EP0023221A1 - Direct current motor without collector - Google Patents

Direct current motor without collector

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Publication number
EP0023221A1
EP0023221A1 EP19800900299 EP80900299A EP0023221A1 EP 0023221 A1 EP0023221 A1 EP 0023221A1 EP 19800900299 EP19800900299 EP 19800900299 EP 80900299 A EP80900299 A EP 80900299A EP 0023221 A1 EP0023221 A1 EP 0023221A1
Authority
EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
winding
characterized
el
rotor
motor according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP19800900299
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Rolf Müller
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ebm-papst St Georgen GmbH and Co KG
Original Assignee
ebm-papst St Georgen GmbH and Co KG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K29/00Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices
    • H02K29/06Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices with position sensing devices
    • H02K29/12Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices with position sensing devices using detecting coils using the machine windings as detecting coil
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K29/00Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices
    • H02K29/06Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices with position sensing devices
    • H02K29/08Motors or generators having non-mechanical commutating devices, e.g. discharge tubes or semiconductor devices with position sensing devices using magnetic effect devices, e.g. Hall-plates, magneto-resistors

Abstract

Dans un moteur a courant continu sans collecteur pourvu d'un rotor (11) a aimants permanents, on utilise une magnetisation des poles rotoriques (N, S) qui differe fortement de la forme sinusoidale. In a DC motor without a commutator provided with a rotor (11) has permanent magnets, using a magnetization of the rotor poles (N, S) which greatly differs from the sinusoidal shape. En plus de l'enroulement principal (35-47) qui sert a l'entrainement du moteur, le stator est en outre muni d'un enroulement de detection (80) agence de maniere a capter une harmonique de la tension induite dans le stator par les poles rotoriques (11), par exemple la deuxieme harmonique. In addition to the primary winding (35-47) which serves to drive the motor, the stator is further provided with a detection winding (80) manner agency capture a harmonic of the voltage induced in the stator by the rotor poles (11), for example the second harmonic. L'enroulement de detection (80) est avantageusement bobine dans les memes encoches statoriques que l'enroulement principal, et la pour eviter un couplage inductif entre l'enroulement principal (35-47) et l'enroulement de detection (80), un dephasage spatial determine est maintenu entre ces deux enroulements. The detection coil (80) is advantageously coil in the same stator slots as the main winding, and to avoid inductive coupling between the primary winding (35-47) and detection coil (80), spatial phase shift determined is maintained between these two windings.

Description

Brushless DC motor

The invention relates to a brushless DC motor having a permanently magnetic rotor in which the poles have a magnetization that has a significantly deviating from the sine function curve on the pole surface and, viewed in the direction of rotation, which profile is in particular approximately rectangular or approximately trapezoidal, optionally wherein the rotor poles by symmetrical or asymmetrical pole gaps are vonei Nander separated.

It is known to gain momentum from the main winding of an in-use brushless DC motor, the frequency of the instantaneous engine speed is proportional and therefore for example can be used for the or for regulating the motor speed. However, these Freαuenz is relatively low, namely p × ω mech, where p is the number of pole pairs and the ω mech Uinkelgeschwindigkeit of the rotor in 1 / s. In addition, the thus obtained ( "decoupled") pulses are slightly whereby a speed control that uses these pulses to the target-Comp calibration is very adversely affected by the current flowing in the main winding drive currents in their phase position to each other and influence relative to the rotor position, and can easily arise undamped oscillations of the controller.

Therefore, it is an object of the invention to provide a brushless DC motor which provides with little effort pulses whose frequency is sufficiently high and the engine rotational speed proportional to these pulses should be of the driving currents preferably unaffected flowing in the main winding of the motor. According to the invention this object is achieved in a mentioned engine characterized in that a sensor coil for detecting at least one harmonic of the induced by the rotor poles in the stator voltage is provided at the stator of the motor, and in that the sensor winding is formed for a number of rotor poles, which is equal to the product (2p × 1), said rotor poles and the actual 2p 1, the order number of the harmonic to be detected is. Of the spatial harmonic fields which are included in the non-sinusoidal magnetized poles, voltages are induced in this Ueise in the sensor winding corresponding to those harmonics for which the sensor winding is dimensioned. The fundamental contrast is even completely suppressed largely and in many embodiments.

With particular advantage, a sensor coil of the invention is arranged so that a transformer coupling between the latter and the main winding is suppressed, and is largely avoided. This is done by a special Uahl the spatial phase position between the main winding and the sensor winding and possibly some Ueglassen Uicklungsschritte and / or spatial phase displacement of part of the Sensprwicklung against the other part.

A particularly simple arrangement of the sensor coil a result, if it is provided for that separate grooves whose position is exactly defined relative to the main winding. However, it is advantageous for economic reasons to put the sensor coil directly into the grooves of the main winding, since then no additional slots are required for the sensor coil. Even under dieeer restrictive condition sensor Wick rings are possible according to the invention which have no transformer coupling with the main winding. for example, this is achieved in that the Sansorwicklung consists of two simple wave windings gegneinander are offset by a certain Uinkel, wherein individual Uicklungsschritte must be omitted in certain cases, such as below based is illustrated in detail by examples.

Ueitere details and advantageous Ueiterbildungen of the invention will become apparent from the hereinafter described and illustrated in the drawing, in any Ueise as limiting the invention to be understood embodiments and from the dependent claims. It shows:

Fig. 1 shows a section through a first embodiment of an engine according to the invention,

Fig. 2 shows a section through the stator of a second motor of the invention, which like the first as

An external rotor motor is designed.

Fig. Schaubil the explaining of FIG. 1 and 2, 3A-3C, FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram for explaining the invention,

Fig. 5 shows a variant of Fig. 3 B, which shows main windings for use in the example shown in Fig. 2 sheet metal section, which Uicklungen can also be used independently of the sensor coil with advantage

Fig. 6 is a plan view of the stator of a four-pole motor with planar air gap and a sensor suitable for this purpose winding for coupling the z far en upper corrugated e,

Fi g. 7 is an alternati ve embodiment to that Sensoruicklung to Fi g. 6, wel che si ch particularly fo r Fl achmotoren ei et gn, di e an axially it Streuf el d aufwei sen,

Fig. 8 shows a second alternative to the sensor coil of Fig. 6, which also is particularly suitable for flat motors that have an axial stray field,

Fig. 9 is an enlarged view in FIG. 3A shown, unwound magnetization of a rotor for a cylindrical air gap,

Fig. 10 A the variation of the magnetization in the rotor shown in the processing in Fig. 9,

Fig. 10 B induced in the course of the lead L in Fig. 9 at a complete revolution of the rotor

Tension,

Fig. 10, the fundamental wave and the second and fourth Ober¬

C, D, E of the voltage wave in Fig. 10 B shown

Fig. 11 is a sensor winding for coupling out the fourth harmonic in the illustrated in Fig. 6 engine,

Fig. 12 shows a variant of Fig. 11, also for coupling the fourth Oberuelle,

... 13 is a sensor winding for coupling the 15th harmonic in the example shown in Figure 6 engine, in somewhat reduced scale, Figure 14 A - 14 D is a view for explaining the construction of a sensor coil. for coupling the second harmonic wave (Fig. 14 C) or the fourth harmonic wave (Fig. 14 D) at a Außenläufermσtor which uses the sheet-metal section and shown in FIG. 2, the type of the stator winding shown in Fig. 5,

Fig. 15 shows the frequency spectrum resulting from the analysis and the voltage shown in Fig. 10 B, the amplitude of the fundamental wave and the second harmonic wave are shown only numeric,

Fig. 16 A - 16 E, a variant with a four-pole, three-phase, three-pulse koll ektorlosen DC motor, which is also formed as an external rotor motor and the stator of a sheet metal section with 24 evenly distributed slots 1 -, into which the three strands of the stator winding '24' and a sensor winding (Fig. 16 D) are wrapped for coupling the third harmonic,

commutatorless 17 E, a variant with a two-pole, three-phase, three-pulse - Fig. 17 A

DC motor, which is also formed as an external rotor motor and its laminated stator core 6 uniformly distributed pronounced T-poles and 6 auxiliary slots B, D, F, H, K and M for micrograph a sensor winding (Fig. 17 D) for coupling the 3rd harmonic,

Fig. 18 A - 18 F, a variant with a two-pole, two-stranded, vierpulsigen commutatorless direct current motor, which is also formed as an external rotor motor whose stator laminated core and four evenly distributed pronounced T-poles. and four auxiliary slots B, D, F and H, wherein the sensor winding (Fig. 18 F) is also formed for coupling the third harmonic and is designed to avoid a transformer coupling with the two strands of the Hauptuicklung in very specific Ueise,

Fig. 19 A - 19 E, a variant with a four-pole, zueisträngigen, vierpulsigen commutatorless direct current motor, which is also formed here as an external rotor motor and its laminated stator core, which is identical to that of na ch Figure 16 A, the two strands of the stator winding and a sensor winding. (D Fig. 19) receives for coupling the third harmonic,

Fig. 20 A - 20 E, a variant with a two-pole, three-phase, three-pulse brushless DC motor, here also an external rotor motor, whose stator lamination three equally massive distributed salient poles and 15 auxiliary grooves for receiving a sensor winding for coupling the 9th harmonic (Figure 20 E). having,

Fig. 21 is a schematic diagram of a circuit for operation of the motors of Fig. 16, Fig. 17 and

Fig. 20, and

Fig. 22 is a schematic diagram of a circuit for

Operation of the motors of FIG. 18 or Fig. 19. Fig. 1 shows a stator lamination 10 for an external rotor motor whose only schematically indicated, permanent magnetic outer rotor is designated 11. The magnetization of the rotor 11 is estellt Darg in developed form in FIGS. 3 A and 9. The Uinkel are shown in Fig. 9, so that reference is made thereto. It discharged always two verschiedennamige monopoly zones, for example in Fig. 9 is a north pole and a south pole zone 13 zone 14, both by 120 el. Long, directly to each other. In the same orbit 15 (Fig. 9) in which a galvanomagnetic sensor 16 (usually a Hall generator) mounted on the stator, the monopole zone 14 by an extension 18 to 60 el. To the left and the monopole zone 13 by an extension 19 to 60 extended el. to the right, while in the other circulation path 17 adjacent to the extension 18, a zone 22 (north pole) and adjacent to the extension 19 is a zone 23 (south pole). The extension 18 and the zone 22 together form a Dipolzone, as well as the extension 19 and the zone 23. Subsequently, then repeats

the whole in the in FIGS. 3A and Ueise dehr explicitly shown. 9 The orbits 15 and 17 are broadly approximately gl calibration.

FIG. 10A shows the course of Magnetisi augmentation above in Fi g. Rotor 9 shown in Figure 11, once the profile over the orbit 15, wi e measures him the sensor 16; this is denoted by B 15; Auss addition the profile over the orbit 17, which is indicated by dashed lines and designated by B 17th

This profile is identical to that of teilueise B 15, namely all en vi he monopoly zones, this 4-pole rotor. 11

Biases to transversely to fully en width of the rotor 11 a conductor L Fig. 9 and leaves a gl calibration shaped Rel ativbeuegung between the rotor 11 and the L pus L take place, is measured to di it em L pus L with an instrument 25, for example. As an oscilloscope, an e induzi erte voltage u, which is shown in Fig. 10B.

uie one of FIG. 10 B detects induced example. the monopole zone 14, a negative voltage 26 and the monopole zone 13, a positive voltage 27. The Dipolzone, which is formed by extension 18 and the north pole 22, induces two idβtische oppositely directed voltages whose sum is equal to zero, corresponding to the portion 28 in FIG . 10 B, and the same applies to the extension 19 and the south pole 23 which also induce together the voltage zero, which corresponds to Fig. 10B the section 29. At these into the right portion 26 includes an 'which is identical in its shape to the section 26th

is sandwiched between the portions 26 and 27 of the zero point of the abscissa axis, so is the voltage u is an odd trigonometric function, i.e. f (t) = - f (- t), and this function can be to a Fourier analysis in sinusoids of different disassemble the frequency and amplitude of which 1DD the second harmonic and Fig. 10 e, FIG. 10C, the fundamental wave, Fig., the fourth harmonic. The third and the sixth harmonic are approximately equal to zero. FIGS. 10C to 10E thus show the decomposition of the voltage U according to Fig. 10B in their Grunduelleund the first harmonics. more harmonics are of course still present, and Fig. 15 shows the full frequency spectrum, so the absolute values ​​of the amplitudes of the individual harmonics of the voltage shown in Fig. 10B. It is seen that the harmonics have with divisible by three atomic number 1 very small amplitudes, and in that the harmonics with the ordinal numbers 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11 and 14 lend themselves by their relatively large amplitude for an evaluation. It should be noted that only then produce useful amplitudes at high atomic number, if the edges of the voltage shown in FIG. 1Ob are steep. only the second, fourth, fifth and eighth harmonics are practically evaluated with less steep edges.

The individual harmonics can be obtained in the usual filter out Ueise from the voltage obtained at the device 25 (Fig. 9), eg with the aid of bandpass filters. but this method is complicated and has the disadvantage that it receives a control signal when reaching the desired speed must therefore manage the run-up to other ways.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, therefore, it couples the harmonics from so that siebei are available at any rotational speed available. This Ueiterbildung of the present invention proceeds from the consideration that the rotor can be thought also composed of various magnet, 11, each having a magnetization of FIGS. 1oC, 1oD, 1NC etc. have (the other harmonics can be commonly used in the Ueise numerically easily calculate). It then continues from the consideration of these - fictitious - magnetizations of various kinds should be a particular detected and evaluated for the production of their corresponding harmonics. This is accomplished in that one uses a sensor winding, wherein the distance of the magnetically active Uicklungsabschnitte to it - imaginary - magnetization is adapted and thereby acts as a harmonic analyzer, the main decouples only these plural harmonic from the totality of existing harmonics.

For the invention, a coreless stator may be used who and this variation will be explained with reference to FIGS. 6 to 8. First, however, the embodiment will be explained in a stator of grooved iron sheets, namely at the state shown in FIG. 1, the laminated stator core 10 of a

Außenläufermotαrs. The .Übertragung an inner rotor motor ergibt- simply by reflection at the cylindrical air gap, which is designated in Fig. 1 at 34.

. The stator laminations 10 shown in Figure 1 has for the reception of the four main windings eight grooves, namely 35, 36 for a main winding 37; 38, 39 for a Hauptuicklung 40; 43, 44 for a Hauptuicklung 45; 46, 47 for a main winding 48. The two grooves of a main winding are in each case by 120 ° el. Separated from one another, and the individual main windings have another are each a Uinkelabstand of 180 ° el., And are therefore as shown evenly distributed along the periphery of the stator lamination 10th

FIGS. 3A-3C unwound the motor of FIG. .1. Normally one would draw thi figures above the other, but then the drawing would be virtually unreadable. Therefore, their three component e are each gzeichnet he correct position in d, wherein of course the position of the stator relative to the rotor 11 changes constantly in operation. The main windings 37 and 45 are connected in series (also parallel connection would be possible), and its terminals are denoted by 49 and 50th Likewise, the Hauptuicklungen are connected in series 40 and 48, and its terminals are denoted by 51 and 52nd

Fig. 4 shows the arrangement of Hauptuicklungen in an associated circuit which is controlled by a Hall generator 16 which is arranged exactly in the middle between the main windings 37 nd 40 on the stator 10, see FIG.

FIG. 1 and 3B. The Hall generator 15 controls two pnp transistors 54, 55 a. Diff erenzverstärkers, which in turn are used to drive NPN Endstuf en-transistors 56, 57, of which the transistor 56 controls the current in the Hauptuicklungen 37 and 45 and the transistor 57 the current in the Hauptuicklungen 40 and 48th One current terminal of the Hall generator 16 is connected via a when he variabl resistance serving npn transistor 58 to a plus-L Zeitung 59, the other through a resistor 60 having a NinusLeitung 61. The emitters 54 and 55 are connected together and, via a common resistor 64, connected to 59th The collector of 54 is connected via a resistor 65 connected to 61 and directly to the base of 56th Similarly, the collector 55 via a resistor 66 to 61 and directly to the base of 57 is connected. The windings 37, 45 are with their connection 50 with the Koll ector of 56, and with its terminal 49 Zeitung 59 connected to the Plusl. Similarly, the windings 40, 48 with their port 52 with the Koll ector 57 and connected to its terminal 51 to the positive line 59 are. a variable gain amplifier 63 which regulates the speed by controlling the current flowing into the Hall generator 16 in the control current vorli egenden case e is used to control the transistor 58th For detecting the actual speed value di ent a sensor winding 80 which is triggered egt for detecting the second harmonic. Its structure is described below. Di e operation of the circuit according to Fdjg. 4 i st of the DE-OS 27 30 142 in great detail beschri flat so that hi may be erauf esen verwi in connection with FIG. 2.

For receiving the Sensoruicklung 80 for the second harmonic, the stator plate 10 includes eight secondary channels 71 to 80, which are distributed uniformly around the stator and calibrating gl another are each a Uinkelabstand of 90 ° el. to have. The location of all grooves he rel ative to each other 3B and 3C is shown by scale and labeled with the same designations in Figs.. z can be seen. For example, that e di auxiliary groove 71 (FIG. 3C) right in the middle between the main grooves 35 and 36 li egt which Hilfsnut- 72 exactly in the middle between the main grooves 36 and 38, etc., that is, di groove arrangement according to e Fig. 1 is constructed mirror-symmetrical. If you fold th the two Statorhälf along one he eachsen the SYMMETRI such. As the axis 79, on each other, so corresponding grooves come jeweil s toward one another li egen, z. B. 35 to 36, 78 to 72, etc.

The winding shown in FIG. 3C is a wave winding 80 that is looped back into itself, that is, is the coil through the groove 77 from the terminal 83 to the groove 76, and from there to the groove 75 etc. to the groove 71 and from there to the groove 78 and the groove 77 back. There, the direction of winding is reversed, and this is running by now in the reverse direction again, the groove 78, the grooves 71 to 76 and is then quite possible out in the vicinity of the terminal 83 to the outside. - (. Dashed lined connection 84 in Figure 3C) would be allowed to send the sensor coil 80 at DER groove 77, so the same harmonic of the induced voltage would be detected, but the amplitude would be only half as large, and in particular would benefit from such a winding pulsating stray fields detected, which extend parallel to the direction indicated in Fig. 1 with 85 the rotor shaft. By the return of the sensor coil by the same

Angle of rotation of 720 ° el. To the starting point, namely, the second terminal 86 is effected, such that axial

Stray fields induce 80 two exactly equal but oppositely directed stresses in the sensor winding which cancel foldich and therefore no effect on the

have regulator 63 and thus the quality of the control.

Naturally, the sensor winding can be led around 80 to increase the output voltage several times around the stator 10, for example two full revolutions, and then returned to the starting point by the same angle, if such axial fields are to be compensated.

Each magnetically active portions of the sensor coil 80 in the grooves (71 to 80) have in each case from each other an angular distance of (180 ° el.:. 1 + n × 180 ° el), where n = 0,1, 2, ... and 1 = ordinal number of the harmonic to be detected. In the present case, 1 = 2 and n = 0, and foldich this angle here 90 ° el.

The sensor coil 80 consists of at least two magnetically active portions. It detects the position shown in Fig. 10 D second harmonic of the rotor magnetization and thus generates a measurement voltage of relatively high frequency which is twice as high as that of the Hall generator 16 removable frequency, also the zero crossings substantially more uniform distances have than the zero crossings of the Hall voltage. In such a motor, for example, of the Hall generator 16 provides four pulses per revolution, the sensor coil 80, however, eight pulses per revolution when the speed controller 63 (Fig. 4) for the evaluation of the frequency (and not in the amplitude) is adapted to the voltage applied thereto is , is a very accurate speed control with good long-term stability and very low temperature dependence can be achieved. Such a speed controller, for example, shows the DOS 26 16 044. As an example, a laminated core analogous to FIG. 1 with a

Diameter of 80 mm and a height of 18 mm are called, in which a single-core sensor coil 80 according to

had been Fig. 3C wrapped. The rotor magnet 11 had a

Induction of 1.2 kG. In a Drehzähl of 36oo U / min. was found between the terminals 83 and 86 an AC voltage having an effective value of 0.3 volts.

A particular advantage of beschri flat kl app symmetrical arrangement of Sensoruicklung 80 is that the transformed in it by the Hauptuicklungen, cancel induced voltages each other and therefore the control process do not interfere.

The arrangement of FIG. 1 has the disadvantage that it requires a specially en echschnitt Bl, which is economical only in large quantity s engine. However, the invention can be realized also with commercially echschnitten süblichen Bl, and di it is shown in FIG. 2 in connection with FIGS. 3A to 3C. There are there veruendet same numerals for gl oak or gl verifiable acting parts as in the previous part of the description.

The sheet section 88 is also determined ermotor for a 4-pole Außenläuf whose rotor exactly that of FIG. 1 corresponds, so that reference can be made to the description. The Bl echschnitt 88 has 24 slots 89 are identical in shape, the jeweil s mech a distance of 15 °. = 30 el. from one another. The single ones

Windings are completely disposed wi i e at dentisch

Fig. 1, so that a total of eight grooves yew unbeuickelt bl.

The first Hauptuicklung is also he hi 37 respectively, and two grooves in which si e is wound, have a

Distance of 120 el. from each other. The zueite main winding is 40, ie, e. third Hauptuicklung is designated 45 and the fourth Hauptuicklung by 48. They are, uie shown, evenly distributed around the stator and the same configuration uie the Hauptuicklung 37. The magnetically active portions of the Sensoruicklung 80 are designated 80 ', jeueils have a distance of 90 el. From one another and each lie on the bisector zuischen two adjacent grooves of Hauptuicklungen to, uie described to avoid a transformer coupling zuischen Hauptuicklungen and Sensoruicklung. The arrangement of the Sensoruicklung 80 is identical to the scheme according to Fig. 3C, so that it can be veruiesen to the description thereof. If one wishes to wrap more copper in the plate section of FIG. 2, so the loop coil shown Fig. 5 can be used in place of the Wiiklungsart according to FIG. 38 of that 92nd Here, four slots 89 are used per Hauptuicklung. According to Fig. 5 there are two winding portions in two adjacent grooves 93 and 94, followed by two L eernuten 95 and 96 and then wound uieder two grooves 97 and 98. The greater winding pitch y 1 is thus 120 el.und the smaller Wick step el y 2 is 90 el. The angles are shown in Fig. 5 explicitly. This embodiment of the winding results in a better copper fill, wherein the induced voltage is somewhat rounded and results in a more favorable course of the torque generated by the engine. A disadvantage of this arrangement is that the Sensoruicklung can not be placed exactly mirror-symmetrical to the Hauptuicklungen, because in

Fig. 5, the sensor coil 96 would have to be so either in the groove 95 or the groove. If the number of slots is doubled in a conventional sheet metal section, one can naturally the Sensoruicklung even when the type of winding of FIG. 5wieder arranged mirror-symmetrical, because then located between the grooves 95 and 96, an additional groove, into which one can put the section of Sensoruicklung. The Hauptuicklung is then distributed zueckmässig to six or eight grooves, while it is distributed in FIG. 5 only four grooves. but this problem can also be solved without increasing the number of slots by a ueitere inventive consideration, and to this end 14A is made to FIGS. veruiesen to 14D.

FIG. 14A shows the grooves 89 of the 24 Statorblechpak ets according to Fig. 2 in the usual Abuicklung. FIG. 14B shows - in relation to the grooves 89 of Figures 14A -. The arrangement of the Statoruicklung 92 uelche to that of Figure 5 is identical, so this arrangement is not described again.. This arrangement provides uie, already explained, eiflen more favorable course of the torque than the arrangement of FIG. 1, uelch latter is an electric motor not particularly low and voruiegend serves to explain the basic principle of the invention.

In this arrangement, the Statoruicklng jeueils 92 is a tooth in the middle of a stator pole, and this "means teeth" in Fig. 14A, the teeth 111, 112, 113 and 114.

The invention is based on the idea to produce this means dental a symmetry in that a gleichna-miger magnetically active winding portion on each side of that tooth is situated represents Sensoruicklung. Same name is intended here to mean that when the sensor coil is traversed by a direct current, on both sides of that tooth, the same current direction is present. Thereby, it is achieved that also in this case, the Sensoruicklung is not a transformer coupled to the individual Statoruicklungen. -. The angular information about 14C and 14D reflect the same uie preceding the given for the main pole angle, it uie in Figures 9 and 10 are shown..

Fig. 14C shows a Sensoruicklung 115 for coupling the zueiten Oberuelle. As can be seen easily, is starting from a terminal 116, the winding first with a winding pitch of 180 el. 1 = 90 el out as a wave winding to the left, in such a way that it lies jeueils the right of the center teeth 111 to 114..

At the end of the winding direction Uird reversed and the winding

115 uiederüm Uird as Wellenuicklung right to a

Terminal 117 returned, but now such that it is on the left of the center teeth 111 to 114, that is offset by one slot pitch. On either side of the central teeth are thus the same magnetically active Spulenabschhitte, ie in the

Uelche coil portions, located on either side of a central tooth, in operation, a voltage of the same direction is induced. Such an arrangement is therefore electrically by uie before in a manner symmetrical to the Statoruicklung 92 that. transfurmatorische no coupling exists.

Still schuieriger is the arrangement of a Sensoruicklung for coupling out the fourth harmonic at the winding arrangement shown in FIG. 14B. Such Sensoruicklung requires a coil step 180 el. 4 = 45 el, and since the grooves 89 have a distance of 30 el, to a magnetically active portion of the sensor winding would always have to lie on a Zahnkqpf...

Fig. 14D shows the erf indungsgemäße solution to this problem in the form of a Sensoruicklung 118 for the extraction of the fourth Oberuelle. This winding starts at a terminal 121 and proceeds from there as Wellenuicklung to the left, namely alternatingly with winding steps of 30 and 60 el. And so that jeueils a magnetically active portion is situated to the left of the four medium teeth 111 to 114. After passing through all the slots, the winding direction is then reversed, and in turn the wave winding passes with alternating 30 ° - and 60 ° increments to the right up to the terminal 122, but shown uie offset the grooves by one slot pitch, so that now the magnetically active portions of the right of the means teeth are 111 to 114. Same winding sections of the two corrugated en windings are eg together in the grooves 94 and 97, and also lie Wicklung'sabschnitte same on either side of the center teeth, eg on either side of the center tooth 111 in the grooves

95 and 96. In other words, all 24 slots are at least singly occupied, but a third of them has been assigned. The angular distance from the double-assigned slots to the next two winding sections opposite direction is therefore 30 ° el. And 60 ° el., So on average 45 ° el., Uie that is entered in Fig. 14D for the groove 97th This average distance corresponds to the fourth harmonic coupled out. Which is also known Winkelabstarid of 60 and 30 el. Corresponds to the third BZU. the sixth Oberuelle which are shown in FIG. 15 are both practically zero and therefore do not interfere.

With a doubled number of stator slots can be prepared analogously to FIG. 14C and 14D couple out the fourth and the eighth Oberyelle, and then to these Figures, all angles have to be steps halved, or in other words would have to FIG. 14C and FIG. 14D to half shrink width, again the symmetry would be relative to the central teeth to note about transformational couplings to vermeident Following the same principles can be naturally also build Sensoruicklungen other Nutenzahlen and other Oberuellen. - The location of the galvanomagnetic sensor 16 zuischen two Hauptuicklungen is also shown in Figures 5 and 14B..

FIGS. 6 to 8 and 11 to 13 show possible embodiments of Sensoruicklungen for a four-pole

Flachmotαr. Its rotor is shown in Figure 8 represents DE - OS 27 30 142 illustrated.. and the Hauptuicklung corresponds to that in Figure 9 of this DE - OS winding illustrated.. It consists of four etua sector-shaped flat coils 101 to 104, which are arranged at equal angular intervals of 180 ° el. (= 90 ° mech.) About a shaft 100 around. The Hall generator

16 lying on the bisector zuischen the coils

102 and 103. The connections of the four coils are analogous to Fig. 4 with 49, BZU 50th 51, 52, respectively. The circuit corresponds to that of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 to 8 show sensor windings for coupling out the zueiten Oberuelle. In FIG. 6, the magnetically active portions run 105 of the sensor coil uelch latter is here designated by 106 (this number is, therefore, indicated in parentheses in Fig. 4), jeueils on the bisectors between the four main windings 101 to 104 and their center axes. Thus, one obtains a wave or meander winding, whose terminals are designated in Fig. 6 at 107 and 108. The meander can of course uerden repeated several times to increase the voltage. It is important that the magnetically active

is portions 112 extend over the entire width of the rotor magnet, uel surface in Fig. 6 by stri chpunkti erte lines 109 indicated. - The magnetically active

Portions 105 have jeueils a distance of 90 ° el., So that they detect only the zueite Oberuelle each other.

The sensor coil 106 of FIG. 6 is suitable for flat motors in which. no stray field occurs in the direction of the shaft 100th The described type of winding, the sensor coil 106 is not coupled to the transformer main windings 101 to 104.

If a leakage flux occurs in the direction of the shaft 100 can be the Sensorwickluηgen 'BZU of FIG. 7106. use 106 '' of FIG. 8. In both cases the basic form according to Fig. 6 is used, but in Fig. 7, the winding is looped back again on the same path, whereby the output voltage is doubled. Thus, this arrangement corresponds to that of Fig. 3C. In FIG. 8, the return extends 110 about the shaft 100 around, but not transverse to the rotor 109, ie of the latter are induced in the feedback path 110 during rotation no tension, but rather by the leakage flux which passes in the shaft direction. Both in Fig. 7 as in Fig. 8, the voltages cancel each other out, uelche be induced by the leakage flux extending in the shaft direction in the respective sensor winding. 11o repatriation may also lie within the meander winding. In Figs. 6 to 8, the Sensoruicklungen may be printed on a thin sheet and in this form on the stator in the correct position, that is decoupled transformer in the form of a gedruckteh circuit are mounted.

FIGS. 11 and 12 show Sensoruicklungen 6 for coupling the fourth Oberuelle for the same 4-pole motor shown in Fig., Also. mech with an angular step of 45 ° el. = 22.5 °. zuischen the magnetically active portions, the uie in FIGS. 11 and 12 is entered.

In Fig. 11, the Sensoruicklung is designated 124, and its terminals 125, referred to 126th The structure corresponds fully to that according to Fig. 7, that is, the Wellenuicklung is looped back on the same path uieder to the output.

In FIG. 12 is the Sensoruicklung with 127 and its terminals are labeled 128 and 129. The structure corresponds fully to that according to Fig. 8, that it is here a rear guide 130 around the entire shaft 100 around recycled. . 13, a dash-dotted reference line 133 drawn extending in all four figures by a magnetically active portion of the relevant Sensoruicklung and the bisector of the Statoruicklungen - to illustrate the orientation in relation to the Hauptuicklung 101 to 104 of Figure 6, there is, and in the Fig. 11

101 and 103 represent. + (Or a speedometer 6o-pin magnets)

Fig. 13 is a printed on an insulating film 134 Sensoruicklung 135, the magnetically active portions have an angular distance of 180 ° el: aufueisen 15 = 12 el are thus suitable for extraction of the 15th Oberuelle... A return 136 loops around here too - not shown - wave to compensate for axial leakage flux largely. The connections of the winding 135 are designated 137 and 138th Referring to FIG. 15, however, the decoupling of the 15th Oberuelle is less advantageous than, for example, the extraction of the 11th or 14th .the Oberuelle. both of which have much larger amplitudes. By an appropriate choice of the angle between the magnetically active sections, such an extraction can be very easily reached. For the 11th harmonic of the angle between two magnetically active portions, for example, 180 ° el would have:. $ 11.

15 shows, as already explained, is the frequency spectrum of the voltage shown in Fig. 10 B, the amplitude û to 100%. It is recognized that the

Grunduelle this voltage has an amplitude of about 87.8% of U, the second harmonic is approximately half as large as û, the fifth harmonic is about 1/5 and the eighth harmonic about 1/8 of u. The third, sixth, ninth, etc. harmonics are practically nil. Figure 15 applies to a voltage with steep edges. the harmonics from the fifth harmonic are the flanks less steep, so have only very small amplitudes. Depending on the shape of the preferably trapezoidal magnetisation of the rotor it is therefore limited in the ordinal number of the still usable harmonics up, if one aims at a sensor coil with not too hdner turns.

The sensor windings gem. Figures 11, 12 or 13 (in particular, according to FIG. 11) are suitable because of their compensation of stray fields - whether they now come from the engine or from the device here - for use in connection with particularly sensitive, fast control circuits (for example, phase controller, so-called PLL circuits, which usually work with a quartz-normal). Such sensor windings cause virtually no increase in the motor and therefore result in very compact motors.

The invention can be applied in the same way for all engines, the rotor of the magnetic field deviates considerably from the sinusoidal shape and therefore, as anbegeben in Fig. 10 C and 10 E, can be decomposed in spatial Oberwellenfel of different frequency and amplitude. This is explained below with additional embodiments.

Also in the following part of the description, the same reference numerals are used as in the previous figures for the same or equivalent parts. In order to standardize the terminology, the terms uerden used as the top of the inventor "two-pulse brushless DC motors" in the journal "asr-digest for angeuandte Artriebstechnik", Issue 1-2, 1977, have been defined. Figs. 21 and 22 of the present application correspond to Figure 4 and Figure 5 of this paper, so that then for further explanation reference can be made.

definitions:

The number of poles always refers to the number of poles 2p of the rotor For example, the engines according to Figs. 16 and FIG. 19, four pole, and the two pins of Fig. 17, 18 and 20. The invention is of course also for higher pole numbers, but with an increasing number of poles the spacing of the magnetically active portions of the sensor coil becomes smaller and smaller.

The strand number refers to the number of separate windings of the stator and could also be designated as phase number. For example, FIGS. 16, 17, 20 and 21 three-phase motors, as the Staterwinklung each has three separate strands, and Fig. 1B, 19 and 22 show double-stranded motors.

The pulse number indicates how many are supplied to the stator winding current pulses per rotor revolution of 360. El. wherein the circuit of Fig. 21 is used for example, receives Fig. 16 during a rotation of 360 ° el., that half a revolution of the rotor, each of the three phases supplied to a current pulse. . Thus, Fig 16 shows a three-pulse motor, as well as Figures 17 and 20. In Figure 18 are -... By the circuit of Fig. 21 - during a rotation of 360 ° el, in this case a full rotor rotation, each of the two. stator windings each two current pulses fed to a total of four current pulses, ie the motor is vierpulsig; and the motor of FIG. 19 is vierpulsig.

Both three as vierpulsige engines generate an electromagnetic driving torque at all rotor positions, that such engines may start from any rotational position out. De higher the pulse number is, the lower the Schuankungen the torque delivered by the engine.

The magnetization of the rotor has in FIGS. 16 to 19 is always etua the same shape as exemplified in Fig. 18 B, so etua trapezoidal. In Fig. 20, the magnetization (Fig. 20 B) (20 Fig. C) is the rotor etua rectangular shape, so it has very steep edges. The outer rotor is constructed in all cases the same as the outer rotor 11 of Figure 1. The rotor magnet is -. Each in Processing -. Shown in Figures 16 B, 17 B, 18 C, 19 B and 20 C.

The representation of the coils in FIGS. 16 to 20 is carried out in the usual way and will therefore not be described each time to the individual. In each case the grooves of the plate section 16 are numbered, for example in Fig. 16 A of 1 'to 24', and these grooves are then displayed unwound again, for example, between Fig. C and 16 D, and Zuar in exact relation unwound to the windings, so that one sees thus exactly which windings lie in which groove and how these windings connected sin d. Di it e Visu clothes off enbart form an d scarf do g of the individual windings in such a perfect manner that each professional can work accordingly. The representation of the coils in the sheet metal section is the current direction in the usual manner: means point that the current flowing out of the Zefchenebene, and cross, that it flows into them. This refers to the arbitrarily defined in the transactions flow arrows. (Of course flowing in the sensor coil in operation, an alternating current and a direct current).

The Hall generators or other sensors are respectively shown in their position on the sheet metal section and in the processing. Your name is the same as in FIG. 21 and 22.

In Fig. 16 the same sheet section 88 is used as shown in Fig. 2, ie there are 24 slots 89 are provided which are designated consecutively with 1 'to 24'. It is a fractional pitch (short-pitch) dreistängige main winding 130 provided, the three strands 131, 132 and 133, respectively. The three Hall generators which control these strands are arranged as follows:

Hall generator 34 between the groove 6 'and 7': Controls strand 131 Hall generator 135 between groove 10 'u.11': Controls strand 132 Hall generator 136 between groove 14 'u.15': Controls strand 133rd

The sensor coil 137 (Fig. 16 D) serves for detecting represents third Oberuelle and therefore between its magnetically active portions a distance alpha of 180 el:... Mechanically 1 = 60 el in Fig 16 D which is 30, since the rotor is bipolar. The sensor coil 137 consists of two wave windings, namely, a line extending from the terminal 138 to the right corrugated enwicklung 139, and the other terminal 140 back leftwardly extending corrugated enwicklung 141, the lung relative to the shaft Wick 139 is spatially offset by einnn angle beta, wob ei beta = 90 ° cl. 1 = 90 ° el. 3 = 30 ° el (l = ordinal number of the harmonic to be detected)..

Dio phase position relative to the main winding 130 is chosen so that with the main winding no transformer coupling is composed of: The main winding 131 begimt in the groove 1 ', the main winding 132 in the groove 3' and the main winding 133 in the groove 5 '. The sensor coil 137 from the terminal 138 goes to the groove 2 ', then back through the groove 3', then through the grooves 5 ', 7', 9 ', ... 23' to the groove 1 'and from there back to the groove 24' and then 22 ', 20', ... 6 ', 4' for connection 140th

The shape of the current induced in the sensor coil 137 voltage u T is shown in FIG. 16 E. This voltage contains visible harmonics, but the distance between the zero crossings is very uniform, so untä this voltage is very well suited for control tasks. Fig. 16 therefore represents the most meistsn preferred embodiment of the invention.

Is a three-phase main winding ungesehnte used in the laminate section 88, the sensor winding can not be inserted into the grooves 89 without transformer coupling with the main winding. A suitable solution for this case is shown in FIG. 17, wherein the sensor winding (Fig. 17 D) there is also used for coupling the third harmonic.

The plate section 145 of FIG. 17 A has six symmetrically distributed pronounced T-poles 146 with a concentrated, fully pitched three-phase main winding 147, the three strands 148, 149 and 150, respectively. The individual strands are wound in diameter, in the main grooves A, C, E, G, 3, and L.

For receiving the sensor coil 153 of each Statorpσles 146 is provided a groove B, D, F, H, K and M here in the middle, into which a corrugated enwicklung shown in FIG. 17 D is loaded. This comes from the groove B at a winding pitch of 180 ° el. 1 = 60 ° el to the right to the groove B, and from there in the same way back to the groove D. The shape of the current induced in the ϊffisorwicklung 153 during operation. voltage is shown in FIG. 17 E. The three Hall generators (or other äqwivalenten

Sensors) are arranged as follows:

Hall generator 34 at the groove A: Controls strand 148th

Hall generator 135 at the groove E: Controls strand 150 Hall generator 136 at the groove 3: Controls strand 149th

The corresponding circuit is shown in Fig. 21.

Even with a two-strand winding 90 ° el. Staggered winding strands of the avoidance transformer coupling zwischsn main winding and sensor winding is possible by the present invention. Diss, FIGS. 18 and 19.

Fig. 18 shows a two-pole, two-strand motor with a fully pitched (full-pitch) main winding 159

(Fig. 18 E), di e in a Bl echschnitt 160 with four symmetrical pronounced T-Poland is housed 161, in the four main grooves A, C, E and G. The two strands of the main winding 159 are connected to 162 and designated 163 and wound in diameter, such as in

Fig. 18 A is indicated. In addition, two Hall generators 164, 165 are provided which are offset by 90 ° el. Relative to each other and one of which is a C at the groove and the strand controls 163, uährend the other is at the groove E and controls the strand 162nd

For receiving the sensor coil 166 four Hilfsnutsn B, D, F and H are provided. If one starts from the groove A clockwise, B of A is 60 °, and D of 120 ° A. Assuming represent groove A from counterclockwise, so H is from A 60 ° and 120 ° F from A removed as the FIG. 18 A clearly shows.

Starting from a terminal 167 so the groove passes through the sensor coil 166 first A, then the grooves B, D, F, H and returned to the groove A. There, the winding direction is reversed back to the groove H, and further to the grooves D and B therefore, and to the second terminal 168. step of winding is 180 ° el.:. 1, that is 60 ° el, but are in the middle of the processing in each case two winding steps omitted, namely two winding steps per pole pair p, a transformer coupling between primary winding 159 166 to avoid and sensor winding.

In a four-pole motor would have to leave in accordance twice two winding steps and then would receive a rotationally symmetrical winding provides uas benefits, as this division errors he will be better compensated for the rotor magnet.

The associated circuitry for vierpulsigen operation is illustrated in Fig. 22. The shape of the Tachσspannung u T at the sensor coil 166 is shown in Fig 19 E.. This voltage schuankt according to the fundamental of the magnetization of the rotor magnet, but the intervals between the zero crossings are relatively uniform and can therefore be used for Regelzuecke.

If one wishes to a conventional sheet metal section, for example the sheet metal section 88 of Fig. 2 using with 24 grooves 89, also for a two-stranded, vierpulsigen engine, a specific sensor winding for coupling the third Oberuelle can also therefor according to the invention specify in which by spatial phase shifting a portion of the sensor coil 30 ° el. (based on. the pole pitch of the rotor magnet) against the other part and by further omission of certain steps of winding the transformer coupling relative to Baiden strands of the main winding is canceled. Such a motor is shown in FIG. 19. The plate section 88 has 24 slots 89, which are denoted as in Fig. 16 with 1 'to 24'. The rotor has four poles magnetized comp. Fig. 19 B, and the main winding 171 has two strands 172, 173. The Hall generator 164 is located between the grooves 12 'and 13' and controls the strand 172, uährend the Hall generator 165 between the grooves 15 'and 16' lies, and controls the strand 173rd The distance between the two Hall generators 164 and 165 thus transmits be 90 ° el. = 45 ° mech. The course of the

Main winding 171 results from the FIG. 19 A and 19 C in an unambiguous manner. The main winding 171 is longed 5/6. Fig. 19 D shows the course of the sensor coil 175. Starting from a terminal 176 passes this through the grooves 4 ', 7', 9 ', 11', 16 ', 19', 21 'to groove 23', and from there back back through the grooves 21 ', 18', 16 ', 14', 9 ', 6', 4 'and 1' to the other terminal 177. like the sensor coil 166 including the Sensαwicklung 175 is mirror-symmetrical and can be as Diess two winding steps. Moreover, 175 is the sensor coil of four sections 178, 179, 180 and 181 which are offset from each other. In each of these four sections derselbs winding pitch of 180 ° d. 1 = 60 ° el veruendet, for example of the groove 2 'to groove 4', and of the groove 4 'to groove 6'.. There are in phase, the sections 178 and 180 and the sections 179 and 181. The portion 178 is at an angle gamma of 90 el.:. 1 = 30 el opposed to the portions 179 and 181 are added in phase, and the same holds for 180. this Maßnähme and omitting the middle winding steps succeeds the section - one may say astonishingly Magi, also a transformer coupling with at the strands of the main winding 171 to avoid.

Fig. 19 E shows the shape of the voltage u T represents at sensor coil 175. Again, this voltage contains a small proportion of the Grunduelle the rotor magnet.

For detecting represents ninth Oberuelle with a rotor magnet (Fig. 20 C), the etua is magnetized rectangular, as Fig. 20 B shows (this Fig. Shows the induction course in the direction of rotation about the rotor circumference measured), the arrangement is shown in FIG. 20 . the sensor winding 185 has one here - have winding pitch which corresponds to one-ninth of Schrittueite the main winding 186, so only 20 ° el is.. For a small or miniature motor can be the purpose, he utilize ford variable number of slots of 9 × 2p not zueckmässig for the main winding in general, so that this one stator salient pole 187 and concentrated main winding 186 is more suitable for the invention. The winding 186 is here longing and lies in three main grooves A, G and N. The three strands of the main winding 186 are designated 188, 189 and 190th

There are further provided auxiliary grooves 15 B - F, J - M and 0 - S provided jeueils mech at a distance of 20 el = 20.. from each other and from the main grooves cf. A, G and N. Fig. 20 A.

The Hall gen eratoren 134 bi s 1 sin 36 d wi e fol gt angeordn et: The Hall generator 134 is located between the grooves H and J and controls the strand 188th

The Hall generator 135 is located between the grooves 0 and P, and controls the strand 189. The Hall generator 136 is located between the grooves B and C, and controls the strand 190. This is shown symbolically in Fig. 20 D.

The sensor coil 185 is formed as a wave winding. It goes from the terminal 193 to the groove A and thence through all the grooves ueiter B, C, etc. to return to the groove A, uendet there and goes back through all the grooves S, R, Q, etc. to the groove B and the other terminal 194 . from the comparison of Fig. 20 D, Fig. 20 e can be recognized without ueiteres that here too there is no coupling of the Sensorwickiung 185 with the haup R e 186 occurs, d. H . are obtained at the outputs 193, 194 permits a frequency that is greater than 9 times as the removable of the Hall generators 134 to 136 frequency and therefore a very good speed control.

Fig. 21 schematically shows the permanent magnet rotor 195 of a three-pulse motor, the three star-connected stator winding with S 1 to S 3 described net and are connected to the neutral point 196 to a positive SpannungU B. For feeding diessr three strands of three npn transistors 197, 198, 199 are provided with jeueils ihrsm Kollektαr to the associated string and with its emitter connected to the negative lead 200, thus to ground, are angeschlcBeen. The Hall generator 134 controls the transistor 197, the transistor 135 constitutes the Hall generator 198, and the. Hall generator 136 to the transistor 199. This control is shown only very schematically: In the normal case, the control via the driving transistors occurs. In Fig. 16, for example, the strands 17, the strands would the strands S 1 to S 3131-133 correspond, in Fig. 148-150, and in Fig. 20, the strands 188 to 190. During each revolution of the rotor 195 of 360 ° el . successively receives each of the three strands S 1 to S 3 a current pulse for a total of three pulses, ie the operation is dreipulsig, and it is kontinwierlich produces a torque, as the current pulses overlap each other.

Fig. 22 schematically shows the rotor 203 of a motor vierpulsigen whose both strands 5 denoted by S 4 and S and with its star point 204 at ground (0 volts) are connected. The other terminal of the strand S 4 is connected to the emitter of an npn transistor 205 and the collector of an npn transistor 207th In the same. As is the other terminal of the strand S 5 to the emitter of npnTransistors 207 and the collector of a npnTransistors 208 connected. The collectors of transistors 205 and 207 are connected to a positive voltage + U B, the emitters of transistors 206 and 208 to a negative voltage -U B. If, for example the transistor conducts 205, a current flows in one direction through S 4, and above sea level, the transistor 206 conducts, a current flows in the other direction by S 4. The same applies - because of the symmetry of the circuit - S 5 and the two transistors 207 and 208th

a drive apparatus 210, the rotor position signals from the uerden supplied at the Hall generators 164 and 165 is used to control the transistors 205 to 208. It uerden sequentially energizes the transistors 205, 207, 206 and 208 so that a rotating field is created which drives the rotor 203rd

In Fig. 18 correspond to the strands S 4 and S 5, the strands 162 and 163 in Fig. 19, the strands 172 and 173.

Thus, the present invention enables a very simple means to obtain a measurement voltage in proportion to the speed of the motor high frequency and reasonably uniform period of time, as they are especially needed for a speed control using a frequency as a measure of the speed. The sensor coil is preferably used acts as a high pass filter and therefore should be preferably above 360 ​​° el., Or extend an integral multiple thereof to Teilungsf Ehler, to hold for example as small as possible by an uneven pitch of the grooves or a non-uniform magnetization of the rotor, and a very to obtain uniform period; with flat motors precautions should preferably be taken to eliminate interference by axial stray fields.

Claims

claims
1. Brushless DC motor with a permanantmagnetischsn rotor whose poles aufueisen a magnetization that seen to represent pole surface and in the direction of rotation has a significantly abueichenden of the sine function curve, uelcher course particularly etua rectangular or etua is trapezoidal, where appropriate, the rotor poles asymmetrical by symmetrical or pole gaps separated from each other, characterized gskennzeichnet that on the stator (for example, 10) of the engine, a sensor winding (eg 80) for detecting at least one Oberuelle is that of the rotor poles in the stator induced voltage, and in that the sensor winding (eg 80) for a rotor poles is formed, which is equal to the product (2p × 1) st i, wherein e 2p di actual rotor pole ahl and 1 z is the ordinal number of the to be detected Oberuelle.
2. Motor according to claim 1, characterized in that in a rotor (for example, Fig. 18 C) approximately with over an entire Pσlteilung (180 ° el.) Extending, approximately rectangular or approximately trapezoidal magnetization (for example, Fig. 18 B) atomic number (1) to be detected harmonic is 3 or 9.
3. Motor according to claim 1, characterized in that in a rotor (for example, Fig. 9), uelcher within two pole pitches, that is within 360 ° el., First a etua 120 ° el. Long monopole zone (13) of one polarity , then a etua 120 ° el. long monopole zone (14) of the other polarity, and then a etua 120 ° long angular range (18, 22, 19, 23), uelcher is magnetized so that it during a relative movement to one of its is whole width extending conductor (L) in this in uesentlichen the voltage induced to zero, the order number (L) to be detected harmonic 2, 4 or eighth
4. Motor according to one of claim 1 to 3, dadur di in that the aktivsn magnetically in series geschaltöten portions (80 '; 105) of the sensor winding in each case a mean spacing of (180 el: 1 + n x 180 ° el.. ) have, with 1 being the ordinal number of the to be detected Oberuelle and n = 0,1,2 ... is.
5. Motor according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the sensor winding (8; 106 '; 106' '; 115; 118; 124; 127) relative to the intended on the stator driving coils (37, 40, 45, 48 ; is disposed 101 to 104) so ​​that the sum of the transformer induced in it by the driving coils voltages substantially equal to zero.
6. Motor according to claim 5, characterized in that the sensor winding is angeόrdnet symmetrical and preferably mirror-symmetrical to said driving coils.
7. Engine according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that when a grooved stator, in which a central tooth (111 to 114) of the grooves is in the middle of the Statorwicklungspole, of the same magnetically active winding sections of the sensor coil (115; 118) jeueils to in grooves (eg 95, 96) extend on both sides of this central tooth.
8. Motor according to one of claim 5-7, characterized in that in a sensor winding (118), the calculated winding step is not through the slot pitch of the stator lamination used divisible, the winding pitch of the sensor coil alternately larger and smaller than the required value, and so is geuählt that the arithmetic Mitteluert of larger and smaller Wicklungssehritt the calculated winding step, at least substantially equal to (Fig. 14 D).
9. Engine according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in an engine with a cylindrical air gap (internal or external rotor) main windings (37, 40, 45, 48) and sensor coil (80; 115; 118) in slots of a laminated stator core (10 ; 88) are arranged.
10. Motor according to claim 9, characterized in that a common sheet metal section (88) having uniformly distributed, identical grooves and a number of flutes is provided (89) which is equal to the six or zuölffachen the number represents the main magnetic poles of the rotor.
11. Motor according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the individual main windings in each case in more than two grooves (93, 94, 97, 98) are wound, wherein the two innermost wound grooves (94, 97) a distance of less than ., 120 ° el and the two outermost (93, 98) wound with the same main winding grooves have a distance of more than 120 have el (Fig 5; Fig. 14 B.).
12. Motor according to one of claims 9 to 11, characterized in that in a Blechsshnitt (88) with a six times of the number represent the magnetic poles of the rotor corresponding number of uniformly distributed grooves (89), the individual main windings (each with four grooves 93, 94, 97, 98 are wound), of which comprise the two inner (94, 97) a distance of 90 ° el. and the two outer (93, 98) a spacing of 150 ° el..
13. Motor nachf claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the individual main windings (37, 40, 45, 48) are formed as an abrasive enwicklungen.
14. Motor according to one of claims 9 to 13, characterized in that the sensor winding (80; 115; 118) in a direction in succession, a predetermined number of times - with an average spacing of.
is carried out, with 1 being the ordinal number of the coupled out Oberuelle is (; 89 71 to 78) of the laminated core (88 10) by grooves - between two adjacent winding sections: (1 180 el.).
15. Motor according to claim 14, characterized in that the winding (80; 118) rückuärts etua diesel be predetermined number of times and in uesentlichen same grooves to etua returned to the starting point.
16. Motor according to claim 14, characterized in that the winding (115; 118) offset rückuärts etua the same predetermined number of times, but at least one slot pitch, etua is returned to the starting point.
17. Motor according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it is designed as a flat engine, and that the sensor coil (106 '; 106' '; 124; 127; 135) is formed so that it (the axis of rotation (100) of the rotor 109) in the first then wraps with a certain wrap angle in one direction and with the same winding angle in the other direction to vsrmeiden to that (in the direction of this axis of rotation 100) extending walls stray fields induce a voltage in the sensor coil.
18. Motor according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the magnetization of each magnetic poles (Fig. 9: 13, 14) formed etua trapezoidal and with steep flanks (32, 33) (Fig 10 A.).
19. Motor according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the Sensoruicklung over 360 ° el., Or a multiple thereof extends.
20. Motor according to one of claims 14 to 16, characterized in that the sensor winding (eg 80) is formed as a wave winding.
21. Motor according to claim 15 ODSR 16 and after Anspuch 20, characterized in that the sensor winding (eg 80) is formed in Voruärts- and in Rückuärtsrichtung as a wave winding.
22. Motor according to claim 21, characterized in that the rückuärts-current portion of the wave winding (eg, 115) relative to the voruärtslauf portion is spatially offset.
23. Motor according to claim 22, characterized g ekennzeichnet that the forward and backward-running part by an angle of 90 ° el. Are spatially offset from each other 1, with 1 being the ordinal number of the to be detected Oberuelle and the angle of 90 ° el . half a pole pitch of Rσtormagneten is.
24. Motor according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that for avoiding a transformer coupling with the main winding of the motor einigs winding steps of the sensor winding are omitted (Fig 18 F; Fig. 190th).
25. Motor according to claim 24, characterized in that in a two-strand primary winding (Fig. 18 E) per pair of poles of the rotor magnet winding two steps of the sensor coil (Fig. 18 F) are omitted.
26. Motor according to claim 24 or 25, characterized gskennzeichnet that also a part of the sensor coil (FIG 19 0.) Relative to the other part by 90 ° el. Spatially offset 1, with 1 being the ordinal number of the to be detected harmonic and the angle of is 90 ° el. half a pole pitch of the rotor magnet.
EP19800900299 1979-01-17 1980-07-29 Direct current motor without collector Withdrawn EP0023221A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19792901676 DE2901676A1 (en) 1979-01-17 1979-01-17 Brushless DC motor
DE2901676 1979-01-17

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EP0023221A1 true true EP0023221A1 (en) 1981-02-04

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US (1) US4481440A (en)
EP (1) EP0023221A1 (en)
JP (1) JPS56500077A (en)
DE (1) DE2901676A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2051498B (en)
WO (1) WO1980001525A1 (en)

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Publication number Publication date Type
GB2051498B (en) 1983-05-18 grant
JPS56500077A (en) 1981-01-22 application
DE2901676A1 (en) 1980-08-14 application
US4481440A (en) 1984-11-06 grant
GB2051498A (en) 1981-01-14 application
WO1980001525A1 (en) 1980-07-24 application

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Inventor name: MUELLER, ROLF