EA031926B1 - Method for forming a pillar part and reinforcing adjacently constructed parallel tunnels with reinforcing rods - Google Patents

Method for forming a pillar part and reinforcing adjacently constructed parallel tunnels with reinforcing rods Download PDF

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Publication number
EA031926B1
EA031926B1 EA201590327A EA201590327A EA031926B1 EA 031926 B1 EA031926 B1 EA 031926B1 EA 201590327 A EA201590327 A EA 201590327A EA 201590327 A EA201590327 A EA 201590327A EA 031926 B1 EA031926 B1 EA 031926B1
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EA
Eurasian Patent Office
Prior art keywords
support
tunnel
reinforcing
digging
excavated
Prior art date
Application number
EA201590327A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Other versions
EA201590327A1 (en
Inventor
Тон-хюн Со
Original Assignee
Хюн Инжиниринг Энд Констракшн Ко., Лтд.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Priority to KR1020130052629A priority Critical patent/KR101353882B1/en
Application filed by Хюн Инжиниринг Энд Констракшн Ко., Лтд. filed Critical Хюн Инжиниринг Энд Констракшн Ко., Лтд.
Priority to PCT/KR2014/004063 priority patent/WO2014182074A1/en
Publication of EA201590327A1 publication Critical patent/EA201590327A1/en
Publication of EA031926B1 publication Critical patent/EA031926B1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/18Arch members ; Network made of arch members ; Ring elements; Polygon elements; Polygon elements inside arches

Abstract

The method of forming supports and strengthening of adjacent tunnels, including the deepening of the previously excavated part of the first tunnel while maintaining a given distance to the second tunnel; making holes in the support, installing stiffeners in the support and pouring it with cement mortar and naked during the digging out of the second tunnel of the reinforcing stiffener, ensuring that many stiffeners pass through the side wall of the first tunnel where the formation of the support is planned between the second tunnel and the first tunnel through not dug out part from the support of the first tunnel, and then through the support; pouring sprayed concrete to reinforce the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffener element exposed during the digging out of the second tunnel, attaching the base plate to the stiffener element and fastening them with a nut; pouring sprayed concrete to reinforce the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffening element exposed by digging out the remaining non-excavated part from the support of the first tunnel, attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening them with a nut.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Examples of embodiments of the present invention relate to a method of reinforcing and forming a support with excavation in order to use the soil between adjacent tunnels as a substitute for the support during the construction work of the enclosed method of at least two tunnels.

Among the terms used in the present description, the term preceding tunnel, used in the sense opposite to the subsequent tunnel, means a tunnel excavated in whole or in part, the term subsequent tunnel means a tunnel that is dug up close to the previous tunnel at a specified distance in the direction of the length of the tunnel and then behind the previous tunnel, while before digging out the next tunnel in the previous tunnel, a working space is provided to strengthen the support, and the term bottom tunnels means that the previous tunnel and the subsequent tunnel are close to each other.

Recently, in Korea, when constructing neighboring tunnels, tunnels are designed at a distance from each other, which is 1.5 times or more than the width of the tunnel, which is the minimum distance to ensure the stability of the structure.

However, due to obstacles at the entrance to the tunnel or an excessively large amount of excavation during excavation, an environmental problem may arise, so the distance between the tunnels should be less than 1.5 times the width of the tunnel. To solve the aforementioned problem, various compression methods and restrictions between tunnels using a connecting rod or steel wire, which are a stiffener, on both sides of the support, have been proposed as a method of strengthening soil between tunnels.

In the prior art, compression technology has been proposed between the tunnels of both sides of the support with a connecting rod or steel wire. Korean Patent No. 10-1096664 discloses a technology for reinforcing a support by inserting a pipe into a perforated hole and pouring it with cement mortar, digging out a subsequent tunnel at a depth corresponding to the previous tunnel, inserting tensile support elements into each of the pipes connecting the previous tunnel to the subsequent tunnel , tightening and securing both ends of the tensile support elements in the direction of compression of the support using a connecting element on the outside of the pressure blocks forks installed outside each of the pipes, and pouring cement mortar into the pipes into which the tensile support elements are inserted.

However, the prior art has disadvantages in that since the support remains uncompressed until the tensile support elements are inserted into the pipes and tensioned in the pipes when the subsequent tunnel is dug up immediately after the previous tunnel has been excavated, in the initial stage the support cannot be installed in soft soil, which can hardly be stable, without compression and strengthening of the side wall of the support; it is very difficult to set the prefabricated front plate in accordance with the hole of the pipe, since the front plate can adhere loosely to the excavation surface after blasting or to the surface of shotcrete, the adhesive shear strength provided by the structure that adheres completely to the excavation surface due to direct insertion into the surface digging in place does not occur, and since the compressive force of the tensile support element is not applied to the soil to be strengthened by the structure , in which the installed pipe supports the front plate, after the occurrence of relaxation deformation as a result of the initial digging, only a retaining effect is created. In addition, even if the weak soil at the entrance and exit of the tunnel holds both sides of the support, the soil cannot serve as a support, since the soil itself is a compressible material.

Korean Patent No. 10-1028535, which is a prior art, discloses a technology for installing an anchor bolt in a support from a previous tunnel to a subsequent tunnel for holding the support, for supplying the micro-cement mortar to the support when the anchor bolt is installed in the support by making holes in the support, and immediately after this assembly of shotcrete, the steel rib and the reinforcing bar on the side wall of the support, while the holding effect is transmitted only to the side wall of the support.

Korean Patent No. 10-0844104, also a prior art, discloses a technology for making horizontal holes in a support for inserting a reinforcing bar into a support and pouring it with cement mortar, attaching frames on both sides of the support and compressing and supporting the frames to impart a holding effect only natural soil. However, this technology does not have the effect of compressing natural soil, based on the force of elastic specific tensile strain, due to the elongation of the tensile element.

Since the tensile element inserted into the support, which was initially displaced during digging, behaves passively, like a nail, in a state in which all the perforated holes are attached to the support with cement mortar, the deformation due to the axial force applied to the support is greater than deformation in the active structure in which elongation occurs due to prestress like an anchor.

- 1 031926

FIG. 1 and 2 are a sectional view and a plan view illustrating the construction of adjacent tunnels in accordance with the prior art. As illustrated in FIG. 1 and 2, in the support 2, located between the previous (first) tunnel 10 and the subsequent (second) tunnel 11, a hole is made, and a stiffening element 20 is installed in the hole made, and the hole in the support is made horizontally towards the subsequent tunnel 11 when the previous the tunnel 10, and inserted into the hole made, poured with cement mortar and fixed element 20 stiffness.

FIG. 2 illustrates a method for digging adjacent tunnels in accordance with the prior art and is a top view of a method for installing a connecting rod by digging up to a side wall of a support, without leaving an unearthed portion on the support of the previous tunnel 10.

The method in accordance with the prior art has the following disadvantages: firstly, the support is weakened to the extent to which the initial displacement in natural soil occurs during digging of the tunnel, and then is strengthened, and secondly, if the stiffening element is inserted into the support and then it is poured with cement mortar under pressure, if the packer is installed on the wall of the support, and if the soil is a weak soil, then installing the packer requires a depth of 1.5-2.0 m to withstand the limiting pressure, and part is not enhanced by pouring solution, it is therefore difficult to make the support of the tunnel thin, which is the goal in the case of adjacent tunnels, and, thirdly, if the support soil protrudes during digging up the soil, which is unlikely to be stable, like a fault breccia belt, it is difficult to provide a sufficiently long temporary stability of disturbed soil to strengthen it. Therefore, the method in accordance with the prior art may have disadvantages.

Summarizing the problems that have not been solved in the prior art, it is important to compress both sides of the support by prestressing as soon as possible before deformation occurs immediately after digging the tunnel, but the prior art provides only fixation, that is, a conventional locking bolt is used, and does not limit deformation caused by an external force applied to the support before digging out the subsequent tunnel, which is compressed on both sides and does not improve the compressibility of the support, and has insufficient gesture awn due to the presence of voids and water present between particles, even if the outer side of the bearing is limited because soft ground, such as earth and sand, often present at the entrance to the tunnel shaft, a particulate material. Therefore, there is a need for technology that will solve the above problems.

In addition, when both sides of the support are compressed by pouring cement mortar and create prestressing to strengthen the support, since the permeability of the soil itself has decreased, the upper part of the support is saturated in weak earth and sand, and thus, when the effective stress, the shear strength decreases, reliability the design of the tunnel is reduced, and this raises the problem that it is necessary to lay a drainage route along which ground water above the support can be easily discharged.

Summary of the invention

One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for digging out the remaining part, except for the zone weakened by digging up the previous tunnel, in order to prevent deformation of the support until it is reinforced while digging up the previous tunnel, by making horizontal holes in the support for inserting a nail or anchor into the support, pouring the support with cement mortar and additionally digging out the unearthed part, since the support experiences additional stress and deformation as a result of failure yvaniya tunnel.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to the effect of creating adhesive shear strength and fastening with wooden lining by reinforcing the reinforcing material of the support with a fastening bolt, such as a nail, an anchor that can absorb prestress, etc., and using a tile structure used as a plate compressing the side wall of the support by applying shotcrete or reinforcing cage (RSC) to the side wall of the support and forcing the shotcrete into the side with Tenka support.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for designing and executing a tiled structure for both side walls of a support to provide support, similar to ensuring that the reinforced concrete is completely replaced by the tiled structure of a double tunnel support in accordance with the prior art, since weak rock or weak soil cannot completely improve compressibility due to air or water in the ground, even if the side wall of the support is pressed.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for digging out a tunnel after reinforcing support on the surface of the soil outside the tunnel if the soil is unstable and the soil cover is shallow.

In one embodiment, the method of reinforcing and forming a support with excavation includes digging a part except for a weakened area as a result of digging,

- 2 031926 to prevent deformation of the support before reinforcing the supports of adjacent tunnels during the excavation of adjacent tunnels, making horizontal holes in the support, including the support containing the weakened area, for inserting a nail or anchor into the support in advance, and strengthening the support and filling it with cement mortar to strengthen supports, and additional excavation of a part of the unearthed part from the side of the support, which is an unearthed part.

In yet another embodiment, a method of reinforcing and forming a support with earthworks includes first digging out the excavated portion of the previous tunnel to maintain a predetermined distance from the subsequent tunnel in the direction of the length of the tunnel; making holes, inserting and filling the support with cement mortar to expose the reinforcing stiffening element during the digging of the subsequent tunnel, to allow several stiffening elements on the side wall of the previous tunnel, on which the formation of the support between the subsequent tunnel and the previous tunnel is planned, to pass through the remaining part not excavated parts from the side of the support, and then pass through the support; injection of a shotcrete concrete reinforcing the surface of excavation, forming a tiled structure, into a stiffening element, exposed during the subsequent tunnel digging, attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening it with a nut; and injection of the shotcrete concrete, reinforcing the digging surface, forming a tiled structure, into a stiffening element, exposed while digging out the remaining not excavated part from the support side of the previous tunnel, attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening it with a nut.

The reinforcing stiffening element may have a shape that can apply prestress and can apply a tensile force to the stiffening element in order to ensure that the shotcrete concrete, which forms the tile structure, is pressed against the support while pumping up the digging surface, into the stiffness element, which is exposed while excavating parts from the side of the support of the subsequent tunnel and the previous tunnel, while the shotcrete is maintained, the base plate is attached to the stiffener and fastening huddle with a nut.

The shotcrete concrete reinforcing the digging surface, forming a tiled structure, can be applied by installing a reinforcing cage on the digging and spraying concrete surface.

Cement grouting is a cement grouting under pressure.

Strengthening the support in weak soil with a shallow soil cover can be performed by making vertical or angled holes on the support on the soil surface with equal intervals before digging the tunnel, inserting the microfile into the perforation hole and filling it with cement mortar under pressure to dig the tunnel.

The diameter of the perforation hole can be 76-150 mm, and after execution it can be filled with cement mortar under pressure.

A drainage pipe with holes is installed on the upper part and in the side wall of the support to prevent water from passing through the shotcrete reinforcing concrete to direct the discharged water and to prevent the phenomenon of discoloration and exposure to residual water pressure.

In yet another embodiment, an anchor for reinforcing the supports of adjacent tunnels, in which a pipe-type retainer having the shape of a reinforcing bar, as a reinforcing stiffening element providing tension, is attached to both fastening elements located at a distance from both front ends equal to an additional length the reinforcing bar, the protective covers of the reinforcing rods at both front ends are attached to both latches by a screw connection, the reinforcing bar is covered, except for the latches, They are connected with both fastening elements, part with a polyethylene coating and both fastened nuts by parts protected by a protective cover, and the reinforcing rod is lengthened by tension even though it is recessed in cement mortar, and part of the polyethylene coating and retainer are coated and interconnected by a compressive joint the tube.

In the claims claimed is a method of forming supports and strengthening adjacent tunnels, including deepening the previously excavated part of the first tunnel while maintaining a predetermined distance to the second tunnel; making holes in the support, installing stiffeners in the support and pouring it with cement mortar and the reinforcing stiffening element exposed during excavation of the second tunnel with the passage of many stiffening elements on the side wall of the first tunnel on which the formation of the support between the second tunnel and the first tunnel is planned, through the not excavated part from the support side of the first tunnel, and then through the support; pouring shotcrete to strengthen the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffener, exposed during the digging of the second tunnel, attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening them with a nut; and pouring shotcrete to strengthen the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffener, exposed by digging up the remaining not excavated part from the support side of the first tunnel, attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening them with a nut.

Preferably, the reinforcing stiffener has a shape that can provide

- 3 031926 pre-stress and transmit the tension force to the stiffener to apply compression to the support when pouring shotcrete to reinforce the excavated surface, which is the tiled structure of the stiffener, exposed while digging up the remaining not excavated part from the support side of the first tunnel, this method includes maintaining the shotcrete, attaching the base plate to the stiffener and fastening it with a nut.

Preferably, the shotcrete-concrete reinforcing digging surface, forming a tiled structure, is obtained by installing a reinforcing cage on the digging-concrete and injection-spraying surface.

Preferably, the grout is a grout under pressure.

Preferably, the support, consisting of earth and sand in a weak soil containing a fine soil layer, is reinforced by performing a vertical or inclined perforation hole in the support on the soil surface at regular intervals until the tunnel is dug up, the microfile is inserted into the perforation hole and it is poured with cement mortar under pressure for digging out a tunnel.

Preferably, the diameter of the perforation hole is 76-150 mm, and after making the hole, it is poured with cement mortar under pressure.

Preferably, a drainage pipe with holes is installed on the upper part and inside the side wall of the support at an angle upward or horizontally to prevent the passage of water through the shotcrete reinforcing the support, to direct drainage and prevent the creation of residual water pressure.

Preferably, the tile structure is designed by calculating the thickness of the tile structure of the side wall of the support, taking into account the load acting on the support, while performing the compression function of the side of the support and the support function, and the part connected to the bottom of the tunnel of the tile structure is designed as a foundation structure.

A brief description of the graphic material

The above and other aspects, features, and other advantages will become apparent from the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a method of limiting and reinforcing the support of adjacent tunnels in both tunnels in accordance with the prior art;

FIG. 2 is a plan view illustrating a method for digging adjacent tunnels in accordance with the prior art;

FIG. 3 is one section of FIG. 6 and a diagram illustrating the injection and reinforcement of the support and the combination of the stiffener with the support in order to use the stiffener and the support as a whole by inserting the stiffener to a length exposed by a predetermined amount to strengthen the tile structure and install the packer in the perforation made in the remaining part of the excavated soil from the side of the support for compression and injection of cement, when the excavated part of the previous tunnel has already been removed, and the uncovered part and the support from the side of the support the previous tunnel were passed and holes were made in them, and both side walls of the support were excavated;

FIG. 4 is a representative diagram of the present invention, a section of FIG. 6 along line BB and a diagram illustrating a state in which shotcrete is pumped onto the excavation surface in a subsequent tunnel to strengthen the tile structure, and the exposed stiffener is fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut;

FIG. 5 is a sectional view of FIG. 6 along line CC and a diagram illustrating a state in which a preceding tunnel and a subsequent tunnel are excavated, and stiffeners on both sides are fastened to a base plate and secured with a nut;

FIG. 6 is a plan view of FIG. 3-5, which are cuts;

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a state in which a drainage pipe with holes for discharging ground water collected in a support is installed at an angle up and horizontally;

FIG. 8 is a sectional view illustrating a state in which a support is reinforced by performing a microfile before digging a tunnel on the surface of the soil outside the tunnel in soft soil;

FIG. 9 is a section of the support in the combined reinforced state achieved by making holes, inserting a stiffener, and pouring cement mortar into the support by making a microfile until the tunnel is dug up on the ground surface outside the tunnel in soft soil and holes are made in an unearthed part from the support side in the previous tunnel, being a weakened area for passing through a support between made microfiles;

FIG. 10 is a section through the connection and construction of a stiffener with a tile structure of a tunnel with a support plate in a subsequent tunnel by performing amplification, as illustrated in FIG. 9, and digging out a subsequent tunnel;

FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a state in which a microfiled support is made

- 4 031926 on the previous tunnel and the subsequent tunnel;

FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating a brittle shape in which a support deforms in the direction of a crack during digging of a tunnel when a crack is present in an angled direction, and a diagram illustrating soil deformation occurring during digging of a tunnel without performing reinforcement;

FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating a state in which the front end of the stiffening element 20 ′, exposed on the surface of the excavation support, being reinforced during the excavation of the tunnel, is equipped with a reinforcing cage and is sprayed with shotcrete, wherein the exposed stiffening element 20 ′ is an additional segment of the stiffening element , the length of which is equal to the sum of the thickness of the tile structure and the length corresponding to the additional length of the fastening nut, and as a stiffening element, you can use a reinforcing bar, steel wire and the like, and if a reinforcing bar is used as the stiffening element, the additional length of the stiffening element is the additional length of the reinforcing bar;

FIG. 14 is a stereoscopic detailed diagram of the reinforcing cage;

FIG. 15 is a sectional view of FIG. 14 along the line Y-Y, which is a part of the curve of the line of the general scheme, representing the line obtained by digging the tunnel;

FIG. 16 is a sectional view of FIG. 14 along the line XX;

FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a state in which adjacent tunnels are reinforced by using stiffeners in the form of anchors attached to the ends;

FIG. 18 is a detailed diagram of FIG. 17 and a detailed sectional view illustrating a state in which prestressing is created by applying tension in a preceding tunnel to install the RSC tile structure and shotcrete and install the base plate on the surface of the tile structure;

FIG. 19 is a detailed diagram in a state in which both ends of anchors fixed at the ends are equipped with protective covers;

FIG. 20 is a detailed diagram of an anchor bolt commonly used in the prior art; and FIG. 21 is a diagram illustrating a state in which, in addition to supporting the support, the inside of the tunnel is reinforced with a reinforced nail and a commonly used fixing bolt.

Description of Exemplary Embodiments

One exemplary embodiment of the present invention (FIGS. 1-2) has a structure that undergoes a compressive force created by the support, experiencing a higher compressive force than in the case in which the natural soil between the tunnels extends a greater distance than the distance when the tunnels are not located at a distance from each other, for example, exceeding 1.5 times or more the width of the tunnel excavation, which does not pose a structural strength problem between the tunnels when neighboring tunnels are dug out unlucky. Part is a support 2, and a method of reinforcing a support 2 is described below.

During the excavation of adjacent tunnels, the soil pressure applied to the excavation surface is balanced, and rock pressure is created around the tunnel (Fig. 1-2). In natural soil between adjacent tunnels, the mountain pressure overlaps, and thus a large compressive force is applied, and since the distance between the tunnels is small, more stress is applied to the tunnel, and therefore, the tunnel is strengthened to withstand voltage.

The method of reinforcing the support in accordance with the prior art involves the strengthening of the tunnel by limiting the tile structure 40 using an anchor bolt as a stiffener on both sides of adjacent tunnels (Fig. 1, 2). In this case, the unresolved technical problem lies in the lack of control of displacement that occurs initially from the moment of excavation of the soil to the installation of the anchor bolt. Again, at the moment of excavation of the soil, a state of non-fixing with a wooden lining occurs, and in this case, most of the complete deformations, depending on the excavation of the tunnel, are completed, and therefore, in weak soil, the tunnel collapses.

The present invention relates to a method for reinforcing and supporting adjacent tunnels with earthworks (Figs. 3-5), the method including digging out a part except for a weakened area as a result of excavating the soil, so that the support is not deformed until reinforcing the supports of adjacent tunnels during excavation adjacent tunnels, making continuous horizontal holes in the support, including the unearthed portion 12 from the side of the support, which is a weakened area, and preliminary insertion of a nail or anchor into the support, reinforcing the support by reinforcing the support and pouring it with cement mortar, and additionally digging out and removing the not dug part 12 from the side of the support, which is not dug part.

In accordance with the proposed method (Fig. 3-5), when the support 2 is reinforced by making a perforated hole for reinforcement in a state in which the uncovered part 12 remains on the side of the support, which is a weakened region formed during the excavation of the excavated part 14, the support 2 reinforce the stiffening element 20 in a state in which the support 2 is not weakened and performs the function of support, and the voltage is applied to the stiffness element from the moment of removal of the remaining not excavated part 12 from the side of the support.

- 5 031926

If we describe in detail the uncovered part 12 on the support, which is a weakened region, during the excavation of the tunnel, the excavation surface is deformed in the forward direction to the excavation surface, and the voltage initially acting underground under the excavation is removed (Fig. 3-5). The deformation represents the maximum deformation on the excavation surface, since the excavation surface is deep, the deformation is small, and the deformation can be different depending on the type of soil, but at a depth of about 2 to 6 m it is very small. According to this exemplary embodiment of the present invention, this range is defined as a weakened region, and the support is reinforced by securing the uncovered part 12 from the support side, which is the soil cover, the weakened area from the support side, while the support to be reinforced is not weakened, and by making holes in the support brown for penetration through the support 2 in the excavated part from the outside to insert a stiffener with linear tension into the support and pour the support cement solution.

In addition, a time limit and various reinforcement methods can be applied based on preliminary information about the soil, such as the presence of cracks, gushing water and the consistency of natural soil obtained during the first construction of the excavated part 14 and the elimination of the problem (Fig. 3-5).

The stiffening element reinforcing the support is reinforced with an anchor bolt attached to the front side, such as a nail, prestressing anchor, etc. After the hole is made and the stiffener is inserted to strengthen the natural soil, the supports are filled with cement mortar under pressure, depending on conditions, such as the presence of cracks and cavities in natural soil, to strengthen the natural soil of the support (Fig. 3-5).

The technical idea of excavation, leaving the unearthed part from the side of the support in the natural soil of the tunnel from the side of the support and reinforcing before deformation occurs, is used differently to change and build a sequence of earthwork and divides the upper and lower cross sections to separate the cross section not excavated part 12 from the side of the support to the upper and lower parts, while leaving the cross section unchanged, thereby strengthening and performing the excavation of the support (Fig. 3-5).

FIG. 3 is a sectional view of FIG. 6 along line AA. According to this figure, the uncovered part 14 of the preceding tunnel is first dug out. Then, in the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the preceding tunnel, a perforation hole is made in the horizontal direction to the side of the predetermined digging line of the soil from the support side. A stiffening element 20 is inserted into the perforation hole, after which it is poured with a liquid solution to form a pillar with the support ground.

FIG. 4 is a representative diagram of the present invention and a section of FIG. 6 along line BB, on which a subsequent tunnel 11 is dug up to a predetermined digging line. When a subsequent tunnel 11 is dug up to a predetermined digging line, the stiffener 20 is exposed. In this case, shotcrete is injected to form a tile structure 40, after which the exposed stiffener 20 ′ is pulled by a hydraulic jack or the like. to a state in which the exposed stiffening element 20 ′ is fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut to provide a simple fix, or the exposed stiffening element 20 ′ is secured with a nut using a hydraulic jack, and then again secured with a nut to the entire stretched length to create a tensile force.

FIG. 5 is a sectional view of FIG. 6 along the CC line, when the excavated 14 of the previous tunnel 10 and the subsequent tunnel 11 is developed, the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the previous tunnel remaining in the previous tunnel 10 is removed, the predetermined digging line of the previous tunnel 10 is passed, and the stiffening element 20 is exposed. In this case, the tile structure 40 is formed by injection of shotcrete, and then the exposed stiffener 20 ′ is fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut to provide a simple fix, or the exposed stiffener 20 ′ is pulled to a state in which the exposed stiffener 20 ′ is attached nut using a hydraulic jack, and then again fasten the nut to the entire stretched length to create a tensile force.

FIG. 6 is a plan view of FIG. 3-5, when the excavated part 14 of the preceding tunnel 10 is initially designed to preserve the length specified from the subsequent tunnel 11, and the subsequent tunnel 11 is dug up with the passage of several stiffening elements 20 in the side wall of the previous tunnel 10, between the subsequent tunnel 11 and the previous the support 10 will be formed by the tunnel 10, through the remaining not excavated part 12 from the support side, construction is carried out in the sequence according to which a perforation hole accessible with the digging surface, and a stiffening element 20 is inserted into the perforation hole, after which it is poured with cement mortar, the exposed stiffening element 20 'is covered with a shotcrete reinforcing the digging surface, which forms a tiled structure during the digging of the subsequent tunnel 11 until the remaining part is excavated from the support side 2 of the previous tunnel , and fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut, and then the stiffening element 20 ', exposed when digging up the remaining not excavated part 12 from the side of the support ed. 6 031926 of the marching tunnel 10, is covered with shotcrete reinforcing the excavation surface, which forms a tiled structure 40, and fastened to a base plate and secured with a nut.

In the above description, an empty hole 13 formed in the remaining un excavated portion 12 from the side of the support is charged with gunpowder after digging out the remaining un excavated portion 12 from the side of the support, and, therefore, is used as a hole. In this case, during charging with the gunpowder, the buffer material is first inserted, and thus, blasting is necessary to prevent damage to the stiffening element 20.

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating that a drainage pipe 25 with openings for discharging collecting ground water, by which the residual water pressure is removed, is set to tilt upward and is set horizontally since the water permeability coefficient of natural soil is small when the support 2 is reinforced with cement solution and, thus, is an impenetrable layer. The horizontal and inclined drainage pipe 25 is connected to a hose passing below the tunnel drainage path and, thus, ground water is directly removed without passing through the shotcrete of the tunnel digging surface.

According to FIG. 3, the non-excavable part 14 of the right preceding tunnel is first dug out so that holes are made in it by penetrating through the non-excavated part 12 from the side of the support and the support 2 of the previous tunnel, which is a weakened region, and when both side walls of the support 2 are excavated, tensile the stiffening element 20, having the shape of a thin rod, is fixed with a nut 69, and a predetermined length for reinforcing the tile structure 40 is inserted at a distance necessary to obtain a bare length, and an empty perforation tverstie formed not dig into part 12 on the bearing side, which is not dug out remaining portion equipped with a packer for compressing and pumping a cement slurry, and thus enhance the support 2 and the bracing member 20 is combined with a support 2 for the work as a whole. Then, when the subsequent non-digging part 11 is dug out to expose the reinforced stiffening element 20, the excavation surface of the support 2 is equipped with a tile structure 40, and the stiffening element 20 is fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut to provide compression. The subsequent tunnel 11 is dug out when the support 2 and the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the previous tunnel 10 are in an undeveloped state, while the subsequent tunnel 11 is dug in a state in which the central width of the adjacent tunnels is large, and a tile structure is attached to the support 40 and the base plate and fasten with a nut, so that construction can be carried out with the reliability of the structure. At the stage of excavation, the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the preceding tunnel is torn out, and the exposed stiffener 20 ′ is equipped with a tile structure 40 and fastened to the base plate and secured with a nut to provide compression.

In a first exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the excavated portion 14 of the preceding tunnel 10 is first dug deeper to maintain a constant distance in the direction of the length of the tunnel from the subsequent tunnel 11.

A hole is made in the support 2, into which a stiffening element is inserted, which is poured with cement mortar, which will be exposed during the digging of the subsequent tunnel 11 to allow several stiffeners 20 to pass through the support 2 in the side wall of the previous tunnel 10, and the support 2 will be formed between the subsequent tunnel 11 and the previous tunnel 10 by passing through the unearthed part 12 from the support side of the previous tunnel.

The stiffening element 20 ', exposed during the excavation of the subsequent tunnel 11, is coated with a shotcrete reinforcing the excavation surface, forming a tile structure 40, and fastened with a base plate with a nut.

The method of reinforcing and forming supports of adjacent tunnels with earthworks is carried out by forcing shotcrete-concrete reinforcing the surface of excavation, forming a tile structure 40, into a stiffening element 20 ', exposed when part 12 is excavated from the support side of the previous tunnel 10 and the base plate is fastened to element 20 'stiffness nut.

In addition, the inhomogeneous surface formed by fixing the base plate with nuts is additionally coated with waterproof shotcrete to give a smooth surface.

Continuing with the description of the sequence of execution of the first exemplary embodiment of the present invention with reference to FIG. 3-7, perform the step of digging out the previous excavated part 14, inserting the stiffening element 20, which can be stretched by using the space created by digging, to the required length to form a tile structure 40 on both sides of the support 2 by making a perforation hole with a drill for strengthening , which will pass through the uncovered part 12 and the support 2, the installation and pouring stage under pressure of cement mortar packer using a perforation in the uncovered part 12 with a hundred On the support, which is a weakened region of the perforation hole for reinforcement, the step of attaching the tile structure 40 to the stiffener 20 ′ is exposed during the digging out of the subsequent tunnel 11, and the compression of the tile structure when the tile structure is fixed with a 40 nut, and the step of digging out the remaining dug part 12 from the side of the support and attaching the tile structure 40 to the base plate 40 and securing them with a nut.

The reinforcing stiffening element 20 has a shape in which a tensile force can be generated, and at the stage of digging out the unearthed part 12 from the support side of the previous tunnel to pump and maintain the reinforcing digging surface of shotcrete, forming the tile structure 40, on the exposed stiffening element 20 'with by subsequently attaching the stiffening element 20 'to the base plate and securing them with a nut, the support 2 is compressed by applying a tension force to the stiffening element 20, thereby strengthening the supports 2 of the adjacent tunnels.

FIG. 8 is a sectional view of a support reinforced by amplifying a microfile 30 before digging a tunnel on the surface of the soil outside the tunnel in the case of weak soil, such as earth and soil, which can often be present at the entrance and exit of the tunnel.

FIG. 9-11 illustrate the state in which the microfile 30 for reinforcing the support 2 on the soil surface outside the tunnel in soft soil is performed before the tunnel is dug out and in the manner illustrated in FIG. 35, in FIG. Figure 3-5 shows the state in which holes 2 for passing microfiles 30 are made in the support 2, obtained by making holes in the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the previous tunnel, which is part of the weakened region of the side wall of the support in the excavated part 14 of the previous tunnel, and into the support 2, a stiffening element 20 inserted in cement mortar is inserted, and thereby a combined reinforced state is realized.

FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating a brittle shape in which slip deformation occurs in the direction of the crack when a compressive load is applied to the support during digging of the tunnel, when a crack in the rock mass extends in the direction at an angle, and a diagram illustrating soil deformation occurring during digging tunnel without performing amplification.

FIG. 13 is a sectional view illustrating a state in which an RSC 41 is mounted on a front end of a stiffener exposed when reinforcing while digging a tunnel and is sprayed with shotcrete.

FIG. 14 is a stereoscopic detailed diagram of RSC 41 according to FIG. 13, FIG. 15 is a sectional view of FIG. 14 along the line Y-Y, and FIG. 16 is a sectional view of FIG. 14 along line XX. In FIG. 15, reference numeral 42 represents the main reinforcing bar in the cross-sectional direction of RSC 41, and reference numeral 43 represents the lower main reinforcing bar.

Position 45 is a diagonal reinforcing bar connecting the main reinforcing bars. In FIG. 16, at position 44, the shape of the longitudinal upper and lower reinforcing bars is maintained by interconnecting them with a diagonal reinforcing bar 45. At position 42, the longitudinal reinforcing bar 44, which is the main reinforcing bar, intersects at right angles. Reference numeral 46 denotes a bracket providing a gap.

FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a state in which adjacent tunnels are reinforced by using the anchor 60 attached to the ends as a stiffener.

FIG. 18 is a detailed diagram of one anchor 60 fixed at the ends, and the proposed stiffener among various forms of stiffeners is an anchor 60 fixed at the ends, and if the function, configuration, and construction method are described in detail, during operation, a tension force is applied from both ends the anchor, and until the tensile force is created, like a nail, it is placed to its full length for combining with the soil by pouring cement mortar into the perforation hole to limit the soil when ground deformations of.

In this configuration, both ends of the reinforcing bar are screw-threaded for nut attachment, and the thickness of the tile structure 40 reinforcing the side wall of the support 2 and the length for tightening the nuts at both ends of the reinforcing bar form an additional length of the reinforcing bar, and when the latch 67 is inserted on both side of the reinforcing bar, while leaving the desired length, the reinforcing bar is fixed on both sides by a stopper 71 attached to the reinforcing bar, and tension is created on either side, the rod is fixed at the other end by a locking stop 71, and as a result of the tension on the tension side, the strain is deformed.

The front latch is equipped with a protective cover 66 of the anchor, the end of which abuts against the front ends on both sides of the anchor, and the additional length of the reinforcing bar on which the screw thread is made is protected during filling into the perforation hole of the cement mortar by cutting off the filling fluid. Both ends on the inner side of both latches are rigidly connected to the tubular-shaped fastening elements 63, on the outer side of which a protrusion 64 is made, the fastening element and the reinforcing bar are separated, and when the reinforcing bar is pulled on either side, the fastening element connected to the clamp 67 is fixed by a stopper 71 attached to the reinforcing bar of the other side, and the length of the clamp is determined by calculation depending on the type and strength of the soil tension.

The reinforcing bar between the two fastening elements 63 is coated with polyethylene (PE), and

- 8 031926 coated part 62 and the retainer are connected to each other by a compressible connecting pipe 72. The tension element coated with the PE coated part 62 and the fixing element is designed to freely deform the modification of the reinforcing bar, which is a tension element, by the tension force in the cement-filled hole, and to prevent permanent corrosion, even though damage such as cracks in aged cement mortar can occur.

A sponge 70, covering the protective covers 66 of the anchors on both sides, serves to prevent damage to the protective cover 66 in the cement slurry while digging out the subsequent tunnel 11 and digging out the uncovered part 12 in the support, and if the protective cover 66 is damaged as a result of an explosion during digging of the tunnel, the sponge protects the screw thread, which is an element of tension, from ingress of shotcrete and freely deforms the stopper during tension, when the tile structure is formed by shotcrete by covering a a rod, which is an element of tension.

An advantage of the anchor 60 fixed at the ends is that it can exert a tensile force while being stretched from either side and can resist deformation of natural soil like a nail before applying a tensile force (FIG. 17).

To strengthen the support in the excavated part 14 of the preceding tunnel, holes are made by passing through the unearthed part 12 from the side of the support and the support 2, the anchor fixed at the ends is installed to perform cement grouting, and then the anchor fixed at the ends serves as a nail due to the fixers, installed on both sides, and during the digging out of the subsequent tunnel 11, the exposed anchor is exposed and a base plate is attached to it, and then pulled for fixation, while the anchor 60 attached to the ends serves as the anchor (FIG. 17).

Continuing the description of the formation method, in the space in which the non-excavable part 14 of the previous tunnel 10 is dug, the thickness of the tile structure 40 reinforcing the side wall of the support for passing through the support 2 on the excavation surface of the unearthed part 12 from the support side and the length for fixing with a nut correspond the additional length of the reinforcing bar, and when the protective cover, protected by a sponge, is exposed when making holes a little more than the length of the anchor fixed at the ends, the insert fixed at the end x of the anchor, performing cement mortar pouring, and then digging out the subsequent tunnel 11, first perform a tiled structure that strengthens the digging surface of the tunnel, and then remove the protective cover 66 after curing, and when a base plate is attached to a reinforcing bar equipped with bare screw thread, and connected nut, and then a hydraulic jack to create an extension, create the required tensile force, the nut is tightened even more (Fig. 17).

Then, a tension force is applied to the support 2 and a prestress is created (Fig. 17).

Then, when the anchor is exposed when digging out the uncovered part 12 from the support side of the preceding tunnel 10, the tile structure 40 is made, the protective cover 66 is removed and the support plate 64 is tightened with the nut 68, and the tension force can be additionally applied using the hydraulic jack (Fig. 18- 20).

According to the method of applying the tension force, the reinforcing bar connected to the hydraulic piston is connected by a connector having a screw, and the saddle-shaped apparatus connected to the cylinder part rests on the tile structure 40, reinforcing the side wall of the support 2, and is tensioned (Figs. 18-20).

As a reinforcing element 20 of stiffness, which is used to apply tension forces, the anchors 60 fixed at the ends are attached to both fastening elements 67, secured by a clamp insert on the outer sides of the reinforcing bar to ensure a distance from both front ends equal to the additional length of the reinforcing bar, and both fixing element fix the tension force of the reinforcing bar with a stopper rigidly connected to the reinforcing bars on both outer sides (Fig. 18-20).

Both latches on the protective covers of the reinforcing bars on the front end side are attached to both fixing elements 67 by a screw connection. The reinforcing rod is covered with the exception of the fasteners connected to both fixing elements, part 62 with PE coating and both fixed nut parts protected by a protective cover 66, while the reinforcing rod is extended by tension, even though it is recessed in cement mortar, and part c PE coated, and the retainer are coated and connected to each other by a compressible connecting tube 72 (Figs. 18-20).

The subsequent tunnel 11 or the front end of the stiffening element, reinforced during the excavation of the unearthed portion 12 from the support side, is protected by a protective cover 66 and a sponge, so that it is easily exposed without damage, and after excavation and reinforcement of the tile structure, such as shotcrete , the protective cover 66 and the sponge are removed (Fig. 18-20).

The shotcrete concrete reinforcing the digging surface, forming a tiled structure 40 for reinforcing the side wall of the support 2 due to the action of limiting pressure and adhesive strength

- 9 031926 when shearing, is a conventional shotcrete, forming a tiled structure 40, or it is obtained by installing RSC 41 on the surface of digging and injection of shotcrete, and the reinforcement RSC 41 is welded in the direction of the cross section of the tunnel according to the principle of truss reinforcement and is made as illustrated in FIG. 14, and also made by performing welding on the principle of trusses in the longitudinal direction, if necessary. In this case, if the longitudinal length is less than 1.5 m, the steel reinforcement 45 of the truss is not reinforced, but only the steel reinforcement in the form of compressed elements is strengthened, which is attached to the reinforcing stiffening element 20 connected to the base plate and fastened with shotcrete, which aged (Fig. 14-17).

In addition, it is possible to dig out and use various tiled structures 40 (Fig. 1417).

If it is additionally required that the tiled structure 40 compresses the side of the support 2 due to weak soil, the tiled structure 40 on both sides of the walls of the support 2 is made of a thickness capable of withstanding the load applied to the support 2 and can be used as a wall structure serving as support (Fig. 14-17).

In this case, so that the foundation part of the side wall provides load-bearing capacity, the foundation structure is dug out taking into account the installation of the base plate in the lower part of the tile structure 40 to increase the load-bearing capacity or additionally, taking into account the installation of a microfile in the lower part of the base plate to further strengthen the foundation, and the upper part the side wall is connected to the tile structure 40 supporting the surface of the digging tunnel. In this case, the width of the support 40 may be less. In addition, in accordance with the load calculation method, it is possible to perform a calculation assuming that the preceding tunnel 10 and the subsequent tunnel 11 are one tunnel with a minimum large cross section, and also assuming that the soil is between the inner cross section of the tunnel with the large cross section and the inner the cross section of adjacent tunnels acts as a load, or in the case of a shallow soil cover in which rock pressure is not created, you can take your own weight as a calculation load soil to the soil surface between the center lines of both adjacent tunnels (Fig. 14-17).

In addition, since the soil itself includes soil with voids and water and has compressibility, even though both sides of the support are closed in soft soil having a shallow soil cover, as a way of strengthening the soil, as illustrated in FIG. 8, before digging out a tunnel for inserting a microfile, filling with cement mortar under pressure, and then digging out the tunnel, a method is implemented for supporting vertical or angled openings with a predetermined interval.

Further, during the formation sequence in FIG. 9, 10 and 11, if both sides of the support 2 are additionally vertically reinforced by the stiffening element 20 during the excavation of the tunnel, a horizontal opening is made in the support 2 for injection of the reinforcing injection material and the stiffening element 20 is inserted into it at a predetermined interval, thereby reinforcing the support 2 A reinforcing injection material may be used, which is a mixture of various injection materials, such as cement and microcement with water.

In this case, the diameter of the hole for inserting the microfile is 76-150 mm and it is poured with cement mortar, due to which high structural ability is achieved, and since the soil is unstable, it is preferable to make a large diameter in the structure to increase the body of the cured cement mortar and the friction area.

In addition, when both sides of the support 2 are compressed by pouring cement mortar and create prestress to strengthen the support 2, the permeability of the soil itself decreases, and therefore, the upper part of the support 2 is saturated with ground water, and when the shear strength decreases with decreasing stress, the reliability of the tunnel design is reduced and there is a need to create a drainage channel through which groundwater from the upper part of the support 2 can drain during the design of the drainage channel of the tunnel. In this case, if the flowing water dissolves the shotcrete of the tunnel, which reacts with carbon dioxide in the air, peeling occurs. As a result, there is a need to prevent the passage of exfoliated flakes through shotcrete.

Therefore, in order to prevent the passage of water through the shotcrete after reinforcing the support 2, a drainage pipe 25 with openings is installed in the upper part of the side wall of the support 2, which is designed to direct the discharged water and prevent the residual water pressure from acting on it.

FIG. 18 is a detailed view of FIG. 17 and a detailed cross-sectional view of the anchor 60 fixed at the ends, which can exert prestress by applying a tensile force in the preceding tunnel 10 to install the RSC 41 on the shotcrete-concrete tile structure 40 and the base plate 65 on the surface of the tile structure 40.

FIG. 19 is a detailed diagram illustrating a state in which protective covers 66 are attached at both ends of the anchor 60 attached to the ends. In addition, there may be

- 10 031926 attached sponge 70 for easy exposure of the protective cover 66 during digging.

FIG. 20 is a detailed diagram of an anchor bolt commonly used in the prior art.

FIG. 21 is a diagram illustrating a reinforcing nail 80, wherein the nail is reinforced in a tunnel, a reinforced mounting bolt 81 is typically used.

If it is necessary to strengthen the support, the distance between the stiffeners and their number are determined by the designer during the construction calculation, depending on the state of the soil and the thickness of the support.

As already noted, in an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the excavated part of the preceding tunnel is excavated and the support is strengthened and excavated by passing through the not excavated part from the support side in the previous tunnel until the support deforms in a state in which the support of the previous tunnel remains the unearthed part, which is a weakened region, with less deformation of natural soil than if the previous tunnel along Nost designed and then amplified, and may have sufficient time and in different ways to apply the method for enhancing, to pre-verify information on the ground, such as cracks, spouting water and the consistency of the natural soil, in the process of construction of the previously dug up the pieces and solve problems.

If, on the basis of information about the soil obtained during the excavation of the excavated part, it is determined that the soil is weak, tunnel safety is not guaranteed by reinforcing the support, the elements in both walls of the support are made with a large thickness, which ensures the function of the support element, which replaces the reinforced concrete support of the double a tunnel in accordance with the prior art. In this case, the forming method may include the installation of a tape-type reinforcing cage in a part of the side wall from the side of the excavation during the excavation of part of the not excavated part from the support side for a unit length and the injection and reinforcement of shotcrete.

Since the RSC according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is reinforced concrete, it is possible to increase the adhesive shear strength using natural soil, adapt the strength of the excavation surface and reduce the elastic recovery after deformation of the shotcrete, and since the length and width of the reinforcing cage are designed freely, you can connect structural parts in series by using a connecting arm atura.

The tensioned material reinforcing the support can act as a nail by using anchors fixed at the ends, the lock can be used as a support lining so that the support plate can create tension, provide friction to create point pressure together with the tile structure, first act on one side of both sides of the side the walls of the support and create an extension of the tensile element during tension to continuously create prestress by means of an elastic specific force Oh tensile strain.

In addition, since the soil itself includes soil with voids and water and has compressibility, even though both sides of the support are closed in weak soil with a shallow soil cover, as a way to strengthen the soil until the tunnel is dug up to insert a microfile, and cement is filled under pressure with a solution followed by digging out the tunnel, a method is carried out for supporting vertical or angled holes with a predetermined interval, and the microfile is inserted on the ground surface in the state which there is no deformation from stress in the natural soil as a result of digging the tunnel in the natural soil to effect the fastening of wooden lining at the same time as digging the tunnel, and thereby ensures safety during the initial digging.

In addition, the stiffener can be strengthened horizontally by forcing the cement slurry into the insertion hole in the support, so that the microfiles do not overlap when both sides of the support are additionally strengthened horizontally as a stiffening element during the excavation of the tunnel, and thus can be installed and created at a given interval .

Claims (8)

  1. CLAIM
    1. A method of forming supports and strengthening adjacent tunnels, including deepening the previously excavated part of the first tunnel (10) while maintaining a predetermined distance to the second tunnel (11);
    making holes in the support (2), installing the stiffeners (20) in the support (2) and pouring it with cement mortar and exposed reinforcing stiffener while digging the second tunnel with the passage of many stiffening elements on that side wall of the first tunnel (10), on which it is planned to form a support between the second tunnel (11) and the first tunnel (10), through the not excavated part from the support (2) of the first tunnel (10), and then through the support (2);
    pouring shotcrete to strengthen the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffener, exposed during the digging of the second tunnel (11), attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening them with a nut;
    pouring shotcrete to strengthen the excavated surface, which is the slab structure of the stiffener, exposed by digging up the remaining not excavated part from the support side of the first tunnel (10), attaching the base plate to the stiffening element and fastening them with a nut.
  2. 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reinforcing stiffening element has a shape that can provide prestress and transmit a tensile force to the stiffening element for applying compression to the support when pouring shotcrete to reinforce the excavated surface, which is a tiled structure a stiffening element exposed during the excavation of the remaining unearthed part from the support side of the first tunnel, the method comprising maintaining shotcrete, attaching the base plate to the element stiffness and fastening with a nut.
  3. 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reinforcing digging surface of shotcrete concrete forming a tiled structure is obtained by installing a reinforcing cage on the surface of digging and injection of shotcrete.
  4. 4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cement pouring is a cement pouring under pressure.
  5. 5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reinforcement of the support, consisting of earth and sand in soft soil containing a shallow soil layer, is performed by performing a vertical or inclined perforation hole in the support on the soil surface at equal intervals until the tunnel is excavated, insert microfile in the perforation hole and pouring it with cement mortar under pressure to dig a tunnel.
  6. 6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the diameter of the perforation hole is 76-150 mm and after making the hole it is poured with cement mortar under pressure.
  7. 7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drainage pipe with holes is installed on the upper part and inside the side wall of the support at an angle upward or horizontally to prevent the passage of water through shotcrete reinforcing the support, to direct drainage and prevent the creation of residual pressure water.
  8. 8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the tile structure is designed by calculating the thickness of the tile structure of the side wall of the support, taking into account the load acting on the support, while performing the compression function of the side of the support and the support function and the part connected to the bottom of the tile tunnel structures design as a fundamental structure.
EA201590327A 2013-05-09 2014-05-08 Method for forming a pillar part and reinforcing adjacently constructed parallel tunnels with reinforcing rods EA031926B1 (en)

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KR101671123B1 (en) * 2015-11-25 2016-10-31 서민규 Tunnel construction method by using pre-support and post-support, and suitable device therefor
KR101665516B1 (en) * 2016-03-16 2016-10-24 우경기술주식회사 Construction method of duel tunnel using composite capable of bidirectional tensioning, pressure casting and tiebolting, and its duel tunnel
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EA201590327A1 (en) 2015-05-29
WO2014182074A1 (en) 2014-11-13
GEP201706653B (en) 2017-04-10

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