EP0127542B1 - Modular thermally insulating building block having a facing, and method of constructing a building - Google Patents

Modular thermally insulating building block having a facing, and method of constructing a building Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0127542B1
EP0127542B1 EP84401078A EP84401078A EP0127542B1 EP 0127542 B1 EP0127542 B1 EP 0127542B1 EP 84401078 A EP84401078 A EP 84401078A EP 84401078 A EP84401078 A EP 84401078A EP 0127542 B1 EP0127542 B1 EP 0127542B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
panel
exterior
unit
facing
panels
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP84401078A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0127542A1 (en
Inventor
Francis Ovaert
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SMAC SA
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SMAC SA
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR8308857A priority Critical patent/FR2546556B1/en
Priority to FR8308857 priority
Application filed by SMAC SA filed Critical SMAC SA
Publication of EP0127542A1 publication Critical patent/EP0127542A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0127542B1 publication Critical patent/EP0127542B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2/28Walls having cavities between, but not in, the elements; Walls of elements each consisting of two or more parts kept in distance by means of spacers, all parts being solid
    • E04B2/40Walls having cavities between, but not in, the elements; Walls of elements each consisting of two or more parts kept in distance by means of spacers, all parts being solid the walls being characterised by fillings in all cavities in order to form a wall construction
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C1/00Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings
    • E04C1/40Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings built-up from parts of different materials, e.g. composed of layers of different materials or stones with filling material or with insulating inserts
    • E04C1/41Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings built-up from parts of different materials, e.g. composed of layers of different materials or stones with filling material or with insulating inserts composed of insulating material and load-bearing concrete, stone or stone-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0204Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04B2002/0206Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections of rectangular shape
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0204Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04B2002/0208Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections of trapezoidal shape
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0243Separate connectors or inserts, e.g. pegs, pins or keys
    • E04B2002/0245Pegs or pins

Description

  • L'isolation par l'extérieur des bâtiments est de plus en plus demandée car elle supprime les ponts thermiques créés par les cloisons et les planchers, et protège la paroi porteuse des chocs thermiques donc des fissures.Insulation from the outside of buildings is increasingly in demand because it eliminates thermal bridges created by partitions and floors, and protects the load-bearing wall from thermal shock and therefore from cracks.
  • Toutefois, l'installation d'une telle isolation doit s'effectuer après l'élévation du mur, à l'extérieur de celui-ci, et suppose non seulement le montage des éléments d'isolation mais également la mise en place d'un parement étanche à l'eau pour protéger de l'eau de pluie l'isolant thermique et, par suite, également la paroi porteuse. Par ailleurs, les raccordements aux portes et aux fenêtres sont toujours délicats et longs à réaliser.However, the installation of such insulation must be carried out after the elevation of the wall, outside of it, and requires not only the mounting of the insulation elements but also the installation of a watertight facing to protect the thermal insulation and, consequently, also the load-bearing wall from rainwater. In addition, connections to doors and windows are always delicate and time-consuming.
  • Ainsi, même si l'élévation du mur est effectuée de manière simple au moyen d'éléments modulaires, constitués, comme décrit dans les FR-A-2 231 834 et EP-A-0 112 213, ce dernier étant cité au titre de l'article 54 (3) de la CBE, par un panneau isolant extérieur épais et de forme sensiblement parallélépipédique, et un panneau intérieur rigide et mince, qui sont parallèles entre eux et reliés par des écarteurs, et qui forment coffrage de coulée de béton, la réalisation du bâtiment reste complexe et par suite longue et coûteuse.Thus, even if the wall is raised in a simple manner by means of modular elements, constituted, as described in FR-A-2 231 834 and EP-A-0 112 213, the latter being cited under Article 54 (3) of the EPC, by a thick outer insulating panel of substantially parallelepiped shape, and a rigid and thin inner panel, which are mutually parallel and connected by spacers, and which form concrete pouring formwork , the construction of the building remains complex and therefore long and costly.
  • Il a bien été proposé dans le EP-A-0 112 213 de revêtir la face externe du panneau isolant d'une couche d'enduit, mais ceci ne dispense pas de terminer le mur par des enduits extérieurs traditio- nels, donc continus, avec le risque habituel et connu de l'homme de l'art de fissurations et de progression de l'eau de pluie dans la paroi et en particulier au niveau des joints entre blocs, aucune coupure de capillarité ne l'en empêchant, et aucun dispositif ne permettant de canaliser et d'évacuer ces eaux vers l'extérieur.It has indeed been proposed in EP-A-0 112 213 to coat the external face of the insulating panel with a layer of plaster, but this does not mean that the wall should not be finished with traditional external plasters, therefore continuous, with the usual risk known to those skilled in the art of cracking and of progression of rainwater in the wall and in particular at the joints between blocks, no capillary cut preventing this, and no device not allowing to channel and evacuate these waters to the outside.
  • La présente invention a pour but de remédier à ces inconvénients en fournissant un bloc de construction modulaire qui permette d'installer à la fois une isolation thermique par l'extérieur et un revêtement de surface protecteur et décoratif, au fur et à mesure de l'élévation du mur et sans manoeuvre particulière.The object of the present invention is to remedy these drawbacks by providing a modular building block which makes it possible to install both thermal insulation from the outside and a protective and decorative surface coating, as the elevation of the wall and without any particular maneuver.
  • Cette invention a en effet pour objet un bloc de construction du type ci-dessus, caractérisé en ce que le panneau extérieur est revêtu sur sa grande face opposée aux écarteurs d'un parement définitif en un matériau étanche à l'eau, résistant aux chocs et aux rayons ultraviolets, et décoratif, et l'ensemble panneau isolant extérieur-parement comporte à sa périphérie des moyens de récupération et de canalisation de l'eau permettant son écoulement et son évacuation vers l'extérieur.The subject of this invention is in fact a building block of the above type, characterized in that the outer panel is coated on its large face opposite the spacers with a final facing made of a waterproof, impact-resistant material and to ultraviolet and decorative rays, and the exterior insulating panel-facing assembly comprises at its periphery means for recovering and channeling water allowing its flow and evacuation to the outside.
  • Ces blocs peuvent facilement être juxtaposés et empilés pour réaliser simultanément une isolation thermique dite par l'extérieur, un coffrage de coulée du béton constituant l'élément porteur du mur, et le revêtement définitif extérieur de ce mur, de sorte qu'aucune intervention à l'extérieur n'est plus nécessaire.These blocks can easily be juxtaposed and stacked to simultaneously produce a so-called external thermal insulation, a concrete pouring formwork constituting the load-bearing element of the wall, and the final external coating of this wall, so that no intervention at the outside is no longer necessary.
  • Le parement extérieur peut être constitué par un enduit ou par une plaque fixée directement sur le panneau ou rendue solidaire de celui-ci par tous moyens appropriés notamment par des organes d'espacement ménageant une lame d'air.The external facing may be constituted by a coating or by a plate fixed directly to the panel or made integral with the latter by any appropriate means, in particular by spacing members providing an air space.
  • Les écarteurs peuvent être d'une seule pièce avec l'un des panneaux et fixés sur l'autre ou être totalement amovibles. La fixation est soit permanente et effectuée en usine, soit effectuée sur le chantier, de sorte, que le bloc peut être aplati, par exemple pendant son transport ou son stockage.The spacers can be in one piece with one of the panels and fixed on the other or be completely removable. The fixing is either permanent and carried out in the factory, or carried out on the site, so that the block can be flattened, for example during its transport or its storage.
  • Bien entendu, le panneau isolant extérieur revêtu du parement peut comporter un prolongement latéral et constituer ainsi un élément d'angle.Of course, the outer insulating panel coated with the facing may have a lateral extension and thus constitute a corner element.
  • L'invention s'étend également à un procédé de construction utilisant ces blocs. Ce procédé de construction des parois verticales d'un bâtiment sans aucune intervention à l'extérieur au moyen de blocs modulaires thermiquement isolants, empilés et superposés, formant coffrage de coulée du béton, est caractérisé en ce qu'il consiste à disposer les blocs selon plusieurs rangées superposées, dans lesquelles les blocs sont décalés les uns par rapport aux autres, en emboîtant les portions complémentaires des tranches des blocs adjacents et les plots et évidements des blocs superposés de sorte que les parements définitifs ménagent entre eux des passages d'évacuation d'eau et que les parements et les panneaux isolants des blocs assemblés forment des joints appropriés pour canaliser et évacuer l'eau de pluie ou de condensation vers l'extérieur, et à placer les blocs fenêtre et/ou porte entre les blocs en les montant de la même manière que ces derniers, avant de verser un mortier dans le volume creux délimité entre les panneaux isolants extérieurs et les panneaux minces intérieurs de ces blocs, et d'attendre la prise du béton ainsi constitué, puis répéter les opérations précédentes jusqu'à la hauteur désirée ce qui correspond à l'achèvement total du mur.The invention also extends to a construction method using these blocks. This method of constructing the vertical walls of a building without any outside intervention by means of thermally insulating modular blocks, stacked and superimposed, forming concrete pouring formwork, is characterized in that it consists in placing the blocks according to several superimposed rows, in which the blocks are offset with respect to each other, by fitting the complementary portions of the edges of the adjacent blocks and the studs and recesses of the superimposed blocks so that the final facings provide between them evacuation passages of and that the facings and insulating panels of the assembled blocks form appropriate seals to channel and evacuate rain or condensation water to the outside, and to place the window and / or door blocks between the blocks by mounting them in the same way as the latter, before pouring a mortar into the hollow volume delimited between the outer insulating panels and the inner thin panels laughers of these blocks, and wait for the setting of the concrete thus constituted, then repeat the previous operations up to the desired height which corresponds to the total completion of the wall.
  • La construction d'un bâtiment est ainsi considérablement simplifiée et accélérée. En effet, aucune intervention à l'extérieur du mur n'est nécessaire et l'aspect extérieur protecteur esthétique est obtenu dès la mise en place des blocs.The construction of a building is thus considerably simplified and accelerated. Indeed, no intervention outside the wall is necessary and the aesthetic protective exterior appearance is obtained as soon as the blocks are put in place.
  • La description ci-dessous de modes de réalisation donnés à titre d'exemple, conformes aux revendications dépendantes, et représentés aux dessins annexés, fera d'ailleurs resortir les avantages et caractéristiques de l'invention.The description below of embodiments given by way of example, in accordance with the dependent claims, and shown in the accompanying drawings, will moreover highlight the advantages and characteristics of the invention.
  • Sur les dessins :
    • la Figure 1 est une vue en élévation d'un bloc selon l'invention, assemblé avec d'autres blocs semblables ;
    • la Figure 2 est une vue en coupe suivant la ligne 2-2 de la Figure 1 ;
    • la Figure 4 montre, en coupe horizontale partielle, l'assemblage de plusieurs blocs juxtaposés dans un angle rentrant du bâtiment ;
    • la Figure 5 est une vue en perspective d'une portion de mur en cours de réalisation ;
    • la Figure 6 est une vue partielle, en coupe horizontale, d'un bloc selon une variante de réalisation ;
    • la Figure 7 est une vue analogue à la figure 6 d'une autre variante de réalisation ;
    • les Figures 8 et 9 sont des vues analogues à la Fig. 3, montrant des variantes de réalisation du parement ;
    • la Figure 10 est une vue en perspective éclatée d'une variante de réalisation ;
    • la Figure 11 est une vue en coupe verticale du bloc de La figure 1 assemblé avec un autre bloc qui lui est superposé, et
    • la Figure 12 est une vue analogue à la Fig. 11 d'une autre variante de réalisation.
    In the drawings:
    • Figure 1 is an elevational view of a block according to the invention, assembled with other similar blocks;
    • Figure 2 is a sectional view along line 2-2 of Figure 1;
    • Figure 4 shows, in partial horizontal section, the assembly of several juxtaposed blocks in a re-entrant angle of the building;
    • Figure 5 is a perspective view of a portion of wall in progress;
    • Figure 6 is a partial view, in section horizontal, of a block according to an alternative embodiment;
    • Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 of another alternative embodiment;
    • Figures 8 and 9 are views similar to FIG. 3, showing alternative embodiments of the facing;
    • Figure 10 is an exploded perspective view of an alternative embodiment;
    • FIG. 11 is a vertical section view of the block of FIG. 1 assembled with another block which is superimposed on it, and
    • FIG. 12 is a view similar to FIG. 11 of another alternative embodiment.
  • Comme le montrent les dessins, un bloc de construction modulaire comporte un panneau 1 en un matériau thermiquement isolant, qui a une forme sensiblement parallélépipédique, et une épaisseur importante, et forme l'élément extérieur du bloc.As shown in the drawings, a modular building block comprises a panel 1 made of a thermally insulating material, which has a substantially parallelepiped shape, and a substantial thickness, and forms the external element of the block.
  • De l'une des grandes faces planes rectangulaires du panneau 1 partent des écarteurs 2 espacés les uns des autres, qui le relient à un second panneau 4 mince et rigide, dans l'ensemble paral- tète au premier.From one of the large rectangular flat faces of the panel 1 leave spacers 2 spaced apart from each other, which connect it to a second thin and rigid panel 4, on the whole parallel to the first.
  • Ce second panneau 4 constitue l'élément intérieur du bloc. Il peut être réalisé dans le même matériau isolant que le panneau 1, ou être constitué par un matériau plus rigide tel que le plâtre, une tôle, une plaque d'amiante, du bois, ou un matériau composite formé par exemple d'isolant et de plâtre. Dans tous les cas il présente une face interne 6, ou face opposée aux écarteurs, lisse et bien finie, susceptible d'être utilisée directement.This second panel 4 constitutes the interior element of the block. It can be made of the same insulating material as the panel 1, or be made of a more rigid material such as plaster, sheet metal, an asbestos plate, wood, or a composite material formed for example of insulation and plaster. In all cases, it has an internal face 6, or face opposite the spacers, smooth and well finished, capable of being used directly.
  • De la même manière, l'isolant thermique du panneau 1 est recouvert, sur sa face extérieure 8 éloignée des écarteurs, par un parement ou peau extérieure 10 susceptible de protéger l'isolant de l'eau de pluie, des chocs et des rayons ultraviolets, et donnant au bloc un aspect fini. Ce parement peut être en tout matériau approprié et être constitué, par exemple, par une plaque d'amiante-ciment, de pierre reconstituée, de terre cuite, de bois, de matière plastique, ou autre, ou même par un enduit éventuellement armé, résistant aux chocs ou analogue. Ce parement peut, si nécessaire, se retourner sur les tranches du panneau.In the same way, the thermal insulation of the panel 1 is covered, on its external face 8 remote from the spacers, by a facing or external skin 10 capable of protecting the insulation from rainwater, shock and ultraviolet rays. , and giving the block a finished look. This facing can be made of any suitable material and consist, for example, of a plate of asbestos-cement, of reconstituted stone, of terracotta, of wood, of plastic, or other material, or even of a possibly reinforced coating, impact resistant or the like. This facing can, if necessary, be turned over on the edges of the panel.
  • Les tranches opposées 11, 12 et 13, 14 du panneau intérieur 4 ont des formes complémentaires. Il en est de même pour celles du panneau extérieur 1, au moins à proximité des écarteurs 2, ainsi que le montrent clairement les fig. 2 et 3. En effet, les tranches verticales opposées 15, 16 du panneau 1 comportent des rainures et nervures complémentaires, tandis que les tranches horizontales 17, 18 comportent, l'une une série de plots espacés 19, et l'autre une série correspondante d'évidements 20 de réception de ces plots.The opposite edges 11, 12 and 13, 14 of the inner panel 4 have complementary shapes. It is the same for those of the outer panel 1, at least near the spacers 2, as clearly shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Indeed, the opposite vertical sections 15, 16 of the panel 1 have complementary grooves and ribs, while the horizontal sections 17, 18 comprise, one a series of spaced studs 19, and the other a series corresponding recesses 20 for receiving these pads.
  • Les blocs peuvent ainsi facilement être juxtaposés et superposés en une succession de couches ou rangées, de préférence décalées latéralement les unes par rapport aux autres (fig. 5). Les faces en regard 21 et 22 des panneaux 1 et 4 délimitent un volume creux simplement traversé çà et là par les écarteurs 2, et les blocs assemblés forment un coffrage adapté à la coulée du béton. La nature et les dimensions du panneau interne 4 et des écarteurs 2 sont choisies de manière à présenter une résistance suffisante, de sorte qu'un mortier déversé dans le volume interne prend sans détériorer le moindrement les blocs, et qu'après cette prise on dispose d'une portion de mur résistant et porteur, revêtue intérieurement et munie extérieu- renent d'une isolation thermique et d'un parement fini.The blocks can thus easily be juxtaposed and superimposed in a succession of layers or rows, preferably offset laterally with respect to each other (fig. 5). The facing faces 21 and 22 of the panels 1 and 4 define a hollow volume simply crossed here and there by the spacers 2, and the assembled blocks form a formwork suitable for pouring concrete. The nature and dimensions of the internal panel 4 and the spacers 2 are chosen so as to have sufficient strength, so that a mortar poured into the internal volume takes without deteriorating the blocks in the slightest, and that after this setting we have available of a portion of resistant and load-bearing wall, coated on the inside and provided with external thermal insulation and a finished facing.
  • Les blocs sont modulaires, le module de base étant par exemple un petit bloc tel que celui représenté en 24 sur la figure 5,tandis que la plupart des blocs utilisés sont des blocs double 26. Les blocs d'angle 28 ayant deux côtés sensiblement perpendiculaires correspondent au module et à son double. Grâce à cette disposition, des blocs fenêtre 30 et/ou porte au même module, ayant des feuillures identiques, peuvent être mis en place au cours de la construction et permettre l'installation, depuis l'intérieur, de la fenêtre ou . de la porte correspondante, sans intervention à l'extérieur même pour la réalisation de joints ou analogue.The blocks are modular, the basic module being for example a small block such as that shown at 24 in FIG. 5, while most of the blocks used are double blocks 26. The corner blocks 28 having two sides substantially perpendicular correspond to the module and its double. With this arrangement, window blocks 30 and / or door to the same module, having identical rebates, can be put in place during construction and allow installation, from the inside, of the window or. of the corresponding door, without intervention outside even for the realization of joints or the like.
  • Bien entendu des fers à béton, des gaines et boîtiers électriques, des tuyaux ou autre peuvent être introduits dans le volume creux, avant la coulée du béton et être ainsi noyés dans celui-ci.Of course, concrete irons, sheaths and electrical boxes, pipes or the like can be introduced into the hollow volume, before the concrete is poured and thus be embedded in it.
  • De même, des éléments d'angle rentrant 32 peuvent être formés grâce à un prolongement latéral 34 du panneau interne 4, qui est perpendiculaire à ce panneau et relié comme lui à un panneau extérieur 31 par les écarteurs 2 (fig. 4).Similarly, re-entrant corner elements 32 can be formed by means of a lateral extension 34 of the internal panel 4, which is perpendicular to this panel and connected like it to an external panel 31 by the spacers 2 (FIG. 4).
  • Ainsi, un bâtiment tout entier est aisément réalisé avec des blocs de quatre types ou, au besoin, cinq types, simplement en élevant les murs depuis l'intérieur, sans avoir besoin d'intervenir à l'extérieur ni pendant l'élévation du mur ni après, c'est-à-dire sans nécessiter d'échafaudage.Thus, an entire building is easily made with blocks of four types or, if necessary, five types, simply by raising the walls from the inside, without the need to intervene outside or during the elevation of the wall. nor after, that is to say without requiring scaffolding.
  • Quelle que soit la forme des panneaux 1 et 4, les écarteurs sont de préférence formés par des barres rectilignes d'une seule pièce avec l'un ou l'autre de ceux-ci. Dans le mode de réalisation représenté sur les figures 1 à 4, ces barres sont venues de matière avec les deux panneaux 1 et 4, qui sont tous les deux formés par ce même matériau isolant, mais il est souvent préférable de réaliser les panneaux interne et externe en matériaux différents pour leur permettre de jouer leurs rôles respectifs. Dans tous les cas, les barres 2 sont espacées les unes des autres latéralement et verticalement (fig. 1) ce qui facilite la coulée du béton.Whatever the shape of the panels 1 and 4, the spacers are preferably formed by straight bars in one piece with one or the other of these. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, these bars came integrally with the two panels 1 and 4, which are both formed by this same insulating material, but it is often preferable to produce the internal panels and external in different materials to allow them to play their respective roles. In all cases, the bars 2 are spaced from one another laterally and vertically (fig. 1) which facilitates the pouring of the concrete.
  • Selon une variante de réalisation représentée sur la figure 6, les écarteurs 42 sont repliables. Chaque écarteur est formé par une tige recourbée à ses deux extrémités pour former des anneaux 43, 44, qui sont agrafés dans des inserts 46, 47 montés dans les deux panneaux 1 et 4. De telles tiges peuvent être mises en place sur le chantier, au moment de la construction, ce qui permet de réduire le bloc à la somme des épaisseurs des panneaux pendant son stockage et son transport. De préférence toutefois, l'un au moins des anneaux est enfoncé lors de la fabrication, comme le montre la figure 6, et la tige 42 est rabattue le long du panneau pendant le transport ou le stockage, sa mise en place définitive s'effectuant sur le chantier.According to an alternative embodiment shown in Figure 6, the spacers 42 are foldable. Each spacer is formed by a rod curved at its two ends to form rings 43, 44, which are stapled in inserts 46, 47 mounted in the two panels 1 and 4. Such rods can be put in place on the site, at the time of construction, which makes it possible to reduce the block to the sum of the thicknesses of the panels during its storage and transport. Preferably, however, at least one of the rings is pressed during manufacture, as shown in FIG. 6, and the rod 42 is folded down along the panel during transport or storage, its final positioning being carried out on the site.
  • Selon une autre variante, les écarteurs 52 sont formés par des profilés tels que le profilé en U représenté sur la figure 7, et sont collés en usine sur les faces en regard 21 et 22 des panneaux 1 et 4.According to another variant, the spacers 52 are formed by profiles such as the U-shaped profile shown in FIG. 7, and are glued at the factory to the facing faces 21 and 22 of the panels 1 and 4.
  • Le parement 10, dans le mode de réalisation des figures 2 à 5, a la même dimension que la surface externe 8 du panneau isolant 1, mais il est bien évident que le bloc peut également comporter un parement ayant une dimension différente, par exemple un parement 40 se prolongeant à la partie inférieure du panneau 1, de façon à recouvrir partiellement la partie supérieure 33 d'un bloc sousjacent (fig. 8). De même, le parement peut être décalé par rapport au panneau, soit latéralement, soit en hauteur, soit même des deux manières.The facing 10, in the embodiment of FIGS. 2 to 5, has the same dimension as the external surface 8 of the insulating panel 1, but it is obvious that the block can also include a facing having a different dimension, for example a facing 40 extending to the lower part of the panel 1, so as to partially cover the upper part 33 of an underlying block (fig. 8). Similarly, the facing can be offset relative to the panel, either laterally, or in height, or even in two ways.
  • Quelle que soit la position du parement 10 par rapport au panneau 1, celle-ci ainsi que les dimensions relatives de ces deux éléments sont de préférence.choisies de manière à ménager sur la face extérieure du bloc, c'est-à-dire le long de la façade, des joints ouverts verticaux et/ou horizontaux. Par exemple, comme le montre la figure 2, la face extérieure 8 du panneau 1 est légèrement plus petite que la face interne 21 qui porte les écarteurs 2. Par suite, des joints ouverts verticaux 35, 36 sont ménagés- entre les parements 10 voisins et les faces extérieures 8 des panneaux 1. Ces joints communiquent avec des gorges de décompression 38 et sont munis d'un parement protecteur, de sorte que les eaux de pluie, de condensation ou autres sont évacuées vers l'extérieur.Whatever the position of the facing 10 relative to the panel 1, this as well as the relative dimensions of these two elements are preferably chosen so as to provide on the outside face of the block, that is to say the along the facade, open vertical and / or horizontal joints. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the external face 8 of the panel 1 is slightly smaller than the internal face 21 which carries the spacers 2. As a result, vertical open joints 35, 36 are formed between the neighboring facings 10 and the outer faces 8 of the panels 1. These joints communicate with decompression grooves 38 and are provided with a protective facing, so that rainwater, condensation or the like are discharged to the outside.
  • De même, (fig. 3), des joints ouverts horizontaux 55, 56, sont ménagés entre les blocs superposés. Dans le mode de réalisation représenté ces joints sont délimités par des surfaces inclinées, ce qui facilite l'évacuation de l'eau de pluie.Similarly, (fig. 3), horizontal open seals 55, 56 are provided between the superimposed blocks. In the embodiment shown, these seals are delimited by inclined surfaces, which facilitates the evacuation of rainwater.
  • Le parement peut être constitué par un élément mince, comme représenté en 10 et 30, ou par une plaque relativement épaisse 50 (fig. 9), qui comporte des tranches 51, 52, en forme de feuillure, découpées de manière correspondante sur ses bords opposés. Des joints ouverts peuvent éventuellement être ménagés entre les feuillures 51, 52 des parements de deux blocs adjacents, mais dans tous les cas les eaux sont évacuées vers l'extérieur.The facing can be constituted by a thin element, as shown in 10 and 30, or by a relatively thick plate 50 (fig. 9), which has edges 51, 52, in the form of rebate, cut correspondingly on its edges opposites. Open joints can optionally be provided between the rebates 51, 52 of the facings of two adjacent blocks, but in all cases the water is discharged to the outside.
  • Le panneau isolant extérieur 1 est de préférence réalisé en un matériau tel que le PVC expansé, le polystyrène expansé ou un matériau mousse de type mousse de polyuréthane, mousse de polystyrène estrudée, mousse de polyester additionné d'agrégats, ou autre.The outer insulating panel 1 is preferably made of a material such as expanded PVC, expanded polystyrene or a foam material such as polyurethane foam, extruded polystyrene foam, polyester foam containing aggregates, or the like.
  • La construction peut être encore facilitée en utilisant des blocs tels que ceux représentés sur les figures 10 à 12, dans lesquels les écarteurs jouent également le rôle d'organes d'assemblage.The construction can be further facilitated by using blocks such as those shown in Figures 10 to 12, in which the spacers also play the role of assembly members.
  • Dans ces modes de réalisation, en effet, le panneau isolant extérieur épais, 1, comporte dans ses tranches inférieure et supérieure au moins un trou 60 et une rainure ouverte 64 reliant ce trou à la grande face interne 61 du panneau. Le panneau mince intérieur 4 comporte, lui, au moins une encoche 66 en regard de chaque rainure 64. Cette encoche 66, comme la rainure 64, sert de logement à un écarteur 62 qui est muni à son extrémité d'une barre d'assemblage 68, de préférence une barre creuse de section circulaire correspondant à celle du trou 60, et qui a aussi une forme en T.In these embodiments, in fact, the thick outer insulating panel, 1, has in its lower and upper edges at least one hole 60 and an open groove 64 connecting this hole to the large internal face 61 of the panel. The inner thin panel 4 has at least one notch 66 facing each groove 64. This notch 66, like groove 64, serves as a housing for a spacer 62 which is provided at its end with an assembly bar 68, preferably a hollow bar of circular section corresponding to that of the hole 60, and which also has a T shape.
  • Entre deux parties sensiblement planes, 69 et 70, de coopération avec la rainure et l'encoche, l'écarteur 62 comporte une tige 67 de section plus importante assurant son appui contre les faces en regard des deux panneaux. Deux disques d'extrémité, respectivement 71 et 72, s'emboîtent par ailleurs de part et d'autre de l'encoche 66.Between two substantially flat parts, 69 and 70, of cooperation with the groove and the notch, the spacer 62 includes a rod 67 of larger section ensuring its support against the opposite faces of the two panels. Two end discs, respectively 71 and 72, also fit on either side of the notch 66.
  • Bien entendu, le nombre et l'écartement des rainures 64, et par suite des écarteurs, peuvent varier en fonction des dimensions des blocs. Dans certains cas il peut même être avantageux d'en prévoir à l'angle du panneau. La totalité de l'écarteur joue alors le rôle d'organe d'assemblage et est lui-même maintenu par le montage des blocs les uns sur les autres.Of course, the number and the spacing of the grooves 64, and consequently of the spacers, can vary depending on the dimensions of the blocks. In some cases it may even be advantageous to provide it at the corner of the panel. The entire spacer then acts as an assembly member and is itself maintained by mounting the blocks on top of each other.
  • Un tel écarteur est facilement mis en place en même temps que le bloc, par simple emboîtement dans les panneaux épais et mince dont il règle les positions relatives. En même temps il facilite la construction, et notamment la superposition des blocs en centrant automatiquement le panneau supérieur sur celui qui le précède. Il suffit d'introduire la partie supérieure de la barre 68 dans le trou 60 de la tranche inférieure pendant que le panneau mince s'emboîte entre les disques 71 et 72.Such a spacer is easily put in place at the same time as the block, by simple fitting into the thick and thin panels, the relative positions of which it adjusts. At the same time it facilitates construction, and in particular the superimposition of blocks by automatically centering the upper panel on the one preceding it. It suffices to introduce the upper part of the bar 68 into the hole 60 of the lower edge while the thin panel fits between the discs 71 and 72.
  • Selon une autre variante représentée sur la figure 12, l'écarteur 82 n'est plus relié directement au panneau épais 1 mais à une barre rectiligne 74 rendue solidaire de ce panneau. Cette barre est, par exemple, retenue par une barre d'assemblage 78, analogue à la barre 68, qui est solidaire d'une lame plate 79 d'emboîtement dans la rainure 64. Une patte 76 percée d'un trou de passage de la barre 74 termine la lame 79.According to another variant shown in FIG. 12, the spacer 82 is no longer connected directly to the thick panel 1 but to a straight bar 74 made integral with this panel. This bar is, for example, retained by an assembly bar 78, similar to the bar 68, which is integral with a flat blade 79 for fitting into the groove 64. A tab 76 pierced with a through hole of the bar 74 ends the blade 79.
  • L'écarteur 82 est du même type que celui des figures 10 et 11 et comporte une tige 87 prolongée d'un côté par une plaquette 80 entre deux disques 81, 83, et de l'autre par une patte 84 percée d'un trou de passage de la barre 74. Les disques 81 et 83 s'emboîtent de la même manière que les disques 71 et 72, de part et d'autre de l'encoche 66 du panneau 4, et l'écarteur 82 maintient ce panneau à une distance déterminée du panneau épais 1.The spacer 82 is of the same type as that of FIGS. 10 and 11 and comprises a rod 87 extended on one side by a plate 80 between two discs 81, 83, and on the other by a tab 84 pierced with a hole bar 74. The discs 81 and 83 fit in the same way as the discs 71 and 72, on either side of the notch 66 of the panel 4, and the spacer 82 keeps this panel at a determined distance from the thick panel 1.
  • Bien entendu, les pattes 76 et 84 peuvent être directement superposées ou écartées de distances variables, selon les dimensions des panneaux correspondants 1 et 4.Of course, the legs 76 and 84 can be directly superimposed or spaced apart by variable distances, depending on the dimensions of the corresponding panels 1 and 4.
  • Dans tous les cas le bloc ainsi obtenu permet une construction simple et rapide. Les planchers ou analogue sont facilement fixés sur le mur réalisé, par simple emboîtement des solives dans le panneau intérieur et immobilisation de ces solives lors de la coulée du béton. La reprise des charges du plancher se fait ainsi sur les murs en béton.In all cases, the block thus obtained allows simple and rapid construction. The floors or the like are easily fixed to the wall produced, by simple fitting of the joists in the interior panel and immobilization of these joists when pouring concrete. The resumption of floor loads is done on concrete walls.
  • La nature du matériau utilisé pour la réalisation des blocs permet facilement de les découper en biais avant la coulée du béton de remplissage, pour les adapter à l'inclinaison du toit. Des pannes ou poutres sont montées dans les blocs de la même manière que les solives du plancher.The nature of the material used to make the blocks makes it easy to cut them at an angle before pouring the filling concrete, to adapt them to the inclination of the roof. Panels or beams are mounted in the blocks in the same way as the floor joists.
  • Le bâtiment ainsi réalisé peut donc avoir toute forme désirée tout en restant extrêmement simple à monter au moyen de blocs modulaires emboîtés les uns dans les autres. Aucune intervention sur l'extérieur du mur ainsi réalisé n'est nécessaire, ni pour l'installation des fenêtres, ni pour celle des portes, ni pour la réalisation des joints entre blocs ou entre blocs et fenêtre.The building thus produced can therefore have any desired shape while remaining extremely simple to assemble by means of modular blocks nested one inside the other. No intervention on the outside of the wall thus produced is necessary, neither for the installation of windows, nor for that of doors, nor for the realization of joints between blocks or between blocks and window.

Claims (17)

1. A thermally insulating modular construction unit comprising- a thick exterior insulating panel (1) of substantially parallelepipedic shape, and a rigid and thin interior panel (4) which are parallel to each other and connected by spacer members (2, 62, 82), characterised in that the exterior panel (1) is covered on its large side opposed to the spacer members with a definitive facing (10) of a water-proof material resisting shocks and ultraviolet rays and decorative, and the exterior insulating definitive facing panel assembly (1 and 10) has, at its periphery, means (3, 55, 56) for recovering and canalizing water whereby it can flow and be discharged to the exterior.
2. A unit according to claim 1, characterised in that the opposed edges (11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18) of the panels (1, 4) have complementary shapes solely in their portion located in the vicinity of the large sides (21, 22) fixed to the spacer members.
3. A unit according to one of the claims 1 and 2, characterised in that the facing (10) is formed, in the known manner, by a coating which may be reinforced or by a plate.
4. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 3, characterised in that, in the vicinity of the exterior side (8) of the exterior panel (1), its edges form rabbets (35 36, 51, 52) for guiding water toward the exterior.
5. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 3, characterised in that the protective facing (40) is extended beyond the lower part of the insulating panel.
6. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 5, characterised in that at least two opposed edges of the exterior panel (1) covered with the facing (10) have complementary shapes solely in the vicinity of the large side (21) from which extend the spacer members (2) and are separated on the exterior side (8) of the panel (1) by a distance less than that which separates them on the large opposed side (21) of the panel (1) carrying the spacer members (2).
7. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the spacer members (2) are formed by detachable rods (42) which are known per se and are fitted at each of their ends into an attached or inserted member (46, 47) fixed in the material of the panels (1, 4).
8. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 6, characterised in that each spacer member (2) is formed by a U-section member (52) adhered to the two opposed sides (21, 22) of the panels (1, 4).
9. A unit according to one of the claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the thin panel (4) has in its upper and lower edges at least one notch for receiving the spacer members (62, 82) while the exterior thick panel (1) also has in its upper and lower edges an aperture and a horizontal groove for receiving an assembly element (68).
10. A unit according to claim 9, characterised in that the spacer member (62) and the assembly element (68) are in a single piece.
11. A unit according to claim 9, characterised in that the spacer member (82) bearing against the thin panel (4) is connected to the thick panel (1) by a vertical bar (74) maintained by the assembly element (78, 79).
12. A unit according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the thick exterior insulating panel (1) has on one of its edges (18) spaced-apart recesses (20) and, on the opposed edge, studs (19) having a shape complementary to that of the recesses.
13. A unit according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that it comprises a thick lateral panel extending the exterior main panel (1) and also provided with a facing and thus constitutes an angle unit.
14. A unit according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that it comprises two thin and rigid panels (4, 35) which are substantially perpendicular to each other and both connected to the exterior insulating panel (31) so as to constitute a re-entrant corner unit.
15. A method for constructing vertical walls of a building with no intervention at the exterior, by means of thermally insulating modular units which are stacked and superimposed, forming a concrete pouring casing, characterised in that it consists in disposing units (24, 26, 28) according to one of the claims 12 to 14, along a plurality of superimposed rows, in which the units are offset from one another, by fitting the completary portions of the edges of the adjacent units (24, 26-26, 18) and the studs (19) and recesses (20) of the superimposed units, so that the definitive facings (10, 40) define therebetween water discharging passages (35, 36) and the facings (10, 14) and the insulating panels (1) of the assembled units form suitable joints for canalizing and discharging rain water or water of condensation toward the exterior, and placing window and/or door units (30) between the units by mounting them in the same way as the latter before pouring a mortar into the hollow volume defined between the exterior insulating panels (1) and the interior thin panels (4) of these units, and awaiting the setting of the concrete thus formed, then repeating the preceding operations until the desired height is reached, which corresponds to the completely finished wall.
16. A method according to claim 15, characterised in that the rain water or water of condensation discharging joints are formed either by overlapping or by open joints (35, 36) canalizing the water toward the exterior.
17. A method according to one of the claims 15 and 16, characterised in that girders or transoms for supporting a floor and/or a roof are introduced in the interior panel (4) before the pouring of the concrete.
EP84401078A 1983-05-27 1984-05-24 Modular thermally insulating building block having a facing, and method of constructing a building Expired EP0127542B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8308857A FR2546556B1 (en) 1983-05-27 1983-05-27 MODULAR THERMALLY INSULATING BUILDING BLOCK WITH FACING AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING
FR8308857 1983-05-27

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT84401078T AT29048T (en) 1983-05-27 1984-05-24 MODULAR HEAT-INSULATING BUILDING BLOCK WITH A PANELING AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A BUILDING.

Publications (2)

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EP0127542A1 EP0127542A1 (en) 1984-12-05
EP0127542B1 true EP0127542B1 (en) 1987-08-19

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EP84401078A Expired EP0127542B1 (en) 1983-05-27 1984-05-24 Modular thermally insulating building block having a facing, and method of constructing a building

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EP (1) EP0127542B1 (en)
AT (1) AT29048T (en)
DE (1) DE3465504D1 (en)
FR (1) FR2546556B1 (en)

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2126478C1 (en) * 1997-08-06 1999-02-20 Семенов Владимир Федорович Wall unit
AU785414B2 (en) * 2000-11-08 2007-05-03 Roger A Farquhar Precast concrete building system

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0112213A1 (en) * 1982-11-25 1984-06-27 Vibro Ouest S.A. Externally insulated breeze-block and process for assembling such a block

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR95474E (en) * 1967-03-29 1971-01-15 Lecocq Jacques New construction material.
DE2328098A1 (en) * 1973-06-01 1974-12-19 Cotarex Ets LOST FORMWORK FOR A CASED CONCRETE WALL
CH572141A5 (en) * 1973-07-31 1976-01-30 Anfra Ets Composite structural and insulant building wall block - has parallel opposed face load bearing plaques inter-spaced via rigid bonded bars
FR2432587B3 (en) * 1978-02-28 1982-10-29 Mazzon Rene

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0112213A1 (en) * 1982-11-25 1984-06-27 Vibro Ouest S.A. Externally insulated breeze-block and process for assembling such a block

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0127542A1 (en) 1984-12-05
AT29048T (en) 1987-09-15
FR2546556B1 (en) 1985-11-15
DE3465504D1 (en) 1987-09-24
FR2546556A1 (en) 1984-11-30

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