EP0025042A1 - Novel valve employing hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes - Google Patents

Novel valve employing hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes

Info

Publication number
EP0025042A1
EP0025042A1 EP19800900453 EP80900453A EP0025042A1 EP 0025042 A1 EP0025042 A1 EP 0025042A1 EP 19800900453 EP19800900453 EP 19800900453 EP 80900453 A EP80900453 A EP 80900453A EP 0025042 A1 EP0025042 A1 EP 0025042A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
liquid
chamber
secondary
primary
flow
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP19800900453
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0025042A4 (en
Inventor
A. J. Muetterties
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Abbott Laboratories
Original Assignee
Abbott Laboratories
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US1622779A priority Critical
Priority to US16227 priority
Priority to US06/016,228 priority patent/US4223695A/en
Priority to US16228 priority
Priority to US06/016,230 priority patent/US4250879A/en
Application filed by Abbott Laboratories filed Critical Abbott Laboratories
Publication of EP0025042A1 publication Critical patent/EP0025042A1/en
Publication of EP0025042A4 publication Critical patent/EP0025042A4/en
Priority to US16230 priority
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/1407Infusion of two or more substances
    • A61M5/1408Infusion of two or more substances in parallel, e.g. manifolds, sequencing valves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/36Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests with means for eliminating or preventing injection or infusion of air into body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D19/00Degasification of liquids
    • B01D19/0031Degasification of liquids by filtration

Abstract

Des systemes et dispositifs d'ecoulement par gravite permettent l'administration sequentielle de liquide medicaux ou un premier liquide d'une premiere source (11) peut etre administre a une vitesse d'ecoulement independante de la vitesse d'ecoulement d'un second liquide d'une seconde source (13). Systems and by gravity flow devices permit the sequential administration of medical fluid or a first liquid from a first source (11) can be administered at a rate independent of the flow rate of flow of a second liquid a second source (13). Une barriere d'air combinee a une soupape de sequence ou concordance des liquides ayant une chambre (32) commande la concordance des differents debits et empeche l'introduction accident elle d'air lorsque la seconde source est epuisee au moyen d'une barriere hydrophile (45). An air barrier combined with a sequence valve or corresponding liquid having a chamber (32) controls the corresponding different flows and prevents the introduction of air accident it when the second source is exhausted by means of a hydrophilic barrier (45). La chambre de soupape (32) est divisee en deux chambres de debit separees (34, 41) qui sont en communication pour le passage des liquides avec les sources respectives (11, 13) et qui communiquent entre elles pour le passage d'air au moyen d'une membrane hydrophobe (53). The valve chamber (32) is divided into two chambers separated flow (34, 41) which are in communication for the passage of fluids with the respective sources (11, 13) and communicating with each other for the passage of air means of a hydrophobic membrane (53).

Description

NOVELVALVEEMPLOYINGHYDROPHOBICANDHYDROPHILICMEMBRANES

Background of the Invention

The present invention relates to systems and equipment sets for the administration of medical liquids to a patient, and more particularly, to systems and equip- 5 ment sets for the sequential administration of a plurality of medical liquids employing a novel hydrophobic and hy- drophilic membrane valve providing a combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve therefor.

The parenteral administration of medical liquids

10 to patients is a long established practice. Liquids in¬ cluding amino acids, blood, dextrose, electrolytes, and. saline are commonly administered to patients over pro¬ longed periods of time. Generally, these liquids are ad¬ ministered from a glass bottle or plastic bag suspended

15 above the patient and containing 250 - 2,000 ml. of the liquid. Such prolonged infusions commonly are admin¬ istered at a flow rate of 10 - 150 ml./hr.

Frequently, the patient must receive an addi¬ tive or secondary liquid while the prolonged infusion is

20 being administered. Preferably, this secondary liquid should be administered through the same hypodermic needle to avoid unnecessary pain and trauma to the patient of additional venipunctures. To avoid dilution and incom- patability problems, it is also preferable that the flow

25 of the primary liquid employed in the prolonged infusion be temporarily interrupted, the secondary liquid admin¬ istered and the flow of the primary liquid resumed. Gen¬ erally, the secondary liquid will be administered at a flow rate of 50 - 250 ml./hr.

30 Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois manufactures a y-type set for the sequential administra¬ tion of primary and secondary liquids. These VENOSET piggyback sets allow the prolonged infusion of a primary liquid to be temporarily halted by means of a backcheck

35 valve in the primary liquid flow path to administer a secondary liquid without the need for a new venipuncture. Then, when the secondary liquid has been depleted, the backcheck valve automatically opens to resume flow of

O PI -2- the primary liquid. An important characteristic of this system is that the secondary liquid container must be suspended at a higher height than the primary liquid con¬ tainer to establish the liquid pressure differential that closes the backcheck valve in the primary liquid flow path. A similar system is disclosed in U. S. Patent 3,886,937 granted June 3, 1975 to D. Bobo, et a_l. , as¬ signed to American Hospital Supply Corp., and entitled "Medical Administration Set for Dispensing Plural Medical Liquids". Another similar system is disclosed in U. S. Patent 4,105,029 granted August 8, 1978 to R. Virag, assigned to Baxter Travenol and entitled "Intravenous Solution Set Having An Air Access Site and Constricted Inner Diameter Portion". An inherent disadvantage of the above-mentioned prior art medical liquid administration systems is that they each resume the flow of primary liquid at the rate the secondary liquid had been flowing. Because the pre¬ ferred flow rate of the secondary liquid is generally greater than the preferred flow rate of the primary liquid, when the primary liquid resumes flow at that rate, the patient can be administered an excessive amount of primary liquid, unless the flow rate of the primary liquid is adjusted to the preferred primary liquid flow rate soon after the flow of primary liquid resumes.

A remedy to the above-described disadvantage would appear to be provided by simply incorporating flow control devices into both the primary and secondary liquid flow paths. However, while this remedy does provide dual flow rates for the primary and secondary liquids, it is unacceptable. That is, because the common tube of the y-set must be able to accommodate both flow rates, when the primary liquid is flowing at a slower rate than the secondary liquid was, there will be an unfilled volume or void in the common tube. To fill that void, air will be drawn into the common tube from the depleted secondary container. That air will then be driven into the patient by the weight of the primary liquid, thereby causing a serious embolism and perhaps, the patient's death. Accordingly, it will be apparent that a device for sequencing the flow of a plurality of liquids and preventing the flow of air therethrough when the liquids have been depleted would be advantageous to the medical profession.

Summary of the Invention

The primary object of the present invention, therefore, is to provide a combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve for the sequential administration of medical liquids at dual flow rates that will not draw air from the liquid containers when the liquids have been de¬ pleted.

In accordance with this and other objects, there is provided by the present invention a gravitational flow system for the sequential administration of medical liquids to a patient including a primary liquid container, a primary tube, a secondary liquid container, a secondary tube, and a common tube all connected in fluid communica¬ tion to form a primary liquid flow path and a secondary liquid flow path. The primary liquid flow path includes the primary and common tube, while the secondary liquid flow path includes the secondary and common tubes.

To establish the dual flow rates of the primary and secondary liquids, a secondary flow control means in the secondary liquid flow path for adjusting the flow rate of the secondary liquid and a primary flow control means on the primary tube for adjusting the flow rate of the primary liquid to a rate independent of the flow rate of the secondary liquid are provided. The primary tube includes a valve which allows primary liquid to flow from the primary container whenever the height of primary liquid is greater than or equal to the height of the secondary liquid in the system. The valve prevents primary liquid from flowing out of the pri- mary container whenever the height of the primary liquid is less than the height of the secondary liquid in the system. The valve is also impermeable by air when the primary liquid is depleted from the primary container. An air barrier in the secondary liquid flow path that is substantially impervious to air is provided to insure that no air is drawn from the secondary container when the secondary liquid is depleted. The secondary tube air barrier and primary tube valve are housed in a combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve.

Brief Description of the Drawing

Other objects and attendant advantages will be- come obvious to those skilled in the art by reading the following detailed description in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several figures thereof and wherein: FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of the efficacious system for the sequential administration of medical liquids at dual flow rates contemplated by this invention,

FIGS. 2 - 5 are front elevational views par- tially in cross-section illustrating the operation of a medical liquid administration equipment set embodying the system of FIG. 1 and employing a preferred combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve, and

FIG. 6 is a front elevational view of a por- tion of another medical liquid administration set embody¬ ing the system of FIG. 1 and employing an alternate ver¬ sion of the combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve.

Best Mode for Carrying out the Invention Referring to the drawing, there is shown in

FIG. 1, a schematic block diagram of the basic elements of the gravitational flow system for the sequential ad¬ ministration of medical liquids at dual flow rates con¬ templated by this invention. The diagram depicts a primary liquid container

11 that contains a primary medical liquid to be admin¬ istered to a patient for a prolonged period of time. The

OMPI -5- diagram also depicts a secondary liquid container 13 that contains a secondary medical liquid to be administered to the patient for a relatively short period of time, during which time the administration of the primary liquid 5 will be temporarily interrupted. As shown in the sets of FIGS. 2 and 5, containers 11 and 13 can be glass bottles, plastic flexible bags, or any other suitable container.

Primary container 11 and secondary container 13 are connected in fluid communication to a conventional

10 hypodermic needle 15 through a primary tube 17, a. second¬ ary tube 19, and a common tube 21. Thus, the primary liquid flow path from primary container 11 to needle 15 comprises primary tube 17 and common tube 21. Likewise, the secondary liquid flow path from secondary container

15 13 to needle 15 comprises secondary tube 19 and common tube 21.

The distal end of primary tube 17 is in fluid communication with primary container 11, preferably by means of a piercing pin 23 inserted into a puncturable

20 closure of container 11. Piercing pin 23 can have an integral drip chamber 25, and when container 11 is a glass bottle, as shown in the set of FIG. 2, an integral, filtered air vent 27. Such piercing pins, drip chambers and air vents are well known in the medical practice and

25 need not be more fully explained here.

The proximal end of primary tube 17 is joined in fluid communication to the distal end of common tube 21, preferably by a y-tube 29, it being understood that the primary, secondary and common legs of y-tube 29

30 constitute a portion of the primary, secondary and common tubes 17, 19 and 21, respectively. Primary tube 17 has a primary flow control 31 at any convenient loca¬ tion intermediate its ends for independently adjusting the rate of flow of the primary liquid .through the primary

35 liquid flow path. Preferably, as shown in FIGS. 2 - 6, primary flow control 31 can be a roller clamp. However, it can be any other adjustable device that will reliably maintain a desired primary liquid flow rate. The distal end of secondary tube 19 is in fluid communication with secondary container 13, preferably, by means of a piercing pin 35 inserted into a puncturable closure of container 13. Piercing pin 35 can have an integral drip chamber 37, and when container 13 is a glass bottle, as shown in FIG. 2, an integral, filtered air vent 39. The proximal end of secondary tube 19 is joined in fluid communication to the distal end of common tube 21, preferably, by a y-tube 29. A secondary flow control 43 is disposed at any convenient location in the secondary liquid flow path. Preferably, as shown in FIGS. 2 - 6, secondary flow control 43 can be a roller clamp. However, it can be any other adjustable device that can reliably maintain a desired secondary liquid flow rate.

A combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve having a housing 32 is shown in FIG. 1. Housing 32 has first and second chambers 33, 41, as shown in FIGS. 2 - 6, that are formed by a vertical wall 34. First and second chambers 33, 41 each have inlet and outlet ports thereto through housing 32 that are respectively connected in fluid communication to the other portions of the primary or secondary tubes 17, 19. Primary tube 17 thus includes first chamber 33 of housing 32, while secondary tube 19 includes second chamber 41.

First chamber 33 has valve means associated with its ports that allow primary liquid to flow from primary container 11 whenever the height of the primary liquid is greater than or equal to the height of the secondary liquid in the system of FIG. 1. Further, the valve means associated with first chamber 33 prevents the flow of primary liquid from primary container 11 whenever the height of the primary liquid is less than the height of the secondary liquid in the system. . As shown in FIG. 2 and more fully explained in the following explanation of the operation of the sets of this invention, the valve means associated with first chamber 33 is a hydrophilic membrane 38 which covers out¬ let port 36 at the top of first chamber 33. Preferably, -7- inlet port 30 is located at the bottom of first chamber 33. As shown in FIG. 6, first chamber 33 has its outlet port 36 at the bottom and its inlet port 37 at the top and inlet port 37 is provided a disk valve 38. It will be readily apparent that various other valves can be pro¬ vided to outlet 36 or inlet 37 of first chamber 33.

Second chamber 41 of combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve housing 32 as shown in FIGS. 2 - 6 preferably has an inlet port at its top and an out- let port at its bottom. Second chamber 41 has means associated with its ports that are substantially imper¬ vious to air while the set is in use and prevent the flow of air through the secondary flow path. As shown in FIG. 2, the outlet from second chamber 41 is covered by a hydrophilic membrane filter 45.

Hydrophilic membranes 38, 45 are impermeable to air when wet, which they are during the use of the sets of this invention. The hydrophilic filters can be formed from materials such as a cellulose acetate mater- ial produced by the Millipore Filter Corporation of Bed¬ ford, Massachusetts or the Sartorius-Membranfilter GmbH of Weender Landstr, West Germany.

The outlet from second chamber 41 in the com¬ bined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve housing 32 of FIG. 6 is provided a float valve 47 which floats away from the outlet when liquid is present in second chamber 41, but seats or closes over the outlet when no liquid is present. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous other valves can be employed to perform the function of float valve 47, so long as the valve forms a barrier impermeable by air when no liquid is present in second chamber 41.

The housing 32 of the sets shown in FIGS. 2 and 6 each include an air vent tube 47 having a slide clamp 49 and a filtered opening 50. Alternatively, opening 50 can be filtered by a hydrophobic membrane filter which is permeable by air, but not liquids. The hydrophobic filters can be formed of polyfluorotetraethylene, hexa- fluoropropylene/tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, or other

Q..?I . VIFO _ suitable materials. One such filter is made of Gelman ANH-450 material made by Gelman Instruments of Ann Arbor Michigan. When such a hydrophobic filter is used, slide clamp 49 can be eliminated, as shown in the set of FIG. 5, which includes both a hydrophobic filter over opening 50 and a hydrophilic membrane filter 51 between opening 50 and second chamber 41. Alternatively, the air vent can be eliminated altogether in those instances where the second chamber 41 can be primed through its inlet. Each embodiment of the system of FIG. 1 shown in FIGS. 2 - 6 includes a slide clamp 51 near the distal end of secondary tube 19 and a slide clamp 52 near the proximal end of common tube 21.

The combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve shown in FIG. 2 has an aperture in vertical wall

34 near its top which is covered by a hydrophobic membrane 53. Membrane 53 prevents liquid from passing between first and second chambers 33, 41 but permits air to pass. Second chamber 41 has a reservoir 55 for liquid which has an open top located directly under the opening to second chamber 41. Preferably, vertical wall 34 can be an inte¬ gral part of reservoir 55.

For simplicity, the equipment sets embodying the system of FIG. 1 have been depicted and described as integral units of FIGS. 2 - 6. It is apparent, however, that the sets can be manufactured and assembled in sub¬ sets of the entire set and that each subset will accord¬ ingly be provided such resealable closures, piercing means, adapters, etc. as are necessary to permit their easy as- semblage into the complete set at an appropriate time.

It will also be apparent that some of the several compo¬ nents of the sets of FIGS. 2 - 6 can be interchanged or combined in combinations other than those specifically depicted.

Operation of the System

As depicted in FIGS. 2 - 5, primary container 11 is suspended in space at a height above the patient by means of a hook 77 and stand 79. It will be apparent that other means for suspending the containers of this invention are well known.

To insure that all the air that might be forced into the patient has been removed from the set, the set is initially primed by first closing all slide clamps 49, 51, and 52, if present. Piercing pin 23 is then inserted into the resealable closure of primary container 11. Primary flow control 31 is fully opened. If the set of FIG. 6 is being used, it will be inverted at this time. Slide clamp 52 is opened to allow primary liquid to flow through the primary liquid flow path and force all the air therefrom that might be forced into the patient. Slide clamp 52 is then closed. In the sets of FIGS. 2 and 5, air will pass through hydrophilic membrane 38 initially until the pri¬ mary liquid fills first chamber 33 and then wets hydro¬ philic membrane 38 as it passes through it. Then air will no longer pass through membrane 38. Secondary flow control 43 and clamp 49 on air vent 47 of second chamber 41 are then opened to allow pri¬ mary liquid to flow into, or back-prime, secondary flow path 19 until the liquid is above and forces all the air .therein above the outlet to second chamber 41, in the sets of FIGS. 2 and 6. Slide clamp 49 is then closed. When the set of FIG. 5 is employed, primary liquid will" flow into, or back-prime, secondary flow path 19 until liquid reaches and wets hydrophilic membrane 51, which can then no longer vent air, thereby preventing the further flow of liquid into secondary tube 19. In the sets of FIGS.

2 and 5, liquid will have now wetted hydrophilic membrane 45 and air will not pass through it. A substantial vol¬ ume of air will remain in second chamber 41. Alterna¬ tively, if the set of FIG. 6 is fully assembled, slide clamp 51 can be opened to allow primary liquid to force air out of the entire secondary tube 19. Slide clamp 51 is then closed. Optionally, where the proximal end of second¬ ary tube 19 is detachable from y-tube 29, it will be readily apparent that secondary flow control; 43 can be fully closed during the priming of primary tube 17 and remain closed during the initial use of the set for the administration of a. primary medical liquid. Subsequent¬ ly, when it is desired to administer a secondary liquid to a patient, piercing pin 35 at the distal end of sec¬ ondary tube 19 can be inserted into the resealable clo- sure of secondary container 13, the proximal end of secondary tube 19 detached from y-tube 29, slide clamp 51 opened and secondary liquid allowed to flow through secondary tube 19 until it reaches the proximal end thereof. Slide clamp 51 is then closed and the proximal end of secondary tube 19 reattached to y-tube 29.

Common tube 21, which preferably has an adapter at its proximal end open to the flow of liquid therefrom, is next connected to needle 15, which will generally have been already inserted into a vein of the patient. Slide clamp 52 will then be opened to allow primary liquid to flow through the primary liquid flow path to the pa¬ tient's vein. Primary flow control 31 is then adjusted to a setting that will provide the desired flow rate for a prolonged infusion of primary liquid into the patient, generally 10 - 150 ml./hr. As is well known in the medi¬ cal practice, that flow rate can be visually observed by viewing and counting drops passing through the primary drip chamber 25.

Subsequently, when it is desired to administer a secondary liquid to a patient using the set of FIG. 6, piercing pin 35 of secondary tube 19 is inserted into the resealable closure of secondary container 13. If any por¬ tion of secondary tube 19 has not already been primed, it can now be primed with secondary container 13 held at a height well below primary container 11, secondary tube slide clamp 51 opened, and common tube slide clamp 52 closed. Primary liquid then is allowed to flow into, or back-prime, secondary tube 19 until all the air that can be forced into the patient has been expelled from second¬ ary tube 19. Common tube slide clamp 52 is then opened.

Secondary container 13 is then suspended in space from stand 79 at a height substantially greater than the height of primary container 11. Secondary liquid will then immediately begin to flow through the secondary liquid flow path. The pressure of secondary liquid on the primary liquid at y-tube 29 will force the primary liquid against disk valve 38 closing inlet port 37 to first chamber 33 and preventing the flow of pri¬ mary liquid from primary container 11. Secondary flow control 43 is then adjusted to a desired flow rate, typically 50 - 250 ml./hr., for the secondary liquid, which will then flow until the liquid in secondary con- tainer 13 is depleted. It will be apparent that the initial liquid flowing from secondary tube 19 will be the primary liquid with which it was primed.

Alternatively, when it is desired to admini¬ ster a secondary liquid to a patient using the sets of FIGS. 2 or 5, piercing pin 35 of secondary tube 19 is inserted into the resealable closure of secondary con¬ tainer 13. If the portion of secondary tube 19 above the inlet port to second chamber 41 is detachable, it can then be detached and slide clamp 51 opened to force the air from that portion of tube 19. Slide clamp 51 is then closed and the tubjing attached to the inlet port to second chamber 41.

Secondary container 13 is then suspended in space at a height substantially greater than the height of primary container 11. The set will now be in the mode illustrated in FIG. 2.

When slide clamp 51 is opened, secondary liquid will then immediately begin to flow into reservoir 55 of second chamber 41. Because hydrophilic membrane 45 was wetted during the initial priming of the set and because slide clamp 49 is closed, or hydrophilic membrane 51 is wet, air can only escape from second chamber 41 through the aperture in vertical wall 34 into first chamber 33. Thus, as secondary liquid enters reservoir 55, the air it displaces will be forced through hydrophobic membrane 53 into first chamber 33 by the pressure of the secondary liquid. Because hydrophilic membrane 38 is wet, air in first chamber 33 cannot pass through it. Therefore, as the pressure of secondary liquid entering reservoir 55 continues to force air through membrane 53 into first chamber 33, that air will accumulate along the top wall of chamber 33. Because the pressure of secondary liquid forcing the air into chamber 33 is greater than the presr sure of primary liquid contacting the air, the air dis¬ places the primary liquid in first chamber 33.

The displaced primary liquid is forced away from outlet 36 of first chamber 33 through inlet 30 into primary container 11, as shown in FIG. 3. Thus, hydro¬ philic membrane 38 and the air displaced from second cham¬ ber 41 block the flow of primary liquid from primary con¬ tainer 11 through the primary liquid flow path as long as the height of secondary liquid in the system is greater than that of the primary liquid.

As shown in FIGS. 3 "and 5, once reservoir 55 becomes filled with secondary liquid, it will overflow reservoir 55 and-out of second chamber 41 through its out- let port. Secondary flow control 43 is then adjusted to a desired flow rate, typically 50 - 250 ml./hr., for the secondary liquid, which will then flow until the liquid in secondary container 13 is depleted. It will be appar¬ ent that the initial liquid flowing from secondary tube 19 will be the liquid with which it was primed.

When the height of primary liquid in the system of FIG. 1, as depicted in the sets of FIGS. 2 and 5 be¬ comes greater than the height of the secondary liquid, the valve means associated with the ports of first cha - ber 33 will immediately open and allow primary liquid to flow from the primary container at the flow rate to which primary flow control 31 is adjusted. In the set of FIG. 6, disk valve 38 will simply move away from inlet port 37 to first chamber 33. In the sets of FIGS. 2 and 5, because the pressure of the primary liquid pushing on the air at the top of first chamber 33 is now greater than that of the secondary liquid, the primary liquid forces the air back into second chamber 41, as shown in FIG. 4, thereby unlocking the "air lock" that had prevented pri¬ mary liquid from flowing out of first chamber 33.

The primary flow rate is independent of the sec¬ ondary flow rate. In those instances where it is less than or equal to the secondary flow rate, both primary and secondary liquid will flow through common tube 21, until air reaches the air barrier in second chamber 41. Then only primary liquid will enter common tube 21. The air barrier in second chamber 41 then prevents air from being drawn into common tube 21 and eventually to the patient's vein.

When primary container 11 becomes depleted of primary liquid,- the primary piercing pin 23 is merely re¬ moved therefrom and inserted into the resealable closure of a new primary container, which is then suspended in place of the previous container. When secondary container 13 becomes depleted of secondary liquid, it can be left empty until another secondary liquid is to be administered. . When another secondary liquid is to be administered, the secondary piercing pin 35 is merely removed from secondary container .13 and inserted into a new secondary liquid con¬ tainer. The combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve is then briefly inverted to spill any liquid from reservoir 55 remaining therein and the procedure used for initiating the flow of secondary liquid from the first secondary container is repeated.

Having described the invention in specific de¬ tail and exemplified the manner in which it may be carried into practice, it will now be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that innumerable variations, applica¬ tions, modifications and extensions of the basic prin¬ ciples involved may be made without departing from its sphere or scope.

Claims

I CLAIM :
1. A combined air barrier and liquid sequenc¬ ing valve providing separate flow paths therethrough for a first and second liquid, preventing the passage of air from said separate flow paths and effecting the automatic interruption of the flow of said first liquid whenever said second liquid is flowing therethrough under a great¬ er pressure than that of said first liquid and the auto¬ matic resumption of the flow of said first liquid when¬ ever the flow of said second liquid through said valve ceases, said valve comprising: a housing divided into first and second cham¬ bers by a vertical wall having an aperture therethrough, said aperture covered by a hydrophobic membrane, whereby air can pass between said first and second chamber, said first chamber having an inlet port there¬ to, and an outlet port at the top thereof covered by a hydrophilic membrane, whereby air is prevented from pass¬ ing through said outlet, said second chamber having an inlet port there- to, and an outlet port' therefrom covered by a hydrophilic membrane, whereby air is prevented from passing from said outlet, and a reservoir for liquid spaced between said inlet and outlet thereto, said reservoir having an open top located directly under said inlet port to said second chamber, whereby, with said primary liquid flowing through said first chamber, said secondary liquid enter¬ ing said second chamber through said inlet port thereto fills said reservoir until said secondary liquid over- flows from said reservoir and flows through said outlet port thereof and air present in said reservoir prior to its displacement therefrom by said secondary liquid es¬ capes from said second chamber through said hydrdophobic membrane covering said aperture in said vertical wall between said first and second chambers under the pressure of said second liquid, thereby forcing said first liquid away from said outlet to said first chamber and interrupt¬ ing the flow of said first liquid until the flow of said
G""._?I second liquid through said second chamber ceases and allows said first liquid to force said air through said hydrophobic membrane and resume flowing through said first chamber.
2. The combined air barrier and liquid se¬ quencing valve defined in Claim 1, wherein said inlet port to said first chamber is at the bottom thereof and said inlet and outlet ports to said second chamber are respectively at the top and bottom thereof.
3. The combined air barrier and liquid se¬ quencing valve defined in Claim 1 or 2, wherein said reservoir is integral to said vertical wall between said first and second chambers.
4. The combined air barrier and liquid se¬ quencing valve defined in Claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein said second chamber further includes a closable air vent thereto.
5. The combined air barrier and liquid se¬ quencing valve defined in Claim 4, wherein said air vent is covered by a hydrophobic membrane.
6. The combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve of Claim 5, wherein said air vent further includes a hydrophilic membrane between said second chamber and said hydrophobic membrane.
-16-
7. A gravitational flow system for the se¬ quential administration of medical liquids to a patient, comprising: a primary container suspended in space for containing a primary medical liquid, a primary tube having its distal end in fluid communication with said primary container for the flow of a primary medical liquid.therethrough, a secondary container suspended in space at a height greater than that of said primary container for containing a secondary medical liquid, a secondary tube having its distal end in fluid communication with said secondary container for the flow of a secondary medical liquid therethrough; a common tube having its distal end in fluid communication with the proximal ends of said primary and secondary tubes and its proximal end open for the flow of liquid therefrom to form a primary liquid flow path comprising said primary tube and said common tube and a secondary liquid flow path comprising said secondary tube and said common tube, a secondary flow control means in said second¬ ary liquid flow path for adjusting the flow rate of said secondary liquid therethrough, a primary flow control means on said primary tube for adjusting the flow rate of said primary liquid through said primary flow path to a rate independent of the flow rate of said secondary liquid through said secondary liquid flow path, and a combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve having a housing comprising a first chamber which constitutes a portion of said primary tube and has inlet and outlet ports thereto and a second chamber which con¬ stitutes a portion of said secondary tube and has inlet and outlet ports thereto, said first chamber having valve means associ¬ ated therewith which allows liquid to flow from said
O PI primary container whenever the height of said primary liquid is greater than or equal to the height of said secondary liquid in said system and which prevents pri¬ mary liquid from flowing from said primary container when¬ ever the height of said primary liquid is less than the height of said secondary liquid in said system, and said second chamber having means associated therewith substantially impervious to air while said set is in use to prevent the flow of air through said secondary flow path.
8. The system defined in Claim 7, wherein said means associated with said first chamber is a hydrophilic membrane covering said outlet therefrom.
9. The system defined in Claim 7 or 8, wherein said means associated with said second chamber is a hydrophilic membrane covering said outlet therefrom.
10. The system defined in Claim 7, wherein said means associated with said first chamber is a mechanical valve.
11. The system defined in Claim 7 or 10, wherein said means associated with said second chamber is a mechanical valve.
12. The system defined in Claim 7, wherein said second chamber has an air vent thereto.
13. The system defined in Claim 12, wherein said air vent is covered by a hydrophobic membrane.
14. The system defined in Claim 13, wherein said air vent further includes a hydrophilic membrane between said second chamber and said hydrophobic membrane.
15. The system defined in Claim 7, wherein said housing is divided into said first and second chambers by a vertical wall having an aperture therethrough, said aperture in said vertical wall is covered by a hydrophobic membrane, said outlet port from said first chamber is sub¬ stantially at the top thereof and covered by a hydrophilic membrane, and said outlet port from said second chamber is covered by a hydrophilic membrane, said second chamber in¬ cludes a reservoir for liquid having an open top located directly under said inlet port to said second chamber, whereby secondary liquid entering said second chamber through said inlet port thereto fills said reservoir until said secondary liquid overflows from said reservoir and flows through said outlet port thereof.
.16. The system defined in Claim 15, wherein said inlet port.to said first chamber is at the bottom there¬ of and said inlet and outlet ports to said second cham¬ ber are respectively at the top and bottom thereof.
17. The system defined in Claim 15 or 16, where¬ in said reservoir is integral to said vertical wall between said first and second chambers."
18. The system defined in Claim 15 or 16, wherein said second chamber further includes a closable air vent.
19. The system defined in Claim 18, wherein .said air vent is covered by a hydrophobic membrane.
20. The system defined in Claim 19, wherein said air vent further includes a hydrophilic membrane between said second chamber .and said hydrophobic membrane.
21. The system defined in Claim 7, wherein said primary tube has a piercing pin at its distal end.
22. The system defined in Claim 7 or 21, wherein said secondary tube has a piercing pin at its distal end.
23. The system defined in Claim 22, wherein said piercing pins of said primary and secondary tube have drip chambers integral therewith.
24. The system defined in Claim 22, wherein said piercing pins of said primary and secondary tube have air vents integral therewith.
EP19800900453 1979-02-28 1980-09-10 Novel valve employing hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. Withdrawn EP0025042A4 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US1622779A true 1979-02-28 1979-02-28
US16227 1979-02-28
US06/016,228 US4223695A (en) 1979-02-28 1979-02-28 Novel valve employing hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes
US16228 1979-02-28
US06/016,230 US4250879A (en) 1979-02-28 1979-02-28 Equipment sets and system for the sequential administration of medical liquids at dual flow rates employing a combined air barrier and liquid sequencing valve
US16230 2004-12-17

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP82110268.8 Division-Into 1982-11-08

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0025042A1 true EP0025042A1 (en) 1981-03-18
EP0025042A4 EP0025042A4 (en) 1981-07-08

Family

ID=27360520

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19820110268 Withdrawn EP0089404A1 (en) 1979-02-28 1980-01-23 Gravitational flow system for the sequential administration of a plurality of medical liquids
EP19800900453 Withdrawn EP0025042A4 (en) 1979-02-28 1980-09-10 Novel valve employing hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes.

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19820110268 Withdrawn EP0089404A1 (en) 1979-02-28 1980-01-23 Gravitational flow system for the sequential administration of a plurality of medical liquids

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (2) EP0089404A1 (en)
JP (1) JPS56500240A (en)
AU (1) AU533881B2 (en)
CA (1) CA1127042A (en)
WO (1) WO1980001754A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU533881B2 (en) 1983-12-15
WO1980001754A1 (en) 1980-09-04
CA1127042A (en) 1982-07-06
JPS56500240A (en) 1981-03-05
AU5523580A (en) 1980-09-04
EP0025042A4 (en) 1981-07-08
EP0089404A1 (en) 1983-09-28
CA1127042A1 (en)

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated contracting states:

Designated state(s): DE FR GB

17P Request for examination filed

Effective date: 19810209

R17P Request for examination filed (correction)

Effective date: 19810209

18W Withdrawn

Withdrawal date: 19840120

D18W Withdrawal (deleted)
18D Deemed to be withdrawn

Effective date: 19840801

RIN1 Inventor (correction)

Inventor name: MUETTERTIES, A. J.