EP0033372B1 - Braking gear for valve controlled internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Braking gear for valve controlled internal combustion engines Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0033372B1
EP0033372B1 EP80107377A EP80107377A EP0033372B1 EP 0033372 B1 EP0033372 B1 EP 0033372B1 EP 80107377 A EP80107377 A EP 80107377A EP 80107377 A EP80107377 A EP 80107377A EP 0033372 B1 EP0033372 B1 EP 0033372B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
camshaft
cam
control shaft
auxiliary cam
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP80107377A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0033372A1 (en
Inventor
Jürgen Dipl.-Ing. Wahnschaffe
Andreas Deckert
Helmut Müller
Hubert Abermeth
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Kloeckner Humboldt Deutz AG
Original Assignee
Kloeckner Humboldt Deutz AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19803003566 priority Critical patent/DE3003566A1/en
Priority to DE3003566 priority
Application filed by Kloeckner Humboldt Deutz AG filed Critical Kloeckner Humboldt Deutz AG
Publication of EP0033372A1 publication Critical patent/EP0033372A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0033372B1 publication Critical patent/EP0033372B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D13/00Controlling the engine output power by varying inlet or exhaust valve operating characteristics, e.g. timing
    • F02D13/02Controlling the engine output power by varying inlet or exhaust valve operating characteristics, e.g. timing during engine operation
    • F02D13/04Controlling the engine output power by varying inlet or exhaust valve operating characteristics, e.g. timing during engine operation using engine as brake
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L1/00Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear
    • F01L1/02Valve drive
    • F01L1/04Valve drive by means of cams, camshafts, cam discs, eccentrics or the like
    • F01L1/08Shape of cams
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L13/00Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations
    • F01L13/06Modifications of valve-gear to facilitate reversing, braking, starting, changing compression ratio, or other specific operations for braking

Description

  • The invention relates to a braking device for a valve-controlled internal combustion engine for motor vehicles, in which each cylinder has at least one exhaust valve which can be controlled in the opening direction via a camshaft with a main cam for driving operation and with an additional cam which engages in braking mode, the additional cam in the plane of the main cam and is arranged so as to be retractable in the camshaft and can be actuated by a control shaft arranged in the axis of rotation of the camshaft.
  • Motor vehicles with a permissible total weight of more than 9 tons have, in addition to the prescribed service brake and parking brake, a third braking device, the so-called engine brake, which is designed as a continuous brake.
  • A known engine brake device (DE-A-1 526 485) has a camshaft with two cams for each exhaust valve, which are arranged one behind the other. The second cam works together with a hydraulic tappet, via which the corresponding exhaust valve can also be operated in braking mode. The second cam is arranged on the camshaft in such a way that it opens the starting valve at or near the end of the compression stroke, so that compressed air is released from the cylinder and energy can escape, which would otherwise move the piston downward during its subsequent expansion stroke . This ensures that the internal combustion engine must be driven even in the phase of the expansion stroke, since the piston moved downward is not moved by the compressed air, but is driven by the moving vehicle via the crankshaft.
  • The disadvantage of the device described in DE-A-1 526485, however, is that for each exhaust valve on the camshaft there is a second cam provided with an axial distance, so that the camshaft is built much longer than usual. Since the extended camshaft has to be accommodated in the cylinder head or in the engine housing, the whole engine has to build longer. However, given the limited space available today, this is hardly possible due to the demand for high power density with the smallest possible space.
  • A generic internal combustion engine is known from GB-A-371 519. The internal combustion engine described there shows a camshaft with an additional cam, which is actuated by a control shaft which is axially displaceable in the camshaft. Here, the additional cam is arranged in the plane of the main cam and retractable in the camshaft. This additional cam is actuated by the axially displaceable control shaft inside the camshaft. It is disadvantageous here that the displaceable control shaft is usually moved against spring pressure that the spring force is transmitted to the camshaft and thus to the bearings of the camshaft. This creates high axial forces in the camshaft bearing, so that special axial bearings must be provided for the camshaft and must be dimensioned accordingly in order to absorb the actuating forces of the control shaft.
  • From FR-A-1 461 817 an internal combustion engine is also known, which is started with a hand crank. For this purpose, a decompression device is to work with the hand crank during the starting of the internal combustion engine in order to keep the starting forces to be applied low. For this purpose, the decompression device has a wide shaft with centrifugal weight, which is fastened to the camshaft and is axially offset and eccentrically mounted to it and which cooperates with a bolt penetrating the camshaft in the center, the bolt being arranged next to the cam for the exhaust valve in such a way that it is the exhaust valve opens when the centrifugal weight is at rest and can no longer reach when the centrifugal weight is deflected. Such a device, which automatically switches on the decompression only during the starting process, that is to say at lower engine speeds, and switches it off automatically at higher engine speeds, that is to say from a low idling engine speed, can be provided with an engine brake device which must be switched on and off arbitrarily by the operator of the engine. not be compared.
  • The object of the present invention is to design the actuating device for the additional cam in the generic internal combustion engine in such a way that the lowest possible load on the camshaft and its bearings occurs.
  • This object is achieved in that the control shaft rotates with the camshaft, has an eccentric in the area of the additional cam and is rotatably mounted relative to the camshaft against the force of a spring, with no axial displacement of the control shaft taking place in that an end face of the control shaft protrudes from the camshaft and is provided with a hydraulically operating clutch, one clutch half being attached to the end face and the other clutch half to the housing of the internal combustion engine.
  • The embodiment of the invention has the advantage that no axial forces occur in the camshaft bearing and by rotating the control shaft without axial displacement accordingly do not have to be intercepted. In addition, there is no mechanical friction between the control shaft and the camshaft or between the control shaft and the actuating mechanism, since the only hydraulic friction occurring here in the hydraulic clutch does not cause wear, but only generates heat in the hydraulic oil. As the hydraulic oil, the lubricating oil is preferably taken from the lubricating oil circuit of the internal combustion engine and is also cooled back there by the recooling device. In addition, this embodiment has the advantage that the lubricating oil of the internal combustion engine does not cool down too much during braking, which usually has a negative effect on the wear behavior.
  • A particularly advantageous cooperating with the control shaft additional cam is characterized in that it is constructed essentially cylindrical and is rotatably attached to the control shaft. To guide this additional cam in the main cam, it is advantageous if it widens like a cup in the direction of displacement. Here, it is easily possible to optimize the guide surface for a management task without great manufacturing expenditure. This type of additional cam allows a clear assignment of its position to the position of the control shaft and thus to the operating state of the hydraulic clutch rotating the control shaft.
  • Experiments have shown that it is advantageous to arrange the cam tip of the additional cam in the direction of rotation of the camshaft in the range from 160 ° to 200 ° in front of the main cam tip. This means that the exhaust valve is opened about 80 ° before top dead center in braking operation, so that the piston can push the already compressed air through the exhaust valve into the exhaust system, which creates an additional braking effect of the engine, since it is there on the closed Brake flap hits.
  • If the additional cam is designed in such a way that it closes when top dead center is reached, the advantage is achieved that provision of the cylinders with back pressure from the exhaust system is avoided and even the residual air remaining in top dead center in the cylinder creates a negative pressure generated, which also represents another additional braking effect. Due to these opening and closing conditions, the highest possible brake line is achieved without causing damage to the internal combustion engine as a result of difficulties in lubricating the cylinder.
  • The invention is explained in more detail below on the basis of a preferred exemplary embodiment.
  • They represent:
    • 1 shows a longitudinal section through a camshaft with its end bearing and with a control shaft;
    • Fig. A cross section through an exhaust valve cam of the camshaft according to Fig. 1;
    • 3 shows an end view of the camshaft according to FIG. 1.
  • 1 shows a longitudinal section through a hollow-drilled camshaft 1 which is mounted in an internal combustion engine (not shown) in slide bearings 2 in the housing 3 or cylinder head. At its end, not shown, it is driven by a gearwheel. However, any other type of drive is also possible.
  • In the axis of rotation 5 of the camshaft 1, a control shaft 6 is mounted, which rotates with the camshaft 1 and is still relatively rotatable relative to the latter. It has a hydraulically operating coupling 30 on its free end face. The coupling 30 consists of a coupling half 30.1 firmly connected to the control shaft and of a coupling half 30.2 arranged in the housing 3 so as to be screwable. The clutch is supplied with oil from the internal combustion engine via a supply line 31. A gap is provided between the two coupling halves, which serves for the oil flow so that the coupling empties automatically when the oil supply is switched off.
  • The camshaft 1 shown in FIG. 1 also has two cams 11, 12, of which the cam 11 controls an exhaust valve, not shown here, and the cam 12 controls an intake valve, also not shown, of the internal combustion engine. Approximately 160 ° in the direction of rotation of the camshaft in front of the cam tip of the cam 11, the cam has an opening 13 in which an additional cam 14 is arranged so as to be retractable.
  • The additional cam 14 is rotatably attached to an eccentric 32 by gripping its cheeks over the center of the eccentric base circle. The additional cam 14 has a keich-shaped outer contour. The cup-shaped edge 40 also serves as a guide for the additional cam in the opening 13. This also ensures that the additional cam 14 can move back and forth with the control shaft 6 due to its eccentric attachment in the opening 13 due to its eccentric attachment.
  • In the position shown in Fig. 1, the additional cam 14 is completely sunk in the opening 13 so that it can not control the exhaust valve. In this position, the control shaft 6 of the torsion spring 33, which is embedded in an annular recess 36 in the camshaft 1 and clamped between the latter and the coupling half 30.1, via a nose 37 on the coupling half 30.1 against a stop 35 in the camshaft 1 is pressed in.
  • When driving, the clutch 30 is not filled. So that the torsion spring 33 comes into play, so that the control shaft is rotated such that the additional cam 14 remains in its retracted position, as shown in Fig. 1.
  • In braking operation, the hydraulically operating clutch 30 is filled by the supply line 31. The filling creates a frictional connection between the coupling half 30.1 rotating with the camshaft and the standing half 30.2. As a result, the control shaft 6 is rotated counter to the force of the spring 33, namely by approximately 180 ° until a further stop 38 (FIG. 3). Both stops 35 and 38 are connected to one another via a semicircular annular groove 39 in which the nose 37 is guided. During this rotation, the eccentric 32 pushes the additional cam 14 out of the opening 13 by the amount of its eccentricity. The additional cam 14 thus comes into operative connection with the outlet valve, so that it is additionally opened.
  • The additional opening of the exhaust valve achieved by the invention in braking operation due to the additional cam now causes the piston of the internal combustion engine controlled in this way to push a substantial part of the intake air into the exhaust line during its compression stroke. When the top dead center of the piston is reached, the exhaust valve is closed by the additional cam. With subsequent expansion, no work stored in the form of compressed air can move the piston downwards. In order to be able to carry out the downward stroke, the crankshaft must be driven otherwise. This happens during braking operation via the gearbox and the wheels through the moving vehicle. It is even possible to arrange the additional cam in such a way that a slight negative pressure is created in the cylinder during the expansion stroke of the piston. This significantly increases the braking effect of the internal combustion engine.
  • If the brake mode is switched back to driving mode, the hydraulically operating clutch 30 is no longer filled with oil through the supply line 31. The oil can now flow out of the hydraulically operating clutch 30 through gaps between the two clutch halves 30.1 and 30.2 and thus returns to the oil sump of the internal combustion engine via corresponding channels. By emptying the clutch 30, the torsion spring 33 can turn the control shaft 6 back so that the additional cam 14 is retracted. Thus, the cam 11 again takes over the control of the exhaust valve in the usual way.

Claims (6)

1. A braking arrangement for a valve-controlled internal combustion engine, in which each engine cylinder is provided with at least one exhaust valve arranged to be moved into its opening position via the camshaft (1) by a main cam (11) operating when the vehicle is in its movable state and additionally by an auxiliary cam (14) operating when the engine is used for braking, in which the auxiliary cam (14) is located in the plane containing the main cam (11), is recessible into the camshaft (1) and is arranged to be actuated by a control shaft (6), characterized in that the control shaft (6) rotates with the camshaft (1), is provided in the region of the auxiliary cam (14) with a lobe (32) and is mounted so as to be rotatable - against the bias of a spring (33) - in relation to the camshaft (1) in such a way as to render its axial displacement impossible, and in that one end face of the control shaft (6) protrudes from the camshaft (1) and is provided with a hydraulically operable clutch (30) one clutch half (30.1) of which is fastened to said end face and the other clutch half (30.2) to the casing (3) of the internal combustion engine.
2. A braking arrangement according to claim 1, characterized in that the auxiliary cam (14) is rotatably secured to the lobe (32) of the control shaft (6).
3. A braking arrangement according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that the auxiliary cam (14) in the direction of its axial displacement is diametrically enlarged like a goblet.
4. A braking arrangement according to claim 3, characterized in that the circumference of the goblet-like enlargement acts as a guide of the auxiliary cam (14) in a recess (13) of the camshaft (1).
5. A braking arrangement according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the tip of the auxiliary cam (14) is located within a range of between 160° and 200° in front - viewed in the direction of rotation of the camshaft (1) - of the tip of the main cam.
6. A braking arrangement according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the side faces of the auxiliary cam are such that upon reaching the upper dead centre the associated exhaust valve closes.
EP80107377A 1980-02-01 1980-11-26 Braking gear for valve controlled internal combustion engines Expired EP0033372B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19803003566 DE3003566A1 (en) 1980-02-01 1980-02-01 Brake device for a valve controlled internal combustion engine
DE3003566 1980-02-01

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0033372A1 EP0033372A1 (en) 1981-08-12
EP0033372B1 true EP0033372B1 (en) 1983-12-21

Family

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP80107377A Expired EP0033372B1 (en) 1980-02-01 1980-11-26 Braking gear for valve controlled internal combustion engines

Country Status (3)

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US (2) US4378765A (en)
EP (1) EP0033372B1 (en)
DE (1) DE3003566A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2291157A (en) * 1994-07-08 1996-01-17 Outboard Marine Corp Cylinder decompression arrangement in cam shaft
DE10038916B4 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-02-19 Fev Motorentechnik Gmbh Piston engine with gas exchange valves that can be controlled to generate additional braking power

Families Citing this family (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4455977A (en) * 1981-08-31 1984-06-26 Tecumseh Products Company Compression brake system
GB2105785B (en) * 1981-09-10 1984-10-03 Honda Motor Co Ltd Controlling opening of multiple i c engine intake and exhaust valves
JPH0456123B2 (en) * 1983-06-29 1992-09-07 Honda Motor Co Ltd
USRE33499E (en) * 1983-06-29 1990-12-18 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for the control of valve operations in internal combustion engine
US4696266A (en) * 1985-05-14 1987-09-29 Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Decompression apparatus for engines
EP0267244A4 (en) * 1986-05-21 1989-06-21 Bennett Automotive Technology Engines for use with gaseous fuels.
DE3900739C2 (en) * 1989-01-12 1991-03-14 Man Nutzfahrzeuge Ag, 8000 Muenchen, De
SE466320B (en) * 1989-02-15 1992-01-27 Volvo Ab Foerfarande and apparatus foer engine braking with a four stroke foerbraenningsmotor
DE3920528C1 (en) * 1989-06-22 1990-06-07 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft, 7000 Stuttgart, De IC engine camshaft drive - incorporates braking system controlled by microprocessor to eliminate drive chain chatter
IT1255447B (en) * 1991-11-08 1995-10-31 Iveco Fiat Motor provided with a continuous braking device, particularly for an industrial vehicle.
US5540201A (en) * 1994-07-29 1996-07-30 Caterpillar Inc. Engine compression braking apparatus and method
US5647318A (en) * 1994-07-29 1997-07-15 Caterpillar Inc. Engine compression braking apparatus and method
US5526784A (en) * 1994-08-04 1996-06-18 Caterpillar Inc. Simultaneous exhaust valve opening braking system
US5809964A (en) * 1997-02-03 1998-09-22 Diesel Engine Retarders, Inc. Method and apparatus to accomplish exhaust air recirculation during engine braking and/or exhaust gas recirculation during positive power operation of an internal combustion engine
US5787859A (en) * 1997-02-03 1998-08-04 Diesel Engine Retarders, Inc. Method and apparatus to accomplish exhaust air recirculation during engine braking and/or exhaust gas recirculation during positive power operation of an internal combustion engine
US5957097A (en) * 1997-08-13 1999-09-28 Harley-Davidson Motor Company Internal combustion engine with automatic compression release
JP4020346B2 (en) * 1998-10-12 2007-12-12 ヤマハ発動機株式会社 Engine decompression mechanism
US6189497B1 (en) 1999-04-13 2001-02-20 Gary L. Griffiths Variable valve lift and timing camshaft support mechanism for internal combustion engines
AT500680B8 (en) * 2004-07-01 2007-02-15 Avl List Gmbh Device for switching on an additional cam element for an internal combustion engine
DE102005023006B4 (en) * 2005-05-19 2019-05-23 Daimler Ag Camshaft adjustment device
DE102007056749A1 (en) * 2007-11-26 2009-05-28 Knorr-Bremse Systeme für Nutzfahrzeuge GmbH Valve train of an internal combustion engine with means for engine braking
DE102010011455A1 (en) 2010-03-15 2011-09-15 Schaeffler Technologies Gmbh & Co. Kg Reciprocating internal combustion engine with adjustable inflating element
DE102010011454A1 (en) 2010-03-15 2011-09-15 Schaeffler Technologies Gmbh & Co. Kg Reciprocating internal combustion engine with decompression engine brake
DE102011005575A1 (en) 2011-03-15 2012-09-20 Schaeffler Technologies Gmbh & Co. Kg Valve gear with additional lift in the cam base circle

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US1439798A (en) * 1921-07-09 1922-12-26 Wright Aeronautical Corp Compression-relief device for internal-combustion engines
GB371519A (en) * 1931-02-18 1932-04-28 Ici Ltd Compression release device for internal-combustion engines
FR1461817A (en) * 1965-01-12 1966-12-09 Tecumseh Products Co decompression mechanism for internal combustion engines
DE1526485A1 (en) * 1965-10-01 1970-03-19 Jacobs Mfg Co A brake device for internal combustion engines
FR2298000A1 (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-08-13 Bernard Moteurs A decompression to facilitate the start of internal combustion engines

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FR334619A (en) * 1903-08-13 1903-12-28 Gustave Cornilleau extensible cam for regulating engine
US862448A (en) * 1906-04-20 1907-08-06 Gustave Cornilleau Explosive-engine.
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GB268984A (en) * 1926-05-13 1927-04-14 Triumph Cycle Co Ltd Improvements in the construction of cams for valve operating mechanism
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US3395689A (en) * 1966-09-15 1968-08-06 Studebaker Corp Engine decompression apparatus
US3523465A (en) * 1968-10-31 1970-08-11 William Emory Harrell Adjustable cam shafts
FR2258561B1 (en) * 1974-01-21 1976-10-08 Renault
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Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1439798A (en) * 1921-07-09 1922-12-26 Wright Aeronautical Corp Compression-relief device for internal-combustion engines
GB371519A (en) * 1931-02-18 1932-04-28 Ici Ltd Compression release device for internal-combustion engines
FR1461817A (en) * 1965-01-12 1966-12-09 Tecumseh Products Co decompression mechanism for internal combustion engines
DE1526485A1 (en) * 1965-10-01 1970-03-19 Jacobs Mfg Co A brake device for internal combustion engines
FR2298000A1 (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-08-13 Bernard Moteurs A decompression to facilitate the start of internal combustion engines

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2291157A (en) * 1994-07-08 1996-01-17 Outboard Marine Corp Cylinder decompression arrangement in cam shaft
GB2291157B (en) * 1994-07-08 1997-12-03 Outboard Marine Corp Cylinder decompression arrangement in cam shaft
DE10038916B4 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-02-19 Fev Motorentechnik Gmbh Piston engine with gas exchange valves that can be controlled to generate additional braking power

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US4440126A (en) 1984-04-03
US4378765A (en) 1983-04-05
EP0033372A1 (en) 1981-08-12
DE3003566A1 (en) 1981-08-06

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