oxygen that occurs causes incomplete combustion and thus an increase in the CO-CO₂ concentration in the indoor air, the O₂ sensor of the safety device according to the invention is in addition to monitoring by the light sensor additional monitoring is provided when the burner is operating with an impermissibly high burner flame.
  • It is important to prevent smoke and associated odors when the burner is switched off automatically, as occurs in petroleum ovens equipped with conventional safety devices.
  • The method according to the invention and the safety device according to the invention ensure that the burner is switched off automatically in an almost odor-preventing manner.
  • The safety device according to the invention enables the burner to be switched off automatically, by preventing the odor, by the following procedural steps: The adjusting knob of the wick adjusting device of the burner is set according to a very low flame height. The correct setting is indicated by a colored marking and an acoustic intermittent signal from e.g. Displayed for 3 seconds. With this setting of the wick setting device, the burner then burns e.g. 4 more minutes to reduce the emission of odor-producing components. During this period, the heating pipe and burner head can cool down sufficiently. An activated electromagnet of the switch-off device then switches the burner off with a minimal odor. The cooling process can also be ended at any time by turning the wick upwards using the adjusting knob on the wick adjusting device of the burner.
  • In the safety device according to the invention there is a replaceable battery set for supplying all the electrical current collectors of the petroleum stove, e.g. the ignition coil, the electronic control circuit with the microprocessor, the heating element of the CO sensor.
  • Turning the wick adjuster clockwise operates the main switch that closes the electronic circuit. First a battery test is carried out. If the voltage of the battery U b is less than 2.3 V, ignition is not possible and a continuous buzzer signal sounds for 30 seconds, for example, which indicates that the battery must be replaced. After 30 seconds, the alarm signal is interrupted and the heating or heating process of the petroleum heater is interrupted by the action of the electromagnet, which causes the wick to reset.
  • If the battery voltage is in the normal range, ignition is possible and must be within e.g. 15 seconds. If the ignition is not made after 15 seconds, an intermittent buzzer signal sounds e.g. 90 sec., During which the ignition of the petroleum stove is still possible. If the ignition does not take place after 90 seconds, the activation of the petroleum stove is canceled by the action of the electromagnet.
  • After successful ignition, a periodic monitoring cycle starts, in the course of which the battery voltage is checked in the manner described above and the flame level and the CO₂ content in the exhaust gas are checked 4 minutes after the heating process of the petroleum stove has started.
  • In the safety device according to the invention, it proves to be advantageous that the required frequency of the microprocessor allows the power consumption I of the electronic control circuit to be made relatively low. The microprocessor works satisfactorily between 0.5 and 5 MHz. At f = 0.5 MHz, I is 2.5 mA as selected. At f = 5 MHz I = 30 mA. At f = 0.5 MHz, the microprocessor is slower than at f = 5 MHz, but this is of no importance in the present use of the microprocessor.
  • Finally, it is important that the safety device according to the invention has a mechanism arranged in the housing of the petroleum stove, by means of which, in the absence or incorrect insertion of the battery in the battery housing, the ignition device of the burner or the wick adjustment device are prevented from functioning.
  • The fuel level is checked continuously using a conventional circuit at the bottom of the fuel tank. If the level of the fuel is too low, e.g. An intermittent buzzer signal is generated for 3 minutes together with a floor flashing light. The fuel in this state at the bottom of the fuel tank is sufficient to keep the burner burning for approx. 30 minutes.
  • The method according to the invention and the safety device according to the invention for its implementation will now be explained with reference to the drawings. In these are:
    • 1 is a schematic sectional view of a petroleum oven equipped with the safety device,
    • 2 is a perspective view of the petroleum oven of FIG. 1,
    • 3 is a diagram showing the determination of the operating voltage U o of the O₂ sensor,
    • 4 is a diagram showing the relationship between the oxygen content of the indoor air over time and the CO-CO₂ concentration,
    • 5 is a block diagram showing the method for monitoring and maintaining the operation of the petroleum heater.
    • 6a and 6b are perspective views of two embodiments of a mechanism of the safety device according to the invention, by which, in the absence or incorrect insertion of the battery, an ignition of the burner or an adjustment of the wick adjustment device is prevented.
  • The petroleum oven 1 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 has a housing 2, in the center of which a burner 4 having a wick adjusting device 3 is arranged, which can be of one or two stages, and a partially perforated top, forming a combustion chamber 5 has open burner housing 6. Between the burner housing 6 and the left rear wall 7 in FIG. 1 of the housing 2 of the petroleum oven 1, a vertically downwardly extending heat reflection screen 8 is held, which has a passage opening 10 in the vicinity of the upper wall 9 of the housing 2 of the petroleum oven 1 a part of the exhaust gas flowing out of the burner housing 6 at the top (arrow A) of the burner 4 can emerge. On an attached to the bottom of the housing 2 vertical bracket 12 is designed as a galvanic cell O₂ sensor 13 is attached in the lower region of the housing 2 and coupled to a microprocessor of an electronic control circuit 14. Behind the heat reflection screen 8, in the upper left corner of the housing 2 in FIG. 1, a CO sensor 11 is mounted on a circuit board 15 for CO monitoring in such a way that the exhaust gas fraction flowing through the passage opening 10 of the heat reflection screen 9 strikes it. The circuit board 15 is connected to the electronic control circuit 14 of the safety device, which in turn is connected to a warning signal device, not shown, and to an automatic switch-off device 16 for the burner 4. A light sensor 19 assigned to the upper limit 17 of a predetermined 3 range of the heights of the flames 18 of the burner 4 is arranged behind the heat reflection screen 8 such that the flames 18 exceed the upper limit 17 of the predetermined range of the flame height detected. The light sensor 19 is connected to the electronic control circuit 14. If the light sensor 19 detects the flames 18 when the upper limit 17 of the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, it generates a measurement signal which is input to the electronic control circuit 14 and which generates an acoustic warning signal. The user of the petroleum stove 1 must now actuate the wick adjustment device 3 within 90 seconds and reset the height of the flames 18 of the burner 4 back to the predetermined range of the flame height in accordance with the normal heating state of the burner 4. If this reset does not take place within the stated 90 seconds, the switch-off device 16 is actuated via the electronic control circuit 14 and the burner 4 is switched off automatically.
  • If the petroleum oven 1 is switched on in a well-ventilated room, the voltage U sensor of the O₂ sensor 13 of the safety device increases over 90 minutes to approximately 2 mV due to the temperature influences. During the operation of the petroleum heater 1, the O₂ sensor 13 continuously detects the O₂ content of the air in the housing 2 and converts it continuously into a corresponding voltage signal. Due to the direct relationship between an O₂ decrease and a CO₂ increase, the voltage signal indicating the O₂ content is in each case a measure of the CO₂ content in the indoor air. The operating voltage U o of the O₂ sensor 13 is, as shown in Fig. 3, after switching on the burner 4 with the help of the microprocessor of the electronic control circuit 14 determined as the maximum voltage value before the sensor voltage U sensor drops due to poor ventilation of the interior. As shown in FIG. 3, the sensor voltage U sensor is recorded every 4 minutes and compared with the previous voltage value. In Fig. 3, U₄ is the maximum voltage value before the sensor voltage U sensor drops due to poor ventilation of the interior (see U₅ is smaller than U₄). Therefore: U₄ = U o . The alarm voltage U a of the O₂ sensor 13 thus results after determining the operating voltage to U a = U o - U a '. If the oxygen content detected by the O₂ sensor 13 corresponds to the voltage value of the alarm voltage U a , an alarm signal is generated. If the ventilation of the interior is not improved within 90 seconds, the O₂ content is further reduced and the petroleum oven is switched off by the action of an electromagnet forming the automatic switch-off device 16 at a voltage value U sensor supplied by the O₂ sensor 13, the smaller than the alarm voltage U a .
  • During the operation of the petroleum heater 1, the CO sensor 11 can also continuously detect the CO content in the exhaust gas (arrow A) of the burner 4 in the housing 2, the measured CO concentration continuously by means of the electronic circuit of the CO monitoring system electrical voltage can be converted. The CO concentration can also be used as a measure of the CO₂ concentration contained in the indoor air. 4, the percentage CO and CO₂ concentration in relation to the percentage oxygen content in the indoor air over the time of operation of the petroleum heater 1 is plotted. It can be seen that the direct relationship between the decrease in O₂ and the increase in CO₂ gives a corresponding relationship between the decrease in O₂ and a decrease in CO due to the dependence of the CO₂ and the increase in CO.
  • 5 illustrates the individual process steps for monitoring and safety-related compliance with the operation of the petroleum stove in an interior both in the normal heating state and outside the latter, the identifications of individual blocks, to which reference is made, illustrate the functional relationships of the individual procedural measures.
  • 6a and 6b show two embodiments of a mechanism of the safety device, from which, in the absence or incorrect insertion of the battery 20 in the battery housing 21, ignition of an ignition device of the burner 4 is prevented or an adjustment of the wick adjustment device 3 is blocked and thus ignition of the wick by a match is not possible.
  • The mechanism has a functional spring 22 which, when the battery is used correctly, ie when it is in contact with a sensor plate 23 in the battery housing 21, is in the compressed state, with a release wire 24, one end of which, according to FIG. 6a, with a release plate 25 fuse 26 which responds to vibrations (for example also to earthquakes) and the other end of which is connected to the sensor plate 23 is loose, so that the burner 4 can be ignited. If the battery 20 is removed from the battery housing 21 or if the latter is not in exact contact with the sensor plate 23, the latter is pressed forward by the compressed functional spring 22, as a result of which the trigger wire 24 is tensioned and the trigger plate 25 is moved, which causes the fuse 26 to function occurs and ignition is prevented or wick adjustment is blocked or burner 4 is switched off. In the embodiment according to FIG. 6b, the release plate 25 of the fuse 26 is replaced by a locking lever 27, to which one end of the trigger wire 24 is connected, which sets the locking lever 27 in motion when the function spring 22 moves, whereby the fuse 26 is triggered becomes.
  • Reference symbol list
    • 1 petroleum oven
    • 2 housings
    • 3 wick adjustment device
    • 4 burners
    • 5 combustion chamber
    • 6 burner housings
    • 7 Back wall of the casing of the petroleum stove
    • 8 heat reflection screen
    • 9 Top wall of the casing of the petroleum stove
    • 10 passage opening
    • 11 CO sensor
    • 12 bracket
    • 13 O₂ sensor
    • 14 control circuit
    • 15 circuit board
    • 16 switch-off device
    • 17 Upper limit of the predetermined range of flame height
    • 18 flames
    • 19 light sensor
    • 20 battery
    • 21 battery housing
    • 22 function spring
    • 23 sensor plate
    • 24 release wire
    • 25 release plate
    • 26 fuse
    • 27 locking lever

Claims (16)

1. A method for monitoring and maintaining the safety of the operation of fireplace-free stoves, in particular of petroleum stoves indoors, both in the normal heating state, in which the flame height generated by the burner is within a predetermined range, the exceeding of which is detected in a radiation-sensitive manner, and the operation outside the normal Heating state, with a corresponding control signal being generated and being entered into an electronic control circuit when the temperature exceeds or falls below the predetermined range, so that on the one hand the normal heating state can be restored and on the other hand during continued operation of the burner outside the predetermined range of flame height for a predetermined period of time also generates a warning signal and the burner is automatically switched off after a corresponding delay, characterized in that the proportion of O₂ in the exhaust gas of the burner within the petroleum oven Sensitively detected and used as a measure for monitoring the proportion of CO₂ contained in the exhaust gas of the burner and converted into a voltage signal which forms the control signal, the sensitive O₂ detection being program-controlled when the burner is operating outside the predetermined range of flame height, both to restore normal Heating state and for monitoring the operation at the lowest flame height is used and via the electronic control circuit, the generation of the warning signal and the delayed automatic switch-off of the burner each at a predetermined first or predetermined second, lower O₂ content in the exhaust gas of the burner take place, each corresponding to a predetermined proportion of CO₂ in the indoor air.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in addition the CO portion is used as a measure for monitoring the CO₂ portion contained in the exhaust gas of the burner, and that the warning signal is generated and the burner is automatically switched off when the O₂- respectively. CO content in the burner's exhaust gas has reached the value that corresponds to the maximum permissible content of 0.8% CO₂ in the indoor air.
3. The method according to claim 1 and 2, characterized in that the automatic switching off of the burner 90 sec. After triggering of the warning signal occurs indicating the insufficient O₂- or the too high CO / CO₂ level in the exhaust gas of the burner.
4. The method of claim 1 to 3, characterized in that the operating voltage of the burner U o for a predetermined time period is fixed, when the burner is turned off.
5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the operating voltage is fixed for 45 minutes when the burner has been switched off due to a too high CO₂ level in the indoor air.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the voltage of the O₂ sensor is detected cyclically and compared with the previous value of the sensor voltage.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that that the detection of the voltage of the O₂ sensor takes place every 4 minutes.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the electronic control circuit is battery-powered and the compliance with a predetermined value of the battery voltage U b is checked automatically, wherein if the value falls below the predetermined value of the battery voltage U b either prevents the burner and a the need for Alarm signal indicating battery replacement is generated or the alarm signal is generated for a predetermined period of time and the heating or heating process of the petroleum heater is switched off automatically.
9. The method according to claim 1 and 8, characterized in that the ignition of the burner is automatically prevented in the event of a fault in the circuit of the battery feed of the electronic control circuit.
10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the automatic prevention of ignition of the burner is carried out mechanically.
11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a check of the fuel level is carried out continuously via the electronic control circuit and an intermittent signal is automatically generated when the level falls below a predetermined level.
12. Safety device for performing the method according to claim 1 to 11, with a sensor device with a light sensor in the housing of the petroleum stove in association with the upper limit of a predetermined, the normal heating state of the petroleum furnace-determining area of the flame height is held, with a battery, an electronic control circuit connected to it, via which a wick actuation device of the burner, which can also be operated manually, can be adjusted in accordance with a measurement signal from the light sensor when the predetermined range of the flame height is exceeded, with a vibration protection device and one Warning device and a device for automatically switching off the burner, each of which is coupled to a time control device of the electronic control circuit and can be actuated at different times during operation of the burner above the predetermined range of the flame height, in each case beyond a predetermined time period, characterized in that the sensor device additionally has a has a microprocessor coupled O₂ sensor (11) which is held within the housing (2) of the petroleum stove (1) in the lower housing area and via the electronic control circuit (14) with the wick adjustment device (3), the warning device and the switch-off device (16) for the burner (4) is connected, with the warning device at a predetermined first and a predetermined second, lower O₂ concentration in the exhaust gas of the burner (4) or the automatic switch-off device (16) of the burner (4) is in operation.
13. The apparatus according to claim 12, characterized in that a CO sensor (11) on an electronic circuit board (15) is further provided, which on a holder in an upper corner of the housing (2) of the petroleum oven (1) behind a the screen (8) reflecting heat radiated by the burner (4) and having a passage opening (10) is arranged such that a through the passage opening (10) of the heat reflection screen (8), the minimal exhaust gas flow (A) hits the CO sensor (11).
14. The apparatus according to claim 12, characterized by a mechanism (22, 24) coupled to a fuse (26) which responds to vibrations, of which, in the absence or incorrect use of the battery in the battery housing (21), actuation of an ignition device of the burner (4) prevented or the wick adjustment device (3) can be blocked in its basic position in which the wick cannot be ignited by hand.
15. The apparatus according to claim 14, characterized in that the mechanism (22, 24) is a functional spring (22) which engages on a sensor plate (23) of the battery housing (21) and is compressed in the idle state of the mechanism (22, 24), and a trigger wire (24), one end of which is connected to the sensor plate (23) and the other end of which is connected to a trigger plate (25) of the fuse (26) and which is loose when the mechanism (22, 24) is at rest, and that at If the battery (20) is missing or is used incorrectly, the sensor plate (23) can be displaced by the function spring (22) of the mechanism (22, 24) put into operation under tension of the release wire (24) in the battery housing (21) and the release plate (25) Fuse (26) can be set in function.
16. The apparatus according to claim 15, characterized in that the trigger plate (25) of the fuse (26) is replaced by a pivotable locking lever (27).
EP90100344A 1989-10-26 1990-01-09 Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method Expired - Lifetime EP0424597B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/DE1989/000692 WO1991006808A1 (en) 1989-10-26 1989-10-26 Process for monitoring the operation of flueless heaters, especially paraffin heaters, and keeping it safe, and device for implementing the process
WOPCT/DE89/00692 1989-10-26

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0424597A1 true EP0424597A1 (en) 1991-05-02
EP0424597B1 EP0424597B1 (en) 1995-06-28

Family

ID=6835279

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP90100344A Expired - Lifetime EP0424597B1 (en) 1989-10-26 1990-01-09 Method for supervising and stopping the working of stoves in a safe manner, especially paraffin stoves and device for carrying out this method

Country Status (12)

Country Link
US (1) US5165883A (en)
EP (1) EP0424597B1 (en)
KR (1) KR0152092B1 (en)
AT (1) AT124526T (en)
DE (1) DE59009328D1 (en)
DK (1) DK170432B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2078248T3 (en)
FI (1) FI100678B (en)
GR (1) GR3017594T3 (en)
NO (1) NO174863C (en)
RU (1) RU2067728C1 (en)
WO (1) WO1991006808A1 (en)

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US5338185A (en) * 1993-10-04 1994-08-16 Southeastern Research Laboratories, Inc. Safety device for preventing uncontrolled flareup in wick-fed liquid fuel burners
US5456595A (en) * 1994-05-23 1995-10-10 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in barometric-type wick-fed liquid fuel burners
US5409370A (en) * 1994-09-30 1995-04-25 Henderson; Richard W. Liquid fuel burner safety device employing fuel tank shutoff
US5549470A (en) * 1994-12-29 1996-08-27 Henderson; Richard W. Anti-flareup device for liquid fuel burners
US5662468A (en) * 1995-08-14 1997-09-02 Henderson; Richard W. Device that prevents flareup in liquid fuel burners
US5551865A (en) * 1995-11-17 1996-09-03 Henderson; Richard W. Safety shut-off device for liquid fuel burners
US5752818A (en) * 1996-03-04 1998-05-19 Forster; James Andrew Carbon monoxide detection and automatic deactivation system
US5730115A (en) * 1996-07-19 1998-03-24 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by regulating fuel flow into the fuel chamber
US5772425A (en) * 1996-07-19 1998-06-30 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by containing sump vapors
US5899682A (en) * 1997-03-31 1999-05-04 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid fuel burners by regulating fuel flow from the removable fuel tank
FR2761756B1 (en) * 1997-04-04 1999-06-04 Dtn Fr Sa Safety device for a stove comprising a sensor measuring the thermal conductivity of gases
US5967765A (en) * 1997-08-19 1999-10-19 Henderson; Richard W. Device for preventing flareup in liquid-fuel burners by providing constant-rate fuel flow from removable fuel tank
US6026800A (en) * 1998-09-23 2000-02-22 Barker; Stanley Grant Portable heater and cooker system
US6254380B1 (en) 2000-05-30 2001-07-03 Richard W. Henderson Device for preventing flareup in barometric-type liquid fuel burners by preventing excessive temperature levels at removable fuel tank
GB2375646A (en) * 2001-05-16 2002-11-20 Monox Ltd Safety module for fuel-burning appliance, and appliance using such a safety module
US7104460B2 (en) * 2003-07-31 2006-09-12 Maxitrol Company Method and controller for determining carbon dioxide emissions from a recirculating air heater
US7112059B2 (en) * 2004-03-12 2006-09-26 Emerson Electric Co. Apparatus and method for shutting down fuel fired appliance
US6908300B1 (en) * 2004-03-12 2005-06-21 Emerson Electric Co Apparatus and method for shutting down a fuel fired appliance
JP2005345146A (en) * 2004-05-31 2005-12-15 Tdk Corp Measuring instrument of concentration of carbon dioxide, method for measuring concentration of carbon dioxide and combustion device
US7604478B2 (en) * 2005-03-21 2009-10-20 Honeywell International Inc. Vapor resistant fuel burning appliance
US7686011B1 (en) * 2006-09-15 2010-03-30 United States Stove Company Compact window heating unit utilizing pelletized fuel
RU2475859C2 (en) * 2008-06-13 2013-02-20 Сименс Акциенгезелльшафт Determining signalling time of alarm device
US8756857B2 (en) 2011-01-14 2014-06-24 Technologies Holdings Corp. Hydronic heating system and method for pest control
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US8479439B2 (en) * 2011-04-06 2013-07-09 Technologies Holding Corp. Self-contained heating unit for thermal pest control

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US5165883A (en) 1992-11-24
NO911865L (en) 1991-05-16
WO1991006808A1 (en) 1991-05-16
EP0424597B1 (en) 1995-06-28
FI100678B (en) 1998-01-30
KR0152092B1 (en) 1998-10-01
FI913027D0 (en)
ES2078248T3 (en) 1995-12-16
DE59009328D1 (en) 1995-08-03
DK90791A (en) 1991-05-16
NO174863C (en) 1994-07-20
FI100678B1 (en)
KR920702885A (en) 1992-10-28
NO174863B (en) 1994-04-11
RU2067728C1 (en) 1996-10-10
AT124526T (en) 1995-07-15
DK90791D0 (en) 1991-05-14
NO911865D0 (en) 1991-05-14
GR3017594T3 (en) 1995-12-31
FI913027A0 (en) 1991-06-20
DK170432B1 (en) 1995-08-28

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