EP0157821A4 - Conductive electrode arrays and arrays of resistive elements for use in touch panels and for producing electric fields. - Google Patents

Conductive electrode arrays and arrays of resistive elements for use in touch panels and for producing electric fields.

Info

Publication number
EP0157821A4
EP0157821A4 EP19840903512 EP84903512A EP0157821A4 EP 0157821 A4 EP0157821 A4 EP 0157821A4 EP 19840903512 EP19840903512 EP 19840903512 EP 84903512 A EP84903512 A EP 84903512A EP 0157821 A4 EP0157821 A4 EP 0157821A4
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
elements
resistance
finger
array
invention defined
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP19840903512
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0157821A1 (en
Inventor
William Pepper Jr
Robert A Moog
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
PEPTEK Inc
Original Assignee
PEPTEK Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US53130983A priority Critical
Priority to US531309 priority
Application filed by PEPTEK Inc filed Critical PEPTEK Inc
Publication of EP0157821A1 publication Critical patent/EP0157821A1/en
Publication of EP0157821A4 publication Critical patent/EP0157821A4/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/045Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means using resistive elements, e.g. single continuous surface or two parallel surfaces put in contact

Abstract

Selected touch point locating apparatus has an array of two or more electrical touch members (6, 7) constituted by conductive electrodes or impedance elements coupled to a circuit for causing electric current to flow through a selected touch point as the algebraic sum of separate currents through the electrical touch members. The relative amplitudes are translated into at least two signals correspondng to the location in two axes of the selected touch point.

Description

CONDUCTIVE ELECTRODE ARRAYS AND ARRAYS OF RESISTIVE ELEMENTS FOR USE IN TOUCH PANELS AND FOR PRODUCING

This invention relates to devices for providing information, in the form of electrical signals, about the position of a source or sink of electric current relative to two or more current-carrying electrodes. In particular, it relates to devices for converting selected touch points or positions on a surface (re¬ flecting hand motions) into electric signals to provide an interface between man and machine. It also relates to systems for producing electric fields with pre¬ determined characteristics.

This invention is an improvement on U.S. Patent No. 4,293,734, titled "TOUCH PANEL SYSTEM AND METHOD", and issued to William Pepper, Jr. on October 6, 1981; U.S. Patent No. 4,198,593, titled "SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING ELECTRIC FIELD WITH PREDETERMINED CHARACTERISTICS AND EDGE TERMINATIONS FOR RESISTANCE PLANES THEREFOR", and issued to William Pepper, Jr. on April 15, 1980; and U.S. Patent No. 4,371,746, titled "EDGE TERMINATIONS FOR IMPEDANCE PLANES", and issued to William Pepper, Jr. on February 1, 1983.

The present invention, in one form, sub¬ stitutes plain conductive elements for the resistance element or impedance layer described in said Patent No. 4,293,734, thus permitting simpler and less expensive touch panels. In another form, it makes said Touch Panel System and Method practical for two-dimensional appli¬ cations where the size of the touch panel is very small in one dimension relative to the other. It further provides a means for making a touch panel with good linearity in two dimensions using resistive material with good uniformity in only one dimension. The present invention is thus an improvement in the art of human- machine interfacing.

This invention is also an improvement on William Pepper, Jr.'s pending patent application Serial No. 068/802 titled "HAND-HELD MUSICAL INSTRUMENT AND SYSTEMS INCLUDING A MEN-MACHINE INTERFACE APPARATUS", filed August 22, 1979. It adds a second dimension of control to the pitch-determining elememts of that patent appli¬ cation and thus is an improvement in electronic musical instruments.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In said U.S. Patent 4,293,734, which is hereby incorporated by reference, a resistance element or impedance layer is required as part of the apparatus for producing an output signal or signals corresponding to the position of the finger in one or more axes. This resistance element or impedance layer divides the electric current flowing through the user's finger into components that are inversely proportional to the distances of the boundaries of said resistance element or impedance layer from the selected touch point. It has been discovered that a small touch panel can be made using four closely spaced conductive electrodes connected to the same circuitry used in said Patent No. 4,293,734. When the user's finger is placed over this group of electrodes, the current flowing through each quadrant electrode is proportional to the portion of the fingertip placed over that electrode. By rolling the finger from side to side and top to bottom, the X-axis and Y-axis outputs can be varied continuously over their entire range. A hybrid device can also be made using two or more resistive elements that are connected so that varying the portions of the fingertip placed over the several resistive element causes the output for one axis to change, while the output for the other axis changes as a function of finger position along the length of said resistive elements. This com¬ bination has a number of practical advantages over either of the methods alone. For instance, in said patent ap- plication serial No. 068,802, resistive elements are used a one-dimensional touch panels to control the pitch of musical notes. It would be desireable to increase the expressiveness of this musical instrument by making said resistive elements sensitive to rolling of the finger from side to side (transverse to the pitch- determining axis) and using this second dimension of control to modify the amplitude, or some other characteristic of the musical note, as desired by the player. Means for adding a second dimension of control (and also a third pressure-sensitive dimension) are described in afore-mentioned Pepper Patent No. 4,293,734. However, techniques of making resistive surfaces for two-dimensional touch panels, such as those described in U.S. Patent 4,198,539, are difficult to apply to a resistive surface of such small width.

The present invention achieves the desired effect by placing two electrical touch members, such as two linear resistive elements, less than a finger-width apart so they can be spanned by a finger. The four ends of these two resistive elements are connected to the same circuitry described in Pepper Patent No. 4,293,734. Although there is no electrical connection between these two resistive elements, it can be shown that they perform the same function as the linearized resistive surface in Pepper Patent No. 4,293,734.

The hybrid invention as described above can be ex¬ tended to arrays of more than two resistive elements. This is useful because, while resistive material can be fabricated by a continuous web process to have excellent uniformity parallel to the length of the web, it is difficult to maintain comparable uniformity of resistivity across the web. If the linearized resistive surface in U.S. Patent 4,293,734 is replaced with a multiplicity of parallel resistive elements whose ends are interconnected with an appropriate resistor network, the linearity of -_—

the touch panel perpendicular to the length of the resis¬ tive elements will be determined by the resistor net¬ work, while the linearity parallel to the elements will be determined primarily by the uniformity within each element.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other objectives, advantages and features of the invention will be fully understood from the following detailed description and accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a two-axis touch panel incorporating the invention.

Fig. 2 is a reproduction of Fig. 3 in Pepper Patent Application Serial No. 068,802, Fig. 3 shows Fig. 2 modified to incorporate the pre¬ sent invention,

Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the two resistive ele¬ ments of Fig. 3 and the associated circuitry,

Fig. 5 illustrates an array of resistive elements whose ends are interconnected with the resistor networks.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In Fig. 1 the block diagram corresponds to Fig. 4 of U.S. Patent 4, 293,734, to which an array of four conductive quadrant electrodes has been added, replacing the linearized resistive surface shown in Patent 4,293,734 It will be assumed in the following discussion that the quadrant electrodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 are covered by an insulating film (indicated at 5) so that there is no ohmic contact with the user's finger, although an insu- lating film is not necessary. When the user's finger, (not shown) is placed over the center of the array, so that the capacitances between the finger and each of the quadrant electrodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 are equal, equal currents will flow through all four connections A, B, C, and D, and both X-axis and Y-axis outputs will be in the middle of their range. Rolling the finger upwards will increase the currents in quadrant electrodes 1 and 2 and connections A and B while decreasing the currents in quadrant electrodes 3 and 4 and connections C and D. This will cause an increase in the Y-axis output but will not change the X-axis output. It can thus be seen that both outputs will vary continuously as the finger is rolled over the quadrant electrode array.

When the quadrant electrical surface is touched by the user, small currents flow through the four termina¬ tions A, B, C and D. Voltages proportional to these currents are developed across the feedback resistors 111, 112, 113, and 114 of the four input amplifiers 116, 117, 118, and 119, respectively, as the amplifiers follow the output of oscillator 120. The amplifier outputs are applied to four high-pass filters 121, 122, 123, and 124 respectively. These filters are not essential to system operation, but were added to eliminate the 60-Hz signals that may be picked up by the user's body from power wiring. Filters 121-124 attenuate 60-Hz signals while passing the oscillator 120 frequency which is typically 20kHz. However, the 60-Hz (or any radiant ambient environment energy field) may also be used as a source of position signal energy for the touch panel surface. Subtraction of the oscillator signal component from the filter outputs is accomplished by first shifting the phase of the oscillator signal approximately 180° in phase shifter 126 and then adding the phase-shifted sig¬ nal to the filter outputs in adder circuits 127, 128, 129, and 130, respectively. The resulting signals are rectifie in rectifiers 131, 132, 133 and 134, respectively, to provide d-c levels proportional to the amplitudes of the a-c signals. The levels corresponding to the right hand two terminations A and B of the resistive surface 110 are summed by the Y-axis summer 136, the levels corresponding to the right-hand two terminations B and C are summed by the X-axis summer 137, and all four levels , B, C, and D are summed by the all channel summer 138 to provide a denominator input for the two dividers 139 and 140. These dividers 139 and 140 then operate on the X-axis and Y-axis sums to perform the divisions of equation 10 above, and the output amplifiers 141 and 142 with adjus¬ table offset 143 and 144 and gain provide the desired X-axis and Y-axis outputs described herewith. A level detector 145 monitors the all channel summer 138 output and switches state when the users finger touches the linearized resistive surface 110.

As noted above, it is not necessary for the users finger to make oh ic contact with the linearized resis¬ tive surface; a thin insulating layer may be deposited over the resistance material for protection, and capa- citive coupling through the insulating layer will still provide adequate current for system operation.

Fig. 2 is a reproduction of Fig. 3 in Pepper Patent Application Serial No. 068,802, showing resistive element 13 confined between ridges 40 and 41. Notches 42-1,

42-2, and 43-1, 43-2 provide tactile information to the user, musician or player to enable him to place his fin¬ ger on resistive element 13 at precise note intervals. Fig. 3 illustrates the improvement of the present invention as it applies to the invention of Pepper Patent Application Serial No. 068,802. Two resistive elements 6 and 7 are placed less than a finger-width apart in ridges 8, 9, and 10 so the player can roll a finger from one to the other. This side-to-side control dimension will be called the X-axis. Notches 8-1, 8-1 9-1,9-2...and 10-1,

10-2... provide tactile information to musician.

Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the two resistive ele¬ ments of Fig. 3 and their associated circuitry, which corresponds to Fig. 4 of U.S. Patent 4,293,734. The oper¬ ation is the same as given above in connection with Fig. 1. When the player touches the left resistive element of Fig. 3, current flows only through connections A and D in Fig. 4. The Y-axis output is proportional to the location of the player's finger along the length of the left resistive element. The X-axis output is at one extreme of its range.

If the musician or player now rolls his finger from the left resistive element 6 toward the right resistive element 7, the Y-axis output will remain proportional to the location of the finger along the length of the resis¬ tive elements. As current begins to flow through theright resistive element 6, the X-axis output will change so as to be proportional to the total currents in each of the two resistive elements 6 and 7, respectively. When cur- rent no longer flows through the left resistive element 6, the X-axis output will be at the opposite extreme of its range. Thus the player can independently control the two outputs by two different finger motions.

It can be shown as follows that the operation of the electronic circuitry with the two resistive elements is essentially equivalent to its Operation with a linearized resistive surface as described in Pepper Patent No. 4,293, 734. The pair of equations identified as (10) in patent 4,293,734 can be shown to apply to the present invention also: i(B) + i(C) x = k(l) + k(2) (1) i(A) + i(B) + i(C) + i(D) i(A) + i(B) y = k(l) + k(2) (2) i(A) + i(B) + i(C) + i(D)

When the player's finger is only touching the left res¬ istive element 6, the currents i(B) and i (C) are zero and the equations become:

OMPI x = k (l) + k ( 2 ) (3 ) i (A) + i (D) i (A) y = k (l) + k {2 ) ( 4 ) i (A) + i (D)

The ratio of currents is seen to be zero in the -X-axis equation, while the Y-axis current ratio follows the one- dimensional relationship given by equation 7 of Pepper Patent No. 4,293,734.

When the player's finger is equally on both resistive elements 6 and 7, i (A) = i(B) and i (C) = i (D) by symmetry. The equations can now be written: i(A) + i(D) x = k(l) + k(2) (5)

2i(A) + 2i(D)

2i(A) y = k(l) + k(2) (6)

2i(A) + 2i(D)

The X-axis current ratio is seen to be 1/2, and the Y-axis current ratio is the same as before. When the player's finger is touching only the right resistive element 7, currents i (A) and i(D) are zero and the equations become: i(B) + i(C) x -= k(l) + k(2) (7) i(B) + i(C) i(B) y = k(l) + k(2) (8) i(B) + i(C)

The X-axis current ratio is now one. If the finger has not changed location along the length of the resistive elements, the Y-axis current ratio is also unchanged because of the symmetry of the two resistive elements.

O For finger positions in between those alreaαy dis¬ cussed, the X-axis current ratio is proportional to the ratio of the capacitances between the resistance elements and the finger. The Y-axis relationship is independent of X-axis position.

The same technique can be used in other musical and non-musical applications where the control surface is narrow. For example,- the keys of a synthesizer keyboard can be equipped with individual touch panels, allowing the player to independently modify two characteristics of the notes being played by changing the position of his fingers on the keys. The black keys, being narrow, can most conveniently be fitted with two resistive elements. Fig. 5 illustrates a resistive touch panel surface with a multiplicity or plurality of parallel resistive elements Ei, E , EJ, E4, E5, E6, and E7, whose ends are interconnected with two resistor networks, AD and BC, respectively.

Resistor networks AD and BC are identical, each including a chain or equal value resistors R with the in¬ termediate points IAD and IBC being directly connected to the ends of element E4 and the elements to each side thereof being connected through a resistor value propor¬ tioned parabolicaily as indicated. Elements can conveniently be created by starting with a web of polyester film with a resistive coating, and scribing or etching cuts through the resistive coating 1/8-inch apart and parallel to the length of the web. This array can be substituted for the two resistive elements in the block diagram of Fig. 4. Of course, the resistive array can be formed in a transparent glass plate as an indium tin oxide layer and etched to iorm the resistive lines. Moreover, the resistive lines can be made of fine resis¬ tance wires such as nichrome wires embedded in a resin matrix or held in array by a resin matrix.

OM WIP This array can also be used to produce a substan¬ tially uniform electric field of any desired orientation in the manner described in U.S. Patent No. 4,198,539. The uniformity of the field proαuced will improve as the number of parallel resistive elements is increased.

It will be appreciated that other embodiments and modifications of this invention as defined in the followin claims:

Claims

WE CLAIM :
1. A selected touch point locating apparatus comprising
an array of spaced electrical touch members,
means for causing an electric current to flow through said selected touch point as the algebraic sum of separate currents tnrough said electrical touch members, and
means for translating the relative amplitudes of said separate currents to at least one signal corresponding to the location of said selected touch point on said array of electrical touch members.
2. A system for introducing information to a data system from a human, the invention defined in claim 1 wherein said electrical touch members are closely spaced as to be bridgable by the human finger and a human finger can be rolled theron to introduce information to said data system.
3. The invention defined in claim 1 wherein said array of spaced electrical touch elements is constituted by an array of impedance elements.
4. The invention defined in claim 1 including a thin insulating layer on the touch surface of said array of spaced electrical touch elements.
5. Selected touch point locating apparatus comprising
an array of two or more impedance elements,
means for causing an electric current to flow through a selected touch point as the algebraic sum of separate currents through said impedance elements, and
O PI 6 means for translating the relative amplitudes of
7 said separate currents to at least two signals correspondin
8 to the location in two axes of said selected touch point Z on said array of impedance elements.
6. The invention defined in claim 5 including a pair
2 of resistance networks, each resistance network extending
3 between a pair of connection points, and means connecting
4 one end of each impedance element to spaced points in
5 said resistance network, respectively and means connect-
6 ing said connection points to said means for translating.
7. The invention defined in claim 5 wherein each said
2 resistance element is on a support substitute, at least
3 three ridges formed on said support substrate with the
4 each of said impedance element in the space between a
5 pair of said ridges.
8. The invention defined in claim 7 wherein each said
2 ridge has at least one notch formed therein for tactilely
3 conveying information to the user.
9. Position sensing apparatus comprising,
2 a substrate having a surface,
3 at least a pair of linear resistance elements extend-
4 ing along parallel paths on said substrate surface, said
5 linear resistance elements being spaced less than a finger
6 width apart so they can be spanned by a finger,
7 circuit means coupled to all ends of said linear
8 resistance elements to derive, from the current flow there-
9 through the position of a finger touching any one or 0' more of said linear resistance elements. 10. Position sensing apparatus as defined in claim 9 wherein said resistance elements are transparent.
11. The invention defined in claim 10 wherein said resistance elements are formed on a transparent substrate by applying a uniform resistance layer to the surface of said transparent substrate and removing resistance mat- erial to form said linear resistance elements.
12. The invention defined in claim 10 including trans- parent layer on said resistance element whereby current flow from a touching finger is through the layer.
EP19840903512 1983-09-12 1984-09-11 Conductive electrode arrays and arrays of resistive elements for use in touch panels and for producing electric fields. Withdrawn EP0157821A4 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US53130983A true 1983-09-12 1983-09-12
US531309 1983-09-12

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0157821A1 EP0157821A1 (en) 1985-10-16
EP0157821A4 true EP0157821A4 (en) 1987-06-16

Family

ID=24117114

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19840903512 Withdrawn EP0157821A4 (en) 1983-09-12 1984-09-11 Conductive electrode arrays and arrays of resistive elements for use in touch panels and for producing electric fields.

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0157821A4 (en)
JP (1) JPH0685200B2 (en)
WO (1) WO1985001375A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE8514524U1 (en) * 1985-05-14 1986-09-25 Fritz Hofmann Gmbh Fuer Elektrotechnik, 8520 Erlangen, De

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1980001762A1 (en) * 1979-02-23 1980-09-04 Peptek Inc Touch panel system and method
US4353552A (en) * 1979-02-23 1982-10-12 Peptek, Incorporated Touch panel system and method
GB2134760A (en) * 1983-02-09 1984-08-15 Secr Defence Interactive display system

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4293734A (en) * 1979-02-23 1981-10-06 Peptek, Incorporated Touch panel system and method
US4305007A (en) * 1979-08-22 1981-12-08 Gerald N. Stan Electronic two directional control apparatus
US4430917A (en) * 1979-08-22 1984-02-14 Peptek, Incorporated Hand-held musical instrument and systems including a man-machine interface apparatus
JPS5633779A (en) * 1979-08-27 1981-04-04 Oki Electric Ind Co Ltd Pattern input device
JPS5890236A (en) * 1981-11-22 1983-05-28 Sony Corp Position detector
JPS631613B2 (en) * 1981-12-21 1988-01-13 Oki Electric Ind Co Ltd

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1980001762A1 (en) * 1979-02-23 1980-09-04 Peptek Inc Touch panel system and method
US4353552A (en) * 1979-02-23 1982-10-12 Peptek, Incorporated Touch panel system and method
GB2134760A (en) * 1983-02-09 1984-08-15 Secr Defence Interactive display system

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN, volume 7, no. 192 (P-218)(1337), 23rd August 1983; & JP-A-58 90 236 (SONY K.K.) 28-05-1983 *
See also references of WO8501375A1 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH0685200B2 (en) 1994-10-26
JPS60502176A (en) 1985-12-12
EP0157821A1 (en) 1985-10-16
WO1985001375A1 (en) 1985-03-28

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated contracting states:

Designated state(s): DE FR GB

17P Request for examination filed

Effective date: 19850918

A4 Despatch of supplementary search report

Effective date: 19870616

17Q First examination report

Effective date: 19881201

18D Deemed to be withdrawn

Effective date: 19900605

RIN1 Inventor (correction)

Inventor name: PEPPER, WILLIAM, JR.

Inventor name: MOOG, ROBERT, A.