EP0389579B1 - Noninvasive continuous monitor of arterial blood pressure waveform - Google Patents

Noninvasive continuous monitor of arterial blood pressure waveform Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0389579B1
EP0389579B1 EP89908315A EP89908315A EP0389579B1 EP 0389579 B1 EP0389579 B1 EP 0389579B1 EP 89908315 A EP89908315 A EP 89908315A EP 89908315 A EP89908315 A EP 89908315A EP 0389579 B1 EP0389579 B1 EP 0389579B1
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Prior art keywords
blood pressure
signal
systolic
waveform signal
continuous
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0389579A1 (en
EP0389579A4 (en
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Ljubomir Djordjevich
Anthony D. Ivankovich
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DJORDJEVICH, Ljubomir
IVANKOVICH, Anthony D.
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Priority to US07/213,358 priority Critical patent/US4873987A/en
Priority to US213358 priority
Application filed by DJORDJEVICH, Ljubomir, IVANKOVICH, Anthony D. filed Critical DJORDJEVICH, Ljubomir
Priority to PCT/US1989/002871 priority patent/WO1990000029A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/7235Details of waveform analysis
    • A61B5/7253Details of waveform analysis characterised by using transforms
    • A61B5/7257Details of waveform analysis characterised by using transforms using Fourier transforms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/021Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
    • A61B5/022Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels by applying pressure to close blood vessels, e.g. against the skin; Ophthalmodynamometers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/053Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body
    • A61B5/0535Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body impedance plethysmography
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/02Operational features
    • A61B2560/0223Operational features of calibration, e.g. protocols for calibrating sensors

Abstract

A method, and a device utilizing that method, for continuously, noninvasively measuring a patient's blood pressure. Discrete values of systolic (PS) and diastolic (PD) blood pressure are noninvasively determined and input to a microprocessor. A continuous non-pressure waveform signal (C-waveform) is generated through noninvasive monitoring of the patient and is also input to the microprocessor. The microprocessor calibrates the continuous non-pressure waveform signal (C-waveform) using the discrete blood pressure values (PS and PD), thereby generating a continuous waveform signal of blood pressure (P-waveform).

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • A noninvasive method for continuously determining blood pressure.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • It is well known that arterial blood pressure varies quasi-periodically between systolic (highest) and diastolic (lowest) pressure as a consequence of pumping action of the heart. Blood vessels are elastic ducts, made of viscoelastic materials, which expand and contract in unison with the arterial blood pressure. Arterial walls move radially and arterial lumen increases in volume as the heart pumps and decreases in volume between beats. The lumen of the arteries is filled with blood, so that the volume of blood within a section of the body (such as chest or a limb) also varies in unison with the arterial blood pressure.
  • The expansion and contraction of arterial walls may be detected in many ways: by ultrasound, by x-rays, by electromagnetic imaging, by mechanical devices, by impedance plethysmography and by colorimetry.
  • Physicians have long sought a safe, noninvasive method for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in critical care patients because ABP is the major vital sign indicator. They are currently doing this invasively by sticking probes (needles or catheters) into large arteries. The probes are connected to pressure transducers which transform the detected pressures into images of the waveform, or into a set of numbers indicating the blood pressure variation. The procedure is painful to the patient, cumbersome for medical personnel, and potentially unsafe. It may cause hematoma, damage to the artery, blood clotting and infection.
  • Any device, capable of providing the same useful service but noninvasively without puncturing, physically penetrating or otherwise harming the patient would be vastly preferable.
  • There is currently on the market a device called Finapress (manufactured by Ohmeda) which successfully accomplishes the task. A cuff is linked to a control system which contains two essential elements: a color detector and a fast responding pressure-regulating device. The operating principle is to balance the transmural (arterial blood) pressure at all times and restrict the movement of the arterial walls to a minimum. The control loop begins with the very sensitive color detector which detects minute changes of color of the tissues under the cuff, caused by the tendency of the blood to accumulate or decumulate during the blood pressure variation. The detected change provides a command signal to the pressure regulating device to pneumatically adjust the pressure in the cuff, to counteract the transmural arterial pressure variation. This counteracting pressure, which is very similar to the arterial pressure, is then displayed continuously, in real time, as the monitored arterial blood pressure waveform.
  • The device is complicated and has a very serious limitation: it can operate only on a fingertip, because its mechanics requires a small amount of transparent soft tissue backed by solid bone structure. Unfortunately, the blood flow through the tip of a finger is first to be shut off by the circulating system when a patient approaches shock conditions. Hence, Finapress becomes useless when needed the most. Therefore, a more suitable device, capable of working under all conditions, including shock conditions, would be a substantial improvement in accomplishing the task of reliably, noninvasively and continuously monitoring blood pressure.
  • U.S. Patent 3,920,004 describes a noninvasive blood pressure sensor utilizing blood flow volume measurements. U.S. Patent 3,996,924 measures venous patency of a human limb by measuring the venous outflow within a defined time interval after release of a forced blockage utilizing electrical impedance measurements. U.S. Patents 3,996,925, 4,437,469 and 4,562,843 describe systems for determining characteristics of blood flow. U.S. Patent 4,669,485 describes a device utilizing two pressure cuffs to generate a substantially continuous blood pressure signal.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • New techniques and apparatus are described for continuously monitoring arterial blood pressure. The method requires the production of a continuous trace of the pressure wave with high fidelity and the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean blood prssure. The method is based upon the observation that there is proportionality between the arterial blood pressure and electrical conductance in a section of the human body. The movement of the viscoelastic walls of arteries expanding and contracting as the heart beats results in a change in the volume of blood in the lumen of the arteries. Since the electrical conductivity of the blood volume is 10 to 1,000 times greater than that in other tissues of the body, the conductance measurements are specific for detecting the conductance principally of the blood. Therefore, there is a proportional change in conductance as the volume of blood in the artery changes and this change in conductance is proportional to the increase in blood pressure. During systole there is an increase in electrical conductance because of the increased pressure and, therefore, expansion of the arteries. During diastole, the opposite takes place as the volume decreases and the conductance of the blood decreases.
  • The method of the present invention comprises the continuous measurement, recording and processing of conductance in a portion of an artery which continues to experience arterial blood pressure under normal and shock conditions. The conductance value may be plotted as a blood pressure waveform (P-wave), the conductance (C-wave) or the electrical resistance (Z-wave). Any noninvasive blood pressure measuring procedure (for example, a pressure cuff) may be used to determine the systolic (PS or PS), diastolic (PD or PD) and the mean (PM or PM) pressure. A microprocessor connected thereto automatically records the values for the systolic, diastolic, mean pressure and heart rate. Electrodes for detecting electrical resistance are attached to the patient's body adjacent the artery. The electrical resistance measurements and the discrete blood pressure measurements are transferred to and recorded by the microprocessor. The direct measurement of the blood pressure values are used to calibrate the electrical conductance signals such as to allow the determination of the blood pressure values in a continuous manner.
  • The resulting blood pressure waveform obtained in this manner is very similar to that obtained from a transducer inserted into an arterial line.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
    • Figure 1 illustrates the profile of the Z-wave, C-wave and P-wave steps resulting from resistance to the arterial pressure wave-form;
    • Figure 2 illustrates the P-wave measuring arterial blood pressure increases from D (diastolic) to S (systolic) for succeeding beats of the heart illustrated by the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc;
    • Figure 3 indicates the cross-sectional area (A) of arteries;
    • Figure 4 illustrates the conductance of a section of the body during the cardiac cycle;
    • Figure 5a illustrates the conductance (or impedance) as a function of reduced pressure in a cuff (shown in Figure 5b) wherein line F illustrates the cuff in a fully inflated position; line G illustrates when the pressure of the cuff equals the systolic arterial pressure; line H illustrates when the cuff pressure becomes less and the amplitude C becomes maximum; and line J illustrates the diastolic pressure (PD);
    • Figure 6 is the power spectrum at high pressure when the artery becomes richer in high frequency components;
    • Figure 7 illustrates the power spectrum at low pressure wherein the larger amplitudes are at lower frequencies; and
    • Figure 8 illustrates the power spectrum for the plain noise background.
    DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS
  • A new technique for continuously monitoring a patient's arterial blood pressure waveform is described and explained herein. The technique is capable of producing a continuous trace of a pressure wave with high fidelity, as well as a measurement of systolic diastolic and mean pressure. The present invention is based upon the principle that there is proportionality between the arterial blood pressure and electrical conductance in a section of the human body. More specifically, the viscoelastic walls of arteries expand and contract in unison with the quasi-periodic variations of blood pressure. This, in turn, results in corresponding accumulations and decumulations of blood in lumen of arteries. Because the electrical conductivity of blood is 10 to 1,000 times greater than that of other tissues in the body, the technique preferentially measures the conductance of the blood. Therefore, the blood accumulation in arteries during systole produces an increase of electrical conductance proportional to the increase of blood pressure. During diastole, the opposite takes place. This is demonstrated in Figure 1. The blood pressure variation (P-wave) is the top trace, the conductance (C-wave) is the middle trace and the bottom trace is the electrical resistance (Z-wave), which is the inverse of the conductance.
  • The method of producing the P-wave from the C-wave requires calibration by means of independently measured systolic, diastolic and mean pressure. In one embodiment, the experimental setup consists of an 80283 microprocessor (CPU) interfaced with an analog/digital (A/D) converter to an IFM (model 400) resistance meter and a noninvasive blood pressure measuring device to measure systolic (PS), diastolic (PD) and mean (PM) pressure. One type of device for such a measurement is a pressure cuff placed on the patient's arm.
  • The placement of electrodes for the detection of conductance (or resistance) on the upper arm or chest enables the blood pressure monitoring device to function under shock conditions. Under shock conditions, peripheral regions, such as fingers, lose a reliable supply of blood. Therefore, such regions are not suitable for the measurement of blood pressure under shock conditions.
  • The apparatus of the present invention, once calibrated, discloses the P-wave display continuously. However, it may be reset at any time by recalibration whenever there is a possibility of significant change due to vasodilation or constriction. The method of the present invention allows the continuous noninvasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure where other noninvasive monitoring techniques may fail due to an insufficient or intermittent supply of blood, such as under shock conditions.
  • Calibration of the continuous conductance measurements requires harmonic analysis wherein a spectrum of frequencies is utilized and changes in the power spectrum of the harmonic frequencies indicate the discrete blood pressure values.
  • PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION.
  • When during systole arterial blood pressure (ABP) increases from a minimum value D to a maximum value S (see Figure 2), the cross-sectional area (A) of the arteries also increases (see Figure 3) in proportion to the ABP. According to Ohm's law, C = A ρL
    Figure imgb0001
    the conductance (C) of a particular material is inversely proportional to the resistivity (ρ) of the material and the distance (L) between the measuring electrodes. Every conductor is also a resistor, with the resistance being directly proportional to the length and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. Since the length between measuring electrodes is constant, as is the resistivity, the conductance is proportional to the cross-sectional area only, in this case principally that of the blood volume in the artery.
  • Blood plasma is an electrolyte with resistivity 10 to 100 times smaller than the resistivity of soft tissues and 1000 times smaller than the resistivity of bones. Therefore, the conductance of a section of the body changes strongly during the cardiac cycle, as seen in Figure 4, in direct proportion with the variation of A and P, as illustrated by dramatic similarity of waveforms in Figures 2, 3 and 4.
  • It is a well known fact that when elastic materials are exposed to tension, they tend to vibrate with frequencies proportional to the magnitude of the stress. For example, the higher tension in a violin string produces a tone of higher pitch.
  • This principle is used to determine the occurrence of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure.
  • The preferred technique to use here is known as harmonic analysis. This analysis decomposes a waveform (in this case an electrical conductance signal) into a set of sine and cosine waves (spectrum) with frequencies which are integer multiples of the basic frequency f₁, which is, in this case, the reciprocal of the duration of the cardiac cycle T. f 1 = 1 T [sec -1 ]
    Figure imgb0002
       The first higher frequency ("first harmonic") is f 2 = 2f 1
    Figure imgb0003
    , then f 3 = 3f 1
    Figure imgb0004
    , ... f 4 = 4f 1
    Figure imgb0005
    , ... etc. The nth component will have the form: Cn = A n COS (nf 1 + X n ) + B n SIN (nf 1 + Y n )
    Figure imgb0006
    where An and Bn are amplitudes and Xn and Yn are the phase differences.
  • As the blood pressure increases in the artery, the spectrum becomes richer in the high frequency components. The set of squares of all amplitudes (A 2 n
    Figure imgb0007
    , B 2 n
    Figure imgb0008
    ) is known as the power spectrum. Thus, the power spectrum at high pressure (Figure 6) has larger amplitudes of high frequency components (n is large), than the power spectrum at low pressure (see Figure 7).
  • This pattern is used to determine systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. The system consists of the electrical conductance (or impedance) monitor, a microprocessor and an inflatable cuff.
  • The preferred technique is to continuously monitor the electrical conductance (or impedance) in a section of the patients limb. Here, the measuring electrodes (either bipolar or tetrapolar) are attached either to the wall of the pressure cuff interfacing the skin of the patient, or distally from the cuff on the same limb. The electrodes are connected to the air pump or a pressurized air reservoir.
  • In the beginning of measurement the cuff pressure is rapidly raised until the conductance (impedance) trace becomes essentially flat, as line F in Figure 5a. Subsequently, the cuff is deflated so that the pressure in the cuff decreases steadily at a slow rate. When the pressure in the cuff equals the systolic arterial pressure, tiny blips on the conductance (or impedance) signal trace appears as in Figure 5a, line G. As the cuff pressure decreases, the amplitudes of the C (or Z) signal become bigger and bigger, as in Figure 5a, line H. As the cuff pressure decreases even further, at one point the peak of the C waves (or bottom of the Z wave) will appear as fully developed, as in line J in Figure 5a. During this procedure the waveform is continuously analyzed by the microprocessor by fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis to continuously determine the power spectrum of the signal. When the cuff pressure equals PS, the spectrum suddenly changes from the one resembling Figure 8 (plain noise) to the one resembling Figure 6. When the microprocessor detects this change, it tags the corresponding cuff pressure as PS. As the cuff pressure decreases, as in Figure 5b, the power spectrum will progressively resemble Figure 7 more than Figure 6. When the change of the pattern of the power spectrum essentially stops, the corresponding cuff pressure is tagged as PD. Hence, the device is used to determine the systolic and the diastolic pressure as a discrete noninvasive device.
  • To achieve a continuous monitoring mode, PS and PD as determined above are used in the microprocessor to calibrate the conductance waveform, as described below.
  • The electrical conductance is continuously monitored using an electrode device (such as an IFM 400) in a limb or the chest of a patient where blood flow continues, even during shock. Therefore, the electrode device continuously produces a waveform as in Figure 4, and provides that waveform to a microprocessor. The microprocessor uses this information to calculate and store average values of the conductance at systole and diastole (CS and CD, respectively) and, if desired, a mean conductance CM.
  • To obtain a corresponding pressure waveform, the C-waveform must be calibrated with simultaneously-determined values of PS and PD (determined as described above). The values of PS and PD are used to calibrate the C-waveform with ABP. The calibration is linear and the resulting P-waveform is linearly similar to the C-waveform.
  • Once the correlation (calibration) between the C-waveform and systolic and diastolic ABP is established, monitoring of the P-waveform proceeds indefinitely by monitoring only the C-waveform using the electrode device. The continuous conductance measurements are provided to the microprocessor, which interpolates the stored conductance data (CS, CD) and the corresponding ABP data (PS, PD) to generate a continuous P-waveform.
  • The mean pressure of the individual cardiac cycle, PM, is obtained by integrating (in the microprocessor) the calibrated P-wave signal P(t) and dividing with the duration of the cardiac cycle, i.e.,
    Figure imgb0009

       The mean pressure over several cardiac cycles is obtained by integrating over long period of time, T:
    Figure imgb0010

Claims (13)

  1. A method of continuously, noninvasively measuring blood pressure, said method comprising the steps of: noninvasively determining at least discrete systolic and diastolic blood pressure values; simultaneously, noninvasively monitoring the patient with a waveform signal means to generate a sample continuous waveform signal; inputting said discrete systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and said sample continuous waveform signal to a microprocessor; calculating at least systolic and diastolic points for said sample continuous waveform signal; calibrating said systolic and diastolic points with said systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, respectively, and storing said calibrated information; continuously, non-invasively monitoring said patient with said waveform signal means to generate a continuous waveform signal; using said calibrated information to transform said continuous waveform signal into a continuous blood pressure waveform; characterised in that the waveform signal means measures electrical conductance and generates an electrical conductance signal whereby the sample continuous waveform signal is a sample electrical conductance signal and the continuous waveform signal is an electrical conductance signal, and in that said noninvasive discrete determination of at least systolic and diastolic blood pressure values is made by said microprocessor analyzing the power spectrum of the sample continuous electrical conductance signal.
  2. The method of claim 1 wherein said noninvasive discrete determination of at least systolic and diastolic blood pressure values is made using a pressure cuff.
  3. The method of claim 1 wherein the electrical conductance signals are obtained from one of the following: an impedance wave or a conductance wave.
  4. The method of claim 1 further comprising the step of determining the pulse rate by counting waves in said continuous electrical conductance signal.
  5. The method of claim 1 wherein said noninvasive discrete determination of at least systolic and diastolic blood pressure values is made by gradually deflating a pressure cuff and simultaneously detecting changes in the sample electrical conductance signal.
  6. The method of claim 1 wherein the power spectrum is analyzed using a fast Fourier transform technique.
  7. A device for continuously, noninvasively measuring blood pressure, said device comprising: a pressure signal means for noninvasively determining at least discrete systolic and diastolic blood pressure values for a patient; a waveform signal means for noninvasively monitoring said patient to generate a sample continuous waveform signal and a continuous waveform signal; and microprocessing means for receiving at least said discrete systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and said sample continuous waveform signal as inputs, said sample continuous waveform signal being calibrated using at least said discrete systolic and diastolic blood pressure values to generate a continuous blood pressure waveform signal; characterised in that the waveform signal means measures electrical conductance and generates the continuous waveform signals as electrical conductance signals, and in that said microprocessor means is adapted to analyze the power spectrum of the sample continuous electrical conductance signal to make said noninvasive determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values.
  8. The device of claim 7 wherein said pressure signal means comprises a pressure cuff.
  9. The device of claim 7 wherein the electrical conductance signals are obtained from one of the following: a conductance wave or an impedance wave.
  10. The device of claim 7 wherein said pressure signal means comprises at least a portion of the microprocessing means which analyzes the power spectrum of the sample conductance electrical signal.
  11. The device of claim 7 wherein said pressure signal means comprises a pressure cuff and at least a portion of the microprocessing means which detects changes in the sample electrical conductance signal as the pressure cuff is gradually deflated.
  12. The device of claim 7 further including means for determining pulse rate by counting waves in the continuous electrical conductance signal.
  13. The device of claim 7 wherein the microprocessing means analyzes the power spectrum using a fast Fourier transform technique.
EP89908315A 1988-06-30 1989-06-28 Noninvasive continuous monitor of arterial blood pressure waveform Expired - Lifetime EP0389579B1 (en)

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US07/213,358 US4873987A (en) 1988-06-30 1988-06-30 Noninvasive continuous monitor of arterial blood pressure waveform
US213358 1988-06-30
PCT/US1989/002871 WO1990000029A1 (en) 1988-06-30 1989-06-28 Noninvasive continuous monitor of arterial blood pressure waveform

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EP0389579A4 EP0389579A4 (en) 1990-10-24
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CA (1) CA1333096C (en)
DE (1) DE68926233D1 (en)
WO (1) WO1990000029A1 (en)

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CA1333096C (en) 1994-11-15
US4873987A (en) 1989-10-17
DE68926233D1 (en) 1996-05-15
JPH03502059A (en) 1991-05-16
EP0389579A4 (en) 1990-10-24
EP0389579A1 (en) 1990-10-03
AT136444T (en) 1996-04-15
WO1990000029A1 (en) 1990-01-11

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