EP0155607A1 - Heating assembly for the gasification of solid fuels - Google Patents

Heating assembly for the gasification of solid fuels Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0155607A1
EP0155607A1 EP85102684A EP85102684A EP0155607A1 EP 0155607 A1 EP0155607 A1 EP 0155607A1 EP 85102684 A EP85102684 A EP 85102684A EP 85102684 A EP85102684 A EP 85102684A EP 0155607 A1 EP0155607 A1 EP 0155607A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
boiler
grate
combustion chamber
gasification
reaction chamber
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP85102684A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0155607B1 (en
Inventor
Manfred Köpke
Original Assignee
Manfred Köpke
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Family has litigation
Priority to DE3409292 priority Critical
Priority to DE3409292A priority patent/DE3409292C2/de
Application filed by Manfred Köpke filed Critical Manfred Köpke
Publication of EP0155607A1 publication Critical patent/EP0155607A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0155607B1 publication Critical patent/EP0155607B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=6230443&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP0155607(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B90/00Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus
    • F23B90/04Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion
    • F23B90/06Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion the primary combustion being a gasification or pyrolysis in a reductive atmosphere
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification

Abstract

The invention relates to a solid gasification heating boiler with a filling shaft and a gasification chamber arranged above a grate, a combustion chamber being arranged below the grate delimiting the gasification and / or reaction space downwards and equipped with a flame tube. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for operating a solid gasification boiler, the solid gasification boiler being operated with negative pressure such that a lower pressure in the lower region of the combustion chamber than in the upper region of the boiler, i.e. the reaction chamber or the filling shaft.

Description

  • The invention relates to a solid gasification boiler with a filling shaft and a gasification chamber arranged above a grate, and to a method for operating such a solid gasification boiler.
  • It is known to dry and degas combustible waste in an incinerator and to draw off the fuel gases resulting from the gasification of the waste from the furnace and to clean them via a cleaning system and then to incinerate them.
  • Such large-scale plants have the disadvantage that they are only useful for large-scale industrial companies or waste recycling plants.
  • The invention has for its object to provide a solid gasification boiler, which can be used for small businesses and households and with which heat can be generated directly, so that, for example in small industrial companies, agricultural companies, garden centers and households or the like. Not only the elimination of Waste can be carried out sensibly, but heating of the operating systems is also possible at the same time with the energies obtained.
  • This object on which the invention is based is achieved by the features of the characterizing part of the main claim.
  • Advantageous configurations are explained in the subclaims.
  • With the solid gasification boiler according to the invention, coal, peat and other combustible materials can be processed and waste or other residues can be burned at the same time. These different fuels can be gasified and burned at the same time and can be filled into the furnace unsorted. The fuel gas obtained is of high combustion quality and, depending on the gasified substances, has little or no oil or tars in the exhaust gases. The gasification of the different fuels and the subsequent burning of the resulting gas burns out the materials up to 99%. As a result, a particularly high level of energy is achieved. In addition, ash is produced to an exceptionally small extent, which is an unmelted, sterile ash in a floury state. The ashes can immediately be fed from the furnace to a corresponding collection container.
  • Further advantageous features of the device according to the invention are explained below with reference to the drawings. The drawings show in
    • Fig. 1 shows schematically the solid gasification boiler according to the invention, in
    • Fig. 2 is a sectional drawing through a boiler according to the invention and in
    • 3 shows a sectional drawing in the longitudinal axis of the flame tube.
  • In Fig. 1, 1 denotes a filling shaft of a solid gasification boiler. A rotary valve or a double piston filler can be provided here. At the bottom of this filling shaft is a reaction or gasification chamber 2, which is delimited at the bottom by a grate 3, which is shown in the drawing as a swivel grate. A combustion chamber 4 is arranged below the swiveling grate 3 and is delimited at the bottom by an ash extraction 5. Instead of the pivoting grate 3, a vibrating grate can also be used, which is driven by a vibrating motor drive.
  • Provided within the combustion chamber 4 is a flame tube 6, the gas inlet 7 of which is arranged eccentrically to the combustion chamber 4, so that the combustion gases escaping downward through the swiveling grate 3 are forced to enter the flame tube eccentrically, while doing so at a pipe socket 8 arranged support burner 9 must flow past, which is intended to ignite the gases to be burned in the flame tube 6.
  • The pipe socket 8 is closed to the outside by an explosion flap 10 with a draft limiter.
  • At 11, a blower is shown which opens into the lower region of the combustion chamber 4 via air lines 12, leads into the swiveling grate 3 via a further air line 14 and mün into the upper region of the reaction chamber 2 via a third air line 15 det, below the filling shaft, and in these three areas for the supply of oxygen-rich fresh air.
  • At 16, a pressure compensation tube is shown, which leads from the filling shaft into the reaction chamber 2 and via a bypass line 16a into the combustion chamber 4.
  • An ignition burner 17, which is also arranged in a corresponding pipe socket 18, opens into the reaction chamber 2 above the swivel grate 3.
  • It can be seen from the illustration in FIG. 3 that the swiveling grate 3 has a width which is greater than the clear width of the reaction space 2. Here, the swivel grate extends over the entire length of the boiler and has in the areas in which it lies below the projecting wall parts 19 and 20 of the reaction chamber 2, on the swivel grate plane upward protrusions 21, which prevent ungased fuel from the reaction chamber 2 can get into the combustion chamber 4.
  • The wall of the solid gasification boiler can accommodate a heat exchanger 22, for example the heat exchanger of a hot water heater.
  • The solid gasification boiler described above works in the combustion chamber 4 and in the flame tube 6 with a vacuum which extends to the filling shaft 1. Depending on the type of gasified solid and depending on the evolution of gas, the negative pressure in the filling shaft 1 and in the reaction chamber 2 decreases and can come to zero, depending on how the pressure control system is switched on represents is.
  • The natural chimney draft or a built-in flue gas fan (not shown in the drawing) ensure the negative pressure in the solid gasification boiler. This negative pressure is guaranteed when the boiler is started up by a pressure control system, so that no excess pressure can arise due to excess gas production. The pressure control system controls the air supply to the boiler. If there is a large amount of gas in the reaction chamber 2 and in the filling shaft 1, as a result of which the vacuum would decrease, the air supply is immediately reduced or completely closed. This can be done using a separate control system or by appropriately controlling the blower 11.
  • The pressure compensation tube 16 leading from the filling shaft 1 into the reaction chamber 2 or into the combustion chamber 4 can be arranged inside or outside the boiler and ensures a constant pressure inside the boiler.
  • The flame tube 6 is, as already described, arranged so that the gas inlet 7 has the effect that the gases emerging downwards through the swiveling grate 3 must pass through a further path to the outlet and are thus guided past the support burner 9. As a result, the gases are burned in the combustion chamber 4 and completely burned out in the flame tube 6.
  • At the flame tube 6, a heat exchanger can also be connected, so that the burnt-out gases in the flame tube 6, which can have a temperature between 500 and 800 ° C, ge in the heat exchanger can be cooled and then discharged through the chimney with a low exhaust gas temperature of approx. 100 °.
  • The flame tube 6 itself is made of a heat-resistant material, for example stainless steel or a quartz melt, this material becoming red-hot and thus ensuring better combustion in the flame tube 6 and in the combustion chamber 4. The shape of the flame tube 6 is irrelevant. The arrangement of an explosion valve 10 with draft limiter has the task that in the event of deflagrations within the boiler, these can be compensated for immediately. The draft limiter closes as soon as the blower 11 is in operation. If the blower 11 turns off or the air supply is completely or partially closed, the draft limiter 10 comes into operation and regulates the draft in the combustion tube, so that the solid gasification boiler in the reaction chamber 2 and in the combustion chamber 4 does not cool down.
  • The swivel grate 3 is driven with a thrust safety device, which has the task of absorbing the force of the motor when materials in the reaction space 2 jam or tilt, so that the swivel grate 3 cannot move freely.
  • The solid gasification boiler operates as follows:
    • The solid gasification boiler can be operated with all kinds of residues such as wood, paper, rubber, leather, plastics etc., but also with hard coal, lignite and peat. The filling of the fuel in the filling shaft 1 is preferred
    as a shredding device upstream, for example a rotary cutter.
  • The fuel materials prepared in this way are filled into the filling shaft 1. In the reaction chamber 2, these substances are ignited via the swiveling grate 3 and heated up to 1000 ° C., as a result of which gasification occurs and a fuel gas is produced which is of high fuel gas quality and burned depending on the type Residues have no or only little occurrence of oils and tars. This fuel gas is sucked down by a negative pressure in the lower combustion chamber 4, ignited via the pilot burner 17 and then burned further in the combustion chamber 4 and in the flame tube 6.
  • The burned-out exhaust gases have a temperature of between 500 and 800 ° C and can then be passed through a heat exchanger to obtain the residual energy and can be removed through the chimney, with an exhaust gas temperature in the chimney of approximately 100 ° C then.
  • Basically, it should be noted that the solids can also be mixed with flammable liquids, with the boilers according to the invention e.g. the problem-free burning of waste oil is possible.

Claims (19)

1. Solid gasification boiler with a filling shaft and a gasification chamber arranged above a grate, characterized in that a combustion chamber (4) is arranged below the grate (3) which delimits the gasification or reaction chamber (2) downwards and which is provided with a flame tube (6). is equipped.
2. Boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that the flame tube (6) is equipped with a support burner (9) which lies within a pipe socket (8) which is equipped with an explosion flap (10) with a draft limiter on the outside.
3. Boiler according to claim 1 and 2, characterized in that the reaction chamber (2) from the combustion chamber (4) separating grate (3) is designed as a swivel grate.
4. Boiler according to claim 1 and 2, characterized in that the grate (3) is designed as a vibrating grate with a vibratory motor drive.
5. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized by an oxygen supply via a blower (11) arranged outside the boiler, which feeds air lines (12, 14, 15) which in the lower region below the flame tube (6) the combustion chamber (4) open into the interior of the swivel grate (3) provided with air outlet openings and into the upper area of the reaction chamber (2).
6. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the grate (3) extends over the entire length of the boiler and has a width which is greater than the clear width of the reaction space (2) (Fig. 3).
7. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the grate (3) in the area in which it lies below the projecting wall parts (19, 20) of the reaction chamber (2), upward cantilevered upstands over the grate plane (21).
8. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the grate (3) has passages for ash diarrhea and the gas flow.
9. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the gas inlet (7) in the flame tube (6) is arranged eccentrically to the combustion chamber (4) in the region of the wall of the boiler in which the auxiliary burner (9) is provided .
10. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the flame tube (6) from a heat resistant material that becomes red-hot when the gases are burned.
11. Boiler at least according to claim 3, characterized in that the motor drive device for the swivel grate (3) is equipped with a thrust protection.
12. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized by a pressure compensation pipe (16) for connecting the filling shaft (1), i.e. So the top part of the boiler, with the lower area of the reaction chamber (2).
13. A boiler according to claim 12, characterized in that the pressure compensation tube (16) has a by-pass line (16a) for connection to the combustion chamber (4).
14. A boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the wall of the boiler is formed by a heat exchanger (22).
15. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the flue gas line is passed into a downstream heat exchanger.
16. Boiler according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the filling device is designed as a rotary valve or as a double piston filler.
17. A method of operating a solid gasification boiler with a reaction chamber separated by a grate from a combustion chamber, characterized in that the solid gasification boiler is operated with negative pressure such that a lower pressure in the lower region of the combustion chamber than in the upper region of the boiler, i.e. the reaction chamber or the filling shaft.
18. The method according to claim 17, characterized in that the negative pressure in the solid gasification boiler is achieved by the chimney draft.
19. The method according to claim 17, characterized in that the negative pressure in the solid gasification boiler is generated by a built-in flue gas fan.
EP85102684A 1984-03-14 1985-03-08 Heating assembly for the gasification of solid fuels Expired EP0155607B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE3409292 1984-03-14
DE3409292A DE3409292C2 (en) 1984-03-14 1984-03-14

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT85102684T AT29574T (en) 1984-03-14 1985-03-08 Solid gasification boiler.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0155607A1 true EP0155607A1 (en) 1985-09-25
EP0155607B1 EP0155607B1 (en) 1987-09-09

Family

ID=6230443

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP85102684A Expired EP0155607B1 (en) 1984-03-14 1985-03-08 Heating assembly for the gasification of solid fuels

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0155607B1 (en)
AT (1) AT29574T (en)
DE (1) DE3409292C2 (en)
WO (1) WO1985004236A1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3933576C1 (en) * 1989-10-07 1991-02-28 Egon 5060 Bergisch Gladbach De Piski Extruding industrial sludge into pellets - increasing dry material content to over 70 per-cent, expelling water
EP0588075A1 (en) * 1992-09-10 1994-03-23 Hugo Petersen Ges. für verfahrenstechn. Anlagenbau mbH & Co KG Combustion process and furnace for burning waste
FR2721689A1 (en) * 1994-06-23 1995-12-29 Envirotec Group Ltd Solid waste incineration procedure
WO1996000366A1 (en) * 1994-06-23 1996-01-04 Envirotec Group Limited Method and incinerator for incinerating hospital waste and the like
EP0703408A2 (en) 1994-09-26 1996-03-27 Manfred Köpke Process and apparatus for gasification of solid substances
DE29707032U1 (en) * 1997-04-18 1997-06-05 Koeb & Schaefer Kg Combustion plant
DE102010044550B4 (en) * 2010-09-07 2016-09-01 Brita Kohlfuerst-Millard Distributor for a dispensing system

Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3705406C2 (en) * 1987-02-20 1989-03-30 Manfred 4440 Rheine De Koepke
DE3718022C1 (en) * 1987-05-27 1988-11-10 Kernforschungsanlage Juelich Boiler burning solid matter
DE3737661C2 (en) * 1987-11-06 1992-03-19 Karl 8332 Massing De Ackermann
DE3900977C2 (en) * 1989-01-14 1991-10-31 Forschungszentrum Juelich Gmbh, 5170 Juelich, De
DE3924626C2 (en) * 1989-07-26 1991-07-11 Forschungszentrum Juelich Gmbh, 5170 Juelich, De
DE4344569C2 (en) * 1993-12-24 1996-07-04 Ver Verwertung Und Entsorgung Method and device for fuel gas production
DE4435906C5 (en) * 1994-09-26 2005-09-08 Köpke, Manfred Process and apparatus for gasifying solids
WO1997001617A1 (en) * 1995-06-27 1997-01-16 Ver Verwertung Und Entsorgung Von Reststoffen Gmbh Process and apparatus for producing fuel gas
RU2545199C1 (en) * 2014-01-29 2015-03-27 Андрей Иванович Мещанкин Gasifier of solid domestic waste and solid fuel

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4231302A (en) * 1979-05-14 1980-11-04 Albert Neuhaus-Schwermann Apparatus and process for burning of fuels of relatively young geological age and of any resulting gases
DE3023421B1 (en) * 1980-06-23 1981-01-29 Josef Probsteder Solid waste fuel furnace
US4306506A (en) * 1980-06-02 1981-12-22 Energy Recovery Research Group, Inc. Gasification apparatus
FR2516209A1 (en) * 1981-11-10 1983-05-13 Hays Claude Inverted-combustion hot water generator - has grille of refractory bricks above secondary combustion chamber over which hot gases pass
EP0127746A1 (en) * 1983-04-09 1984-12-12 Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh Method for the combustion of burnable material, and combustion chamber for the combustion of the flue gases
DE3332913A1 (en) * 1983-06-03 1984-12-13 Uetikon Chem Fab Process for generating combustion gases or waste gases of low pollutant content, and device and also pressed pieces for carrying out the process

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2721213C2 (en) * 1977-05-11 1978-09-28 Josef 8399 Ruhstorf Probsteder
DE7919301U1 (en) * 1979-07-05 1979-10-25 Hdg-Kessel- U. Apparatebau Gmbh, 8332 Massing incinerator

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4231302A (en) * 1979-05-14 1980-11-04 Albert Neuhaus-Schwermann Apparatus and process for burning of fuels of relatively young geological age and of any resulting gases
US4306506A (en) * 1980-06-02 1981-12-22 Energy Recovery Research Group, Inc. Gasification apparatus
DE3023421B1 (en) * 1980-06-23 1981-01-29 Josef Probsteder Solid waste fuel furnace
FR2516209A1 (en) * 1981-11-10 1983-05-13 Hays Claude Inverted-combustion hot water generator - has grille of refractory bricks above secondary combustion chamber over which hot gases pass
EP0127746A1 (en) * 1983-04-09 1984-12-12 Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh Method for the combustion of burnable material, and combustion chamber for the combustion of the flue gases
DE3332913A1 (en) * 1983-06-03 1984-12-13 Uetikon Chem Fab Process for generating combustion gases or waste gases of low pollutant content, and device and also pressed pieces for carrying out the process

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3933576C1 (en) * 1989-10-07 1991-02-28 Egon 5060 Bergisch Gladbach De Piski Extruding industrial sludge into pellets - increasing dry material content to over 70 per-cent, expelling water
EP0588075A1 (en) * 1992-09-10 1994-03-23 Hugo Petersen Ges. für verfahrenstechn. Anlagenbau mbH & Co KG Combustion process and furnace for burning waste
FR2721689A1 (en) * 1994-06-23 1995-12-29 Envirotec Group Ltd Solid waste incineration procedure
WO1996000366A1 (en) * 1994-06-23 1996-01-04 Envirotec Group Limited Method and incinerator for incinerating hospital waste and the like
EP0703408A2 (en) 1994-09-26 1996-03-27 Manfred Köpke Process and apparatus for gasification of solid substances
EP0703408A3 (en) * 1994-09-26 1997-01-15 Manfred Koepke Process and apparatus for gasification of solid substances
DE29707032U1 (en) * 1997-04-18 1997-06-05 Koeb & Schaefer Kg Combustion plant
DE102010044550B4 (en) * 2010-09-07 2016-09-01 Brita Kohlfuerst-Millard Distributor for a dispensing system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE3409292A1 (en) 1985-09-26
WO1985004236A1 (en) 1985-09-26
AT29574T (en) 1987-09-15
DE3409292C2 (en) 1986-07-31
EP0155607B1 (en) 1987-09-09

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