DE4340756C5 - Laser range finding device - Google Patents

Laser range finding device

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Publication number
DE4340756C5
DE4340756C5 DE19934340756 DE4340756A DE4340756C5 DE 4340756 C5 DE4340756 C5 DE 4340756C5 DE 19934340756 DE19934340756 DE 19934340756 DE 4340756 A DE4340756 A DE 4340756A DE 4340756 C5 DE4340756 C5 DE 4340756C5
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
light
characterized
device according
pulse
preceding
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
DE19934340756
Other languages
German (de)
Other versions
DE4340756A1 (en
DE4340756C2 (en
Inventor
Hainer Wetteborn
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Sick AG
Original Assignee
Sick AG
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Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to DE4241326 priority Critical
Priority to DEP4241326.5 priority
Application filed by Sick AG filed Critical Sick AG
Priority claimed from DE4345448A external-priority patent/DE4345448C2/en
Priority to DE4345448A priority patent/DE4345448C2/en
Priority to DE19934340756 priority patent/DE4340756C5/en
Priority to DE4345446A priority patent/DE4345446C2/en
Publication of DE4340756A1 publication Critical patent/DE4340756A1/en
Publication of DE4340756C2 publication Critical patent/DE4340756C2/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=27204530&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=DE4340756(C5) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Publication of DE4340756C5 publication Critical patent/DE4340756C5/en
Application granted granted Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/93Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for anti-collision purposes
    • G01S17/936Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for anti-collision purposes between land vehicles; between land vehicles and fixed obstacles
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • G01S17/42Simultaneous measurement of distance and other co-ordinates
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4811Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements common to transmitter and receiver
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4817Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements relating to scanning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/497Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • G01S2007/4975Means for monitoring or calibrating of sensor obstruction by, e.g. dirt- or ice-coating, e.g. by reflection measurement on front-screen
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4811Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements common to transmitter and receiver
    • G01S7/4812Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements common to transmitter and receiver transmitted and received beams following a coaxial path
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4811Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements common to transmitter and receiver
    • G01S7/4813Housing arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/497Means for monitoring or calibrating

Abstract

Laser distance detection device according to the pulse transit time method with a pulse laser (11), the controlled Transmitting light pulses (12) in a measuring range (13), a photo receiving device (22), which are the objects located in the measuring area (13) (14) thrown back Light pulses (12 ') receives and an evaluation circuit (23, 30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40), which under consideration the speed of light from the time between transmission and reception a light pulse (12, 12 ') for the distance of the object (14) from the pulse laser (11) characteristic distance signal detected, wherein between the measuring area (13) and the pulse laser (11) a light deflecting device (15) is arranged, which to the evaluation circuit (23, 30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40) for its instantaneous angular position representative angular position signal and the evaluation circuit (23, 30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40) from the distance signal and the angular position signal the Location of the object (14) within the measuring range (13) determined, thereby characterized in that the light deflecting device (15) for transmission the successive light pulses (12) under it ...

Description

  • The The invention relates to a laser distance detection apparatus according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • Such a laser distance detection device is known from German Offenlegungsschrift DE 38 08 972 A1 known. This publication relates to a device for continuous tracking and position measurement of an object in a three-dimensional space. For this purpose, two light emitters are provided which each emit light strokes, which are pulled apart in one direction and narrow in a direction perpendicular thereto. The two lines of light emitted by the light emitters run vertically to each other. Both light strokes are periodically deflected by a respective deflection device in a direction vertical to its longitudinal extent, so that both light strokes sweep a common search field. The deflection devices each comprise a rotating, transparent plane plate which, according to the generally known optical laws, causes a different parallel offset between incoming and outgoing light, depending on its angular position. When an object is in the search field, it reflects the emitted light back to the measuring device where it is fed via a lens to a receiver. From the light transit time between the measuring device and the reflective object, the distance between the measuring device and the object is calculated. The angular position of the object is determined from the instantaneous angular position of the two rotating plane plates. As soon as an object has been detected and its position has been determined, a tracking device is activated, which aligns the measuring device with the detected object.
  • Out US Pat. No. 4,475,035 discloses a device by means of which the surface an object can be scanned, the object in constant Distance to the device along a given path on one conveyor belt is transported. In this case, the intensity of the reflected surface to be scanned by the Evaluated light or the distance of the surface to be scanned the device determined by means of a laser distance detection system become.
  • From the German patent DE 34 41 450 C2 For example, it is known to use a detecting device which operates with light beams, by means of which, for example, an automatic movement of a vehicle along a rectilinear path is made possible. For this purpose, the device emits light beams in the forward and backward direction of a vehicle, wherein by means of the device in the forward and backward direction of the vehicle positioned retro-reflectors can be detected. The light beams thereby carry out a predetermined vertical scanning and by means of a reciprocating mirror a small horizontal scanning.
  • Further, from the scriptures DE 34 29 062 C2 and DE 40 02 356 C1 a distance measurement using the pulse transit time method is known.
  • The German patent DE 39 08 273 C1 on page 2, lines 59 to 64 describes a light sensor with a self-test device for a self-propelled vehicle.
  • In the German patent application DE 37 35 905 A1 a method and an apparatus for volume flow measurement on belt conveyors by means of laser distance profile scanner is described. The device described therein has a rotating mirror, which causes a measuring beam in the region of the belt conveyor is pivoted back and forth, which from the zigzag course of in 4 shown measuring profiles is visible.
  • The German patent DE 39 32 844 C2 discloses a measuring arrangement for locating obstacles that penetrate into a plane having any edge shape. For this purpose, the arrangement has a device for detecting the distance of the obstacle, which operates on the triangulation principle. The boundary curve of said plane is scanned by means of light rays, which are guided via a motor-driven deflection mirror. 6 combined with 4 This document shows a reference mark, which is arranged within the Abtastwinkelbereichs and which serves to monitor the proper operation of the device.
  • The textbook "Bernhard war, automate with optoelectronics", bird book publishing house, ISBN 3-8023-0487-X shows on the sides 168 to 172 a light curtain, whose task is to recognize whether an object is in a protective field, which between a transmitting and receiving arrangement and a reflector is formed. For this purpose, a laser diode sends light to a motor mirror, which reflects the light via two deflecting mirrors and in the direction of a concave mirror. The use of the concave mirror thereby causes the light beams leaving the transmitting and receiving arrangement to be aligned parallel to one another. The same applies to those light beams that are reflected back from the reflector to the transmitting and receiving device. These mutually parallel transmitting and receiving beams pass through the protective field in opposite directions. If an object is in the protective field, the reflection is disturbed by the reflector located at the end of the protective field, which means that an emitted light beam can not be received. In this case, an object detection signal is output.
  • Of the described light curtain further comprises a device for the distance measurement on. The last paragraph of page 171 shows that only measured the distance of the reflector from the transceiver assembly in order to rule out manipulations in this way otherwise could be caused by a reflector in the immediate Near the Transceiver arrangement would be arranged so that the light beams the actual protective field at all would not reach.
  • Of the Brochure LVS 450 ... LVS 1400 "Barrier ottiche antinfortunatstiche "the Fa. Sick describes light curtains, which are suitable for the presence of objects, not however whose position to determine.
  • in the GMR Report 5 of the VDI / VDE Society for Measurement and Control Technology from 06.-07. February 1985 are selected Application examples of opto-electronic components in the Measurement technology described. On page 13 is an optical sound system, which uses a deflectable diode laser beam mentioned and shown schematically (Figure 9). The above illustration shows a diode laser which directs light toward a first, smaller one Deflection mirror sends. From this smaller deflection mirror arrives the redirected light on a rotating mirror, which the light in Direction of an object distracts. The light reflected by the object gets over again the rotating mirror to a detector. In the third to last line on page 13 of the above report, must have a relative movement between the rotating mirror and the object occur. The figure in the third row of the table Page 10 of the above report shows a rotating mirror, which with a semicircular Double arrow is marked and the one swinging back and forth of the rotating mirror symbolizes.
  • in the Review by J. Moring et al. in "Optical Engineering ", volume 28, No. 8, pages 897-902, August 1989 is a device for producing three-dimensional Image data described with light rays of a pulse length of 8 ns works. Furthermore, a maximum scan rate of 20 lines per second and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 MHz.
  • The Textbook M.I. Skolnik, Radar Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, ..., 1970, pages 37-46 to 37-49 employed himself with the topic "laser radar" and in particular with the use of interference filters in laser radar optics.
  • The The object of the present invention is a device of the type mentioned in such a way that at low economic effort the positioning of objects in spatial Areas allows is, wherein the inventive device For example, in connection with the hedge of driverless Transport systems and general area safeguards are used should come. In particular, according to the invention, the largest possible search field without initial Adjustment and monitored without tracking device can be the number of for incoming and outgoing light beams provided housing openings the device can be reduced and the simultaneous detection and tracking multiple within the search field Allows objects become.
  • to solution The above-mentioned objects are the features of the characterizing part of claim 1 provided.
  • preferred Dimensions of the laser radar are defined by the claims 2 to 5 defined. It is e.g. achieved that in 50 to 150 and in particular 100 μs Angular range of about 1 ° through the light deflector swept over becomes.
  • If on the other hand about every 50 μs a light pulse of short duration is emitted, it means that about all 1/2 ° on Light pulse is emitted or in a Gesamtabtastbereich from 180 ° 360 Impulse. This is enough for a required in the security area angle resolution completely.
  • The between two emitted light pulses time of about 50 μs will be for further used the tests described below.
  • From The embodiments are particularly advantageous according to the claims 6 to 22, because this is a structurally compact and visual very effective way of ensuring a scan of a desired area of space, where the scanning angle go up to 360 ° can be, but usually only 180 °.
  • From A particular advantage is the concentric design of transmitting and receive pulse beams according to the claims 11 and 12. This is in particular a clean geometric Beam separation and sensitivity in the near range achieved.
  • The Speeds according to claim 21 are particularly advantageous, because thereby sufficient in connection with the pulse repetition frequencies used angular and temporal resolution is achieved.
  • in the The use is related to the following embodiments a computer according to the claim 23 of great Importance. This allows in particular the various self-monitoring functions of the system be perceived.
  • The Ensure developments of the invention according to claims 24 and 25 one for the intended monitoring purposes fully adequate distance resolution in the order of magnitude of 5 cm / bit, one bit by one or a half period of the Clock frequency is defined.
  • The in itself given by the clock frequency resolution can by the embodiment halved according to claim 26 and 27.
  • From particular advantage, however, is that through the use of two parallel-connected individual meters an error monitoring according to claims 28 performed until 30 can be.
  • One another error test, in particular in the embodiment according to claim 30 additional is used in claim 31 is defined.
  • Further It is advantageous if according to claims 32 to 35, the noise level, which superimposes the useful pulse signal is taken into account because both the brightness in the monitored rooms as well the reflectance of the monitored objects can vary greatly.
  • A further advantageous embodiment is characterized by claim 37. In particular, by this development The invention can be a measurement accuracy up to 5 cm / bit can be achieved.
  • By the embodiment according to claim 38 Errors are detected in the transmitting and receiving system of the device.
  • The Training according to claim 39 also makes it possible the proper functioning of the avalanche receiving diode preferably used to check.
  • The inventive device is conveniently located in a housing, which in the region of the exit of the transmitted pulse light beam and of the reception pulse light beam completed by a curved according to the scanning windscreen is.
  • About one according to claim 41 provided interface can all you want Navigation and error signals converted appropriately and be retrieved.
  • advantageous Applications of the device according to the invention one takes the claim 42.
  • Of the particular advantage of the laser radar device according to the invention consists in that she is secured against any system error. This is true for both mistakes in the optical range as well as in the evaluation electronics.
  • The Invention will be described below, for example, with reference to the drawing described; in this shows:
  • 1 a schematic view of a laser radar according to the invention,
  • 2 a schematic plan view of the rotating mirror after 1 and the scanning angle range,
  • 3 a block diagram of the laser radar according to the invention,
  • 4 a more detailed cross section of the laser radar after 1 .
  • 5 2 is a block diagram of the meter preferably used according to the invention with the components connected thereto,
  • 6 a signal voltage time diagram of different strong light-receiving light pulses,
  • 7 a view analog 1 in a rotated by 90 ° position of the rotating mirror to illustrate the function of a introduced into the beam path test body,
  • 8th one to 7 analogous view, wherein a light-emitting diode for testing the receiving system is shown, and the
  • 9 to 13 schematic plan views of various applications of the laser radar according to the invention.
  • To 1 drives an engine 31 a horizontal turntable 28 to a continuous rotation about a vertical axis 17 at. At the circumference of the turntable 28 there is an angle encoder 29 , which is designed as a fork light barrier and via a line 32 (see also 3 ) to a tax level 40 is connected within the associated evaluation circuit.
  • On the turntable 28 is a circular cylinder body 27 arranged so that its as a rotating mirror 16 formed upper end face at an angle of 45 ° to the axis of rotation 17 is arranged. The rotating mirror 16 may also be formed in a manner not shown on a mirror plate, which has a mirror support on the turntable 28 is attached.
  • Above the rotating mirror 16 There is a much narrower, also plump deflection mirror 19 whose mirror surface is at an angle of 45 ° to the axis of rotation 17 and can also be realized as a circular cylinder body. To 4 is also the deflection mirror 19 designed as a flat mirror plate. A central area 24 the deflecting mirror 19 receives light from a pulse laser 11 via a transmission lens 33 and the deflecting mirror 19 , The initially horizontal light beam is at the deflection mirror 19 deflected downwards, then from the rotating mirror 16 in a horizontal direction to the windscreen 41 the device to be deflected. From there the transmitted light bundle arrives 21 in the measuring range 13 in which, for example, a light-reflecting object 14 is assumed, from the scattered light as a receiving light beam 20 through the windscreen 41 in the sense of an autocollimation beam path back to the rotating mirror 16 arrives. The receiving light 20 meets the side of the central area 24 on which the transmitted light 21 and in particular the center incident light beam 18 impinge on a ring area 47 of the rotating mirror 16 to the deflection mirror 19 over to an interference filter 26 to be reflected, behind which is a receiver lens 25 located, the areas 25 ' . 25 '' Has different focal length to properly recognize even very close to the device arranged objects.
  • The receiver lens 25 concentrates the received light on a photoreceiver 23 and forms together with the photoreceptor 23 a photoreception device 22 , The rotating mirror 16 , the turntable 28 and the engine 31 Make a light deflector together 15 representing the transmit pulse beams 21 and receiving pulse beams 20 around the axis 17 to rotate around. In this way, a scanning angle range of up to 360 ° can be realized. After the 2 and 5 However, the front window extends 41 only over an angle of about 180 °, which z. B. is sufficient for the complete monitoring of the area ahead of a vehicle. In 2 are beyond the top view 1 also two more angular positions of the rotating mirror 16 and the transmitted pulse light beam 21 illustrated. The one-scan angle transmitting transmit pulse light bundle 21 defines a scanning plane 53 , The maximum scanning angle range 54 extends to 2 over 180 °.
  • To 3 causes the tax level 40 via lines 42 . 43 the pulsed laser 11 for the delivery of light pulses of a duration of 3 to 4 nanoseconds and the circulation of the light deflecting device 15 at a speed of 1500 rpm. About the line 32 becomes the tax level 40 from the angle encoder 29 at each moment the angular position of the light deflection device 15 communicated.
  • About the transmitter lens 33 and the mirrors 19 . 16 ( 1 . 4 ) become light pulses 12 in the measuring range 13 cleverly. They become reception pulses after a running time t 12 ' ( 3 ) from the photoreception device 22 receive. The photoreceptor 23 , In particular, an avalanche diode forms a corresponding electrical signal, which via a comparator 34 to one of a frequency generator 52 clocked counter 30 is created. The reference input 35 of the comparator 34 is the output of a noise level meter 36 supplied, the input also to the output from the photoreception device 22 connected. About a line 44 reports the noise level meter 36 the respective noise level also a computer 38 ,
  • The output signal of the photoreceiver 23 is also the input of a peak detector 37 fed, whose output is also sent to the computer 38 is created.
  • From the pulse laser 11 leads a control line 45 to the counter 30 in order to trigger this each time a light pulse is emitted. As soon as the light pulse 12 ' from the photoreception device 22 is received, the counter becomes 30 due to the connection of the photoreception device 22 over the comparator 34 stopped. The counting result is then sent via the control line 46 the computer 38 communicated. This determines the runtime t and calculates the distance d of the object 14 according to the formula d = c · t / 2 (1) where c is the speed of light.
  • Because the computer 38 over the line 32 and the tax level 40 the instantaneous angular position of the light deflection device 15 is now known, information about the polar coordinates of the object 14 to the interface 39 be passed on, where these for further use z. B. is available as a navigation signal or error signal.
  • The operation of the device described is as follows:
    By the engine 31 to a continuous rotary motion driven rotating mirror 16 causes the tax level 40 the pulsed laser 11 a light pulse 12 of 3.5 nanoseconds duration. About the light deflector 15 becomes the light pulse 12 in the measuring range 13 sent and according 1 from an object 14 which is in 3 only indicated by dashed lines, reflected, so that finally a received pulse 12 ' in the receiving arrangement 22 arrives. In this way, the light reaches after a light transit time of 2 · d / c (where d is the distance of the object 14 from the device and c is the speed of light) the photoreception device 22 ,
  • The time t between the transmission and reception of the light pulse is determined by means of the time interval counter 30 measured. When emitting the light pulse 12 the counter is over the control line 45 triggered and when receiving the over the measuring range 13 back and forth light pulse 12 ' through the photoreceptor 23 over the comparator 34 stopped again. With a timer resolution of 330 ps, the distance measurement accuracy is 5 cm.
  • The task of the noise level meter 36 consists of tracking the detection threshold as a function of the receiver noise level. This tracking ensures a constant false alarm rate in variable lighting situations and object reflection factors. The noise level meter 36 is at the reference entrance 35 of the comparator 34 a trigger threshold available, which ensures that z. B. only such received light pulses 12 ' a counter signal at the comparator 34 which is seven times as large as the one shortly before the appearance of the light pulse 12 ' existing noise level is. The noise level meter 36 constantly forms an average of the received signal over a time much greater than the length of a single pulse of light. However, the averaging time is significantly smaller than the time interval, for example, 50 μs, between two successive transmitted light pulses 12 , In this way, the measurement transmit light pulses 12 no influence on the mean value, and on the appearance of a reception light pulse 12 ' at the input of the comparator 34 represents the noise level meter 36 at the reference entrance 35 a trigger threshold available, multiplied by a factor of z. B. seven - representative of the immediately before the arrival of the received light pulse 12 ' existing statistical maximum noise level.
  • The task of the peak detector 37 , which is made up of a chain of fast self-holding ECL comparators, is the generation of correction values to compensate for the timing errors occurring due to signal dynamics, which will be described in the following with reference to FIG 6 is explained. In 6 are three ver different at the photoreception arrangement 22 to 3 incoming light-receiving pulses 12 ' shown, which has a maximum signal voltage of 80 . 81 respectively. 82 to reach. Due to a correspondingly low noise level, all received light pulses exceed 12 ' though the through the noise level meter 36 at the reference entrance 35 of the comparator 34 set trigger threshold 79 but the time t at which the rising edge of the three different receive light pulses is the trigger threshold 79 exceeds, different. In the example shown, the time difference can be up to 1.2 ns, which corresponds to a measurement error of about 20 cm.
  • According to the invention the Zeitmeßfehler (for example 84 . 85 for the maximum signals 80 . 81 ) relative to the base time 83 which is the largest occurring maximum 82 be accepted, in the computer 38 stored where they are available for correction purposes.
  • The peak detector 37 Determines if the output is at the photoreceiver 23 occurring signal voltage U s within, for example, six predetermined signal levels 1 to 6 and outputs a corresponding signal via the control line 100 to the computer 38 from where for the currently detected signal voltage of the corresponding correction value (for example 84 or 85 ) and from this a corrected time signal is determined.
  • On this way, corresponding measurement errors are eliminated, and it an overall accuracy of, for example, 5 cm / bit is achieved.
  • The time error elimination by means of the peak detector 37 is important because the Gesamtmeßbereich the device according to the invention is 4 m, so that, for example, a measurement error of 20 cm normally can not be tolerated.
  • Because the tax level 40 the pulsed laser 11 and the light deflecting device 15 controlled, the computer can 38 each angular position of the light deflecting device 15 assign a distance measurement. The evaluation of the measured data in the computer 38 consists of monitoring a protective field previously stored in polar coordinates 122 '' as it is in 11 for example, for a driverless, self-steering vehicle 120 in front of the front of the vehicle 120 mounted laser radar according to the invention 121 is shown schematically. Whenever the protective field 122 '' the laser radar 121 ascertainable roadside 101 or another obstacle 123 ( 10 ) detects, a corresponding counter-control movement can be triggered, and also the sector S1 to S16, where the obstacle is located, is determined.
  • 9 shows the simplest application case in one at the front with a laser radar according to the invention 121 equipped self-steering vehicle 120 , where the protective field 122 on two lane boundaries 101 responds.
  • Once the protective field 122 one of the limits 101 detects, directs the laser radar 121 a countermovement movement.
  • 10 shows an example where the protective field 122 ' in front of at the front of a vehicle 120 arranged laser radar 121 according to the invention is set so that it is located at a predetermined distance r obstacles 123 For example, responded by a shutdown or brake signal.
  • To 11 is the protective field 122 '' in front of the vehicle 120 designed so differentiated that different critical distances S1 to S16 can be provided for different angular sectors, so that not only detected obstacles, but also their angle and their distance from the location of the laser radar 121 can be determined.
  • 12 shows a self-navigating vehicle 120 , its navigation device 125 with the laser radar according to the invention via an information line 102 connected, causing the laser radar 121 by means of its coverage area 124 from time to time in places where the coordinates of the environment are known, the navigation device 125 can correct to the current state.
  • The basis of 13 Application shown is that the laser radar device according to the invention 121 an approximately rectangular, distance-limited protection area 127 defined at one corner of which it is arranged so that the bisector of the Abtastwinkelbereiches 54 lies approximately on the diagonal of the rectangular protective area. In the diagonally opposite corner area is a dangerous work machine 126 , before by the laser radar device according to the invention 121 perso NEN, which approach the machine, to be protected. It is essential that the scope 127 by the laser radar device according to the invention 121 can be limited so that, for example, at a safe place at 103 person, even though they are in the scanning angle range 54 is not recognized, while an example at 104 person located at a vulnerable point is detected, which then z. B. to switch off the dangerous machine 126 leads.
  • The inventive laser radar has a range of 4 to 6 m and a resolution of better than 7 cm. The Collection time is about 40 ms, and the detection angle is 180 ° in all cases.
  • At the interface 39 ( 3 ), for example, in the case of application 11 generates an obstacle removal signal r, the z. B. for a stop signal in the vehicle 120 can be used.
  • In the embodiment according to 11 For each sector S1 to S16, a minimum distance signal can be set.
  • In the navigation support after 12 can be worked with a measuring rate of 360 measurements in 40 ms. The lateral resolution can be 0.5 ° in all cases, while the range resolution can be reduced to ± 5 cm.
  • The distance-limited protection area 127 to 13 may be 3 to 4 m, in which case the detection time is 80 to 120 ms with a resolution of 5 cm.
  • According to the invention, the counter 30 consists of two asynchronous individual counter chains, one counter on the positive and one counter on the negative edge of the 1.5 GHz clock increment, so that the addition of both counts results in a resolution of 330 ps. How this is done in detail is explained below:
    To 5 contains the counter according to the invention 30 two asynchronously operating single counters 50 . 51 , their clock inputs 105 . 106 via an OR gate 71 are controlled. It is important that the output 72 for the clock input 106 of the individual meter 51 opposite the exit 72 ' for the clock input 105 of the individual meter 50 is inverted. The two inputs of the OR gate 71 are via a test count pulse input 55 to the computer 38 or to the output of an AND gate 73 whose two inputs are connected to the switching output of a flip-flop 76 or to a maximum frequency voltage input 59 connected, which from the frequency generator 52 is subjected to a maximum frequency voltage of 1.5 GHz.
  • The switching input of the flip-flop 76 is at the output of an OR gate 75 whose one input is via the line 45 (see also 3 ) from the pulsed laser 11 while the other input is at a test start input 58 is present, via a control line 65 with the computer 38 connected is.
  • The output of the comparator 34 ( 3 ) is after 7 over the line 62 to the measuring stop input 61 of the meter 30 which in turn is connected to the one input of an OR gate 74 communicates. The other input of the OR gate 74 is with the overflow outlet 107 of the second individual meter 51 connected.
  • From the computer 38 leads a control line 66 on to a multiplexer switching input 67 that with the switch input 108 a multiplexer 68 connected is.
  • The counter output signals of the individual counters 50 . 51 be to the two inputs of an addition stage 69 which forms the sum of the two input count signals and this via the multiplexer 68 an output stage 70 supplies.
  • The counting signal of the second individual counter 51 is via the control line 109 also directly to a second input of the multiplexer 68 created. About the control input 108 Optionally, the output of the addition stage 69 or the output of the second single counter 51 to the output stage 70 be switched through.
  • The test count pulse input 55 is from the computer 38 via a control line 56 driven. The test start input 58 is via a control line 65 also from the computer 38 applied.
  • The two single counters 50 . 51 continue to have reset inputs 110 . 111 on, which has a reset input 63 and a control line 64 from the computer 38 are controlled.
  • With the help of 5 explained counter 30 the following functions are carried out during operation of the laser radar device according to the invention:
    While the rotating mirror 16 the useful scanning angle range 54 ( 2 . 11 . 13 ) sweeps everyone loose from the pulse laser 11 emitted light pulse 12 at the moment of its delivery over the line 45 and the OR gate 75 a switching of the flip-flop 76 off, so that the connected AND gate 73 the maximum frequency voltage of 1.5 GHz at its other input to the OR gate 71 passes. From there, the maximum frequency voltage reaches the counter inputs 105 . 106 the single counter 50 . 51 , but that to the counter input 106 of the second counter 51 reaching count signal due to the inverted output 72 of the OR gate 71 is 180 ° out of phase with the count signal at input 105. In other words, now counts the counter 50 the rising edges of the positive half waves, the single counter 51 the falling edges of the negative half waves. As a result, during each period of the maximum frequency voltage from the frequency generator 52 two bits through the individual counters 50 . 51 generated, in each case by 180 ° out of phase.
  • The count of the half waves of the highest frequency voltage from the frequency generator 52 will continue until a light pulse 12 ' ( 3 ) from the photoreception device 22 is recorded and via the comparator 34 , The administration 62 , the measurement stop input 61 and the OR gate 74 a stop signal to the reset input 112 of the flip-flop 76 is delivered. Then the flip-flop 76 reset to its initial state, whereupon the AND gate 73 locks and the high frequency generator 52 from the OR gate 71 separates. This will count the individual counters 50 . 51 stopped, and now the computer can 38 this over the line 46 ( 3 ), not just the meter readings after summation in the addition stage 69 over the multiplexer 68 and the output stage 70 but also perform two more tests.
  • After this while every period of the highest frequency voltage two bits is generated, at a frequency of 1.5 GHz temporal resolution at the transit time measurement (t) of 330 ps and thus a distance measuring accuracy scored from 5 cm / bit.
  • After a runtime measurement has been done in this way, the computer switches 38 over the control line 66 and the multiplexer switching input 67 the multiplexer 68 um, so that this now over the line 109 pending count of the second counter 51 to the computer 38 can deliver. There now finds a comparison of the sum output of the adder 69 with twice the count of the second counter 51 instead of. If all components work properly, the two numerical values must not differ by more than one bit. Will this be from the computer 38 This is a sign that all components have worked properly. However, if this comparison yields a difference of several bits, the computer generates 38 an error signal and stops, for example, a dangerous machine.
  • For example, the above test may be performed after each received light pulse 12 ' and the corresponding evaluation are performed once. In general, however, it is sufficient if only after a complete scanning of the Abtastwinkelbereiches 54 such a test is performed.
  • In the latter case is from the computer 38 also carried out a further safety test to the effect that the test Zählimpulseingang 55 over the supply line 56 Test counts are given via the OR gate 71 Counting operations in the individual meters 50 . 51 However, this test count is about 300 times slower, so for example, with a frequency of 5 MHz is going on as in the actual measurement.
  • Counting is done by the computer via the control line 65 , the test start input 58 , the OR gate 75 , the flip-flop 76 and the AND gate 73 triggered in a similar manner, as in the actual measurement process via the Meßstarteingang 57 is going on.
  • Once a test count has been triggered, it continues until the counters 50 . 51 are full, what about the overflow outlet 107 of the second individual meter 51 , the reset line 77 and the OR gate 74 a stop signal to the reset input 112 of the flip-flop 76 is delivered. Now, about the adder 69 and the line 109 as well as the multiplexer 68 , which from the computer 38 is again suitably controlled, to be checked whether the actual meter readings agree with the setpoint.
  • Through this second test, which is also performed only once after each scan, it can be checked whether the logical functions work correctly. Because the computer 38 the triggering the count positive and negative edges at the test input 55 generated, it can easily check the proper function by comparing the counts obtained with the number of flanks issued. Logical malfunctions as well as destroyed signal lines can be safely detected in this way.
  • The arrangement of two individual meters 50 . 51 in the counter 30 So not only has the advantage of doubling the time resolution, but also allows the two safety tests described above.
  • The 4 and 7 show that in that area of the 360 ° scan of the rotating mirror 16 which is outside the scanning angle range 54 ( 2 ), test devices can be arranged. One of these test devices consists of one in the region of the transmitted light pulse bundle 21 arranged test body 86 which preferably consists of a light-scattering material. This can be a sintered glass pane (glass frit) in which the light is scattered by the crystalline particles. A blackened bezel 87 around the area where the transmit pulse light bundle 21 impinges, reduces unwanted stray light effects.
  • Because the scattering properties of the test body 86 are known and stable, can by evaluating the received signal of the photoreceptor 23 , which is preferably designed as avalanche receiver diode, the proper operation of the pulse laser 11 and the receiving system.
  • The received signal Us of the photoreception device 22 is calculated according to the following formula: Us = Ps · Rr · Rq · M · Rt (2)
  • In this formula mean:
  • Us:
    receive signal
    ps:
    transmission power
    rr:
    Test target reflectance
    RQ:
    Quantum efficiency
    M:
    Multiplication factor of the avalanche diode used 23
    Rt:
    Transimpedance of the avalanche diode 23 (effective working resistance of the diode).
  • The computer now checks whether the received signal Us reaches at least the value of a predetermined limit constant K1. If this is the case, then the transmission-reception arrangement is assessed as faultless and the measurement is continued. If, however, the received signal Us drops below K1 in the test described above, the computer reports 38 a mistake and, for example, turns on the dangerous work machine 126 to 13 from.
  • According to 8th For example, in the same angular range ineffective for the actual measurement, another test can be performed by either inside the test body 86 or next to it ( 4 ) a light emitting diode 88 is provided by the imaging receiving system or the photoreceiver arrangement 22 on the photoreceiver 23 which is again assumed to be an avalanche period. The resulting in the avalanche period 23 generated direct current 1 due to the laws of physics leads to a quantum noise (shot noise), which is transmitted via the noise level meter 36 ( 3 ) is determined quantitatively. An evaluation allows for known receiver DC 1 the calculation of the so-called excess noise index of the avalanche photodiode 23 , which gives a direct measure of the quality or functionality of the avalanche photodiode 23 is. Together with the measurement result of the basis of 7 As a result, the system sensitivity can be indirectly detected under all ambient light situations.
  • The noise level meter 36 determined noise level is calculated according to the following formula Ur = (2 · q · I · M 1 + k · f G ) ½ · Rt (3)
  • The computer 38 then check if the following requirement is met:
    Figure 00090001
  • In the aforementioned formulas mean:
  • I:
    Photocurrent in the photodiode 23
    ur:
    Noise voltage due to illumination by the LED 88
    M:
    Multiplication factor of the avalanche diode 23
    q:
    Elementary charge (1.6 · 10 -19 Coulomb)
    Rt:
    Transimpedance of the avalanche diode 23
    f g :
    Cutoff frequency of the noise
    K2:
    second limit constant
  • After 4 are below the lower end 89 the windscreen 41 over the scanning angle range 54 evenly distributed light emitting diodes 91 arranged, which each have a light barrier beam 98 Send up, the one according to the 4 angled lower part of the windscreen 41 traversed and then through the slanted main part of the windscreen 41 through to an associated associated photoreceiver 92 arrives. The inclination of the main part of the windscreen 41 not only has the purpose, a passage for the vertical light beams 98 to create, but also the inside reflex of the windscreen 41 from the photoreception device 22 keep.
  • According to the invention, the lower angled part of the windscreen 41 distributed over the circumference two frosted or roughened on its outer surface areas 41 ' on, by which of the associated light emitter 91 outgoing sharp-focused light 131 in the absence of an in 4 marked smoothing oil film 128 in a much larger solid angle range 129 is scattered so that the associated light receiver 92 only a small amount of light from the light transmitter 91 receives.
  • Now beats on the roughened outer surface of the frosted area 41 ' for example, an oil film 128 low, it raises due to the low refractive index difference to the underlying material of the windscreen 41 the strong light scattering of the bundle 131 on, so that now a concentrated light beam 130 the associated light receiver 92 meets and a much stronger light reception signal at the light receiver 92 triggers. The strong increase of the output signal of the light receiver 92 So it is a measure of the fact that on the roughened surface of the frosted area 41 ' has deposited a smoothing liquid film.
  • From the beyond the scope of the windscreen 41 distributed light emitter-light receiver pairs 91 . 92 At least two is a frosted area 41 ' assigned to provide redundancy in the event of a defective optoelectronic device.
  • Further is inventively by the computer monitors the engine speed and system timing. There is a temporal and logical program flow monitoring.
  • The electronic functions are monitored according to the invention by a RAM, ROM, ALU, watchdog test, A / D converter (contamination measurement, noise level measurement), D / A converter (comparator test), peak detector, stop comparator and oscillators for the computer 38 and the 1.5 GHz counter.
  • According to the invention are two Opto-decoupled, dynamic, read-back Engagement lines provided. Evidence of system management is based on a worst-case current account. There is a mistake-proof Control of the laser (eye safety). Next can be an access protection for the Setup mode via passwords be achieved. The described light grid is a contamination detection and warning.
  • It is a defined startup behavior of the system or the interface in front. After switching on the device, all o.g. Testing run through.
  • The Sensitivity of the transmitter-receiver arrangement is so filed that still Objects with a reflectance down to 2% can be detected.
  • The laser radar is after 4 in a housing 115 housed, which front by a cover cap 116 is completed, in the lower part of the over 180 ° curved windscreen 41 is provided. To 4 Transmitter and receiver are in a designed as a compact unit transmitter-receiver unit 49 housed for example in the form of a cylindrical housing.

Claims (42)

  1. Laser distance detection device according to the pulse transit time method with a pulsed laser ( 11 ), which controls light pulses ( 12 ) into a measuring range ( 13 ), a photoreception device ( 22 ), which corresponds to the one in the measuring range ( 13 ) ( 14 ) reflected light pulses ( 12 ' ) and an evaluation circuit ( 23 . 30 . 34 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 ), taking into account the speed of light from the time between transmission and reception of a light pulse ( 12 . 12 ' ) one for the distance of the object ( 14 ) from the pulsed laser ( 11 ) characteristic distance signal is determined, wherein between the measuring range ( 13 ) and the pulsed laser ( 11 ) a light deflecting device ( 15 ) is arranged, which to the evaluation circuit ( 23 . 30 . 34 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 ) emits a representative of their instantaneous angular position angular position signal and wherein the evaluation circuit ( 23 . 30 . 34 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 ) from the distance signal and the angular position signal the location of the object ( 14 ) within the measuring range ( 13 ), characterized in that the light deflecting device ( 15 ) for emitting the successive light pulses ( 12 ) is arranged under progressively changing angles and is arranged to receive a reception pulse light beam ( 20 ) and to a photoreception device ( 22 ), wherein the light deflecting device ( 15 ) a rotating mirror ( 16 ) and sweeps over a 360 ° deflection angle, and wherein the light pulse duration is 1-5 nanoseconds.
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that that the light pulse duration 2-4, in particular about 3 ns.
  3. Device according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the light pulse duration is so low that during this time the light deflection device ( 15 ) can be regarded as practically stationary.
  4. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the angular velocity of the light deflecting device ( 15 ) Is 0.5 × 10 4 to 2 × 10 4 , in particular about 1 × 10 4 ° / sec.
  5. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the spacing of successive transmitted light pulses ( 12 ) by several orders of magnitude, preferably on the order of 4 orders of magnitude greater than the pulse length and / or that preferably the pulse repetition frequency between 5 to 50, suitably 10 to 40, in particular about 20 kHz.
  6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) is designed plan.
  7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) around one of the incident light beams, preferably the central incident light beam ( 18 ) is rotatable.
  8. Apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the axis of rotation ( 17 ) or the central incident light beam ( 18 ) under 30 to 60, preferably 40 to 50 and in particular 45 ° to the surface of the rotating mirror ( 16 ), wherein the rotating mirror ( 16 ) in the direction of the axis of rotation ( 17 ) has expedient circular disk shape.
  9. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) a transmitting pulse light bundle ( 21 ) receives substantially from above and radiates substantially horizontally.
  10. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the pulse laser ( 11 ) preferably horizontally radiated pulse light via a fixed, preferably planar deflection mirror ( 19 ) by preferably 90 ° to the rotating mirror ( 16 ), in particular deflected downwards.
  11. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the pulse laser ( 11 ) a parallel transmit pulse light bundle ( 21 ) forming transmission lens ( 33 ) is connected upstream.
  12. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the transmitted pulse light bundle ( 21 ) and the reception pulse light beam ( 20 ) beyond the rotating mirror ( 16 ) are preferably coaxial with one another and in particular the transmitted pulse light bundle ( 21 ) runs centrally and has a circular cross-section and the received pulse light beam ( 22 ) around the transmit pulse light bundle is arranged around and has a circular cross-section and both bundles ( 20 . 21 ) abut each other so that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) a central area ( 24 ), where the transmitted pulsed light beam ( 21 ) and a peripheral region ( 47 ), where the received pulsed light beam ( 20 ).
  13. Device according to one of claims 10 to 12, characterized in that the deflecting mirror ( 19 ) for the pulse laser ( 11 ) or the transmission lens ( 33 ) coming impulse light, especially over a central area ( 24 ) of the rotating mirror ( 16 ) and the reception pulse light beam ( 20 ) at the deflection mirror ( 19 ) over to the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ), wherein the deflection mirror ( 19 ) in the direction of the receiving pulse light beam (see FIG. 20 ) preferably has a circular cross-section.
  14. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) a the received light on a photoreceiver ( 23 ) concentrating receiver lens ( 25 ).
  15. Device according to claims 13 and 14, characterized in that the diameter of the receiver lens ( 25 ) is so large that it is next to the central area ( 24 ) to the peripheral area ( 47 ) of the rotating mirror ( 16 ) incident receive pulsed light beam ( 20 ).
  16. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at the entrance of the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) on the spectrum of the pulse laser ( 11 ) emitted light matched interference filter ( 26 ) is arranged.
  17. Device according to one of the preceding Claims 14 to 16, characterized in that the receiver lens ( 25 ) two areas ( 25 ' . 25 '' ) having different focal lengths, which are preferably concentric with each other.
  18. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) at an oblique section plane of a circular cylindrical body ( 27 ) is formed, the cylinder axis with the axis of rotation ( 17 ) coincides.
  19. Device according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) on a flat mirror plate ( 78 ) formed on a rotatable mirror carrier ( 48 ) is attached.
  20. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the light deflecting device ( 15 ) continuously rotates in one direction of rotation.
  21. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the rotating mirror ( 16 ) on a turntable ( 28 ) arranged by a motor ( 31 ) is driven to a continuous rotation with preferably predetermined speed, wherein the speed is suitably 1000 to 3000, in particular about 1500 rpm.
  22. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the region of the turntable ( 28 ) an angle sensor ( 29 ) is arranged, the current angular position of the turntable ( 28 ) of the evaluation circuit ( 38 . 40 ) reports.
  23. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the evaluation circuit is a computer ( 38 ), in which all necessary arithmetic operations, in particular the calculation of the distance of the object ( 14 ) on the pulse transit time (t).
  24. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the evaluation circuit comprises a counter ( 30 ) with preferably fixed predetermined clock frequency, which with the pulse laser ( 11 ) or its trigger circuit is connected in such a way that when a light pulse is emitted ( 12 ), and with the photoreception device ( 22 ) is connected in such a way that upon receipt of the same light pulse ( 12 ' ) through the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) is stopped, and that from the count the running time (t) and preferably the distance of the object ( 14 ) is calculated.
  25. Apparatus according to claim 24, characterized in that the counter ( 30 ) by a frequency generator ( 52 ), which expediently operates at a clock frequency of 0.5 to 3.0, in particular 1 to 2 and preferably about 1.5 GHz.
  26. Apparatus according to claim 25, characterized in that the counter ( 30 ) from two asynchronous individual counters ( 50 . 51 ), of which one on the positive half-waves, in particular the rising edges of the positive half-waves, and the other on the negative half-waves, in particular the falling edges of the negative half-waves one from the frequency generator ( 52 ) responsive to the highest frequency voltage.
  27. Apparatus according to claim 25, characterized in that the time delay (t) of a light pulse ( 12 . 12 ' ) are added and used as a measure of the running time (t).
  28. Apparatus according to claim 26 or 27, characterized in that the sum of the individual meter readings with the doubled meter reading of one of the individual meters ( 50 . 51 ) and an error signal is output if the comparison results in a difference of more than a few bits, preferably one bit.
  29. Device according to Claim 28, characterized in that the comparison is made after each evaluation of a light pulse ( 12 . 12 ' ) is carried out.
  30. Apparatus according to claim 28, characterized in that the comparison in the pause between the end of a scan of the scanning angle range ( 54 ) and the beginning of the next sample of the scanning angle range ( 54 ) is carried out.
  31. Device according to one of Claims 26 to 30, characterized in that in the pause between two scans of the scan angle range ( 54 ) the computer ( 38 ) controls counting pulses to the individual counters ( 50 . 51 ), the counting result is checked and outputs an error signal, if the counting result does not coincide with the entered number of Zählimpulsen.
  32. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) via a comparator ( 34 ) to the counter ( 30 ), whose reference threshold defining the trigger threshold for the received signals ( 35 ) representative of the noise level immediately prior to the signal reception output signal of a noise level meter ( 36 ) is supplied at the input, the output signal of the photoreception device ( 22 ) is created.
  33. Apparatus according to claim 32, characterized in that the noise level meter ( 36 ) via the photo-receiving arrangement ( 22 ) continuously detects the basic brightness and over a predetermined time which is large compared to the duration of a light pulse ( 12 . 12 ' ) and small compared to the time between two consecutive transmitted light pulses ( 12 ), is averaged, and that this average is used as the average noise level.
  34. Device according to Claim 33, characterized in that the averaging time is approximately 30% of the time interval between two adjacent transmitted light pulses ( 12 ) is.
  35. Device according to one of Claims 32 to 34, characterized in that the signals produced by the output signal of the noise level meter ( 36 ) defined trigger threshold ( 79 ) is a multiple, preferably 2- to 10-fold, in particular 4 to 8-fold and more preferably about 7-fold greater than the detected average noise level.
  36. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at the output of the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) also a peak detector ( 37 ) whose output signal is used to generate correction values to compensate for the timing errors occurring as a result of signal dynamics.
  37. Apparatus according to claim 36, characterized in that the peak detector ( 37 ) the respective maximum of a received light pulse ( 12 ' ) and a corresponding maximum signal to the computer ( 38 ) states that in the computer ( 38 ) depending on the height of the maximum ( 80 . 81 . 82 ) occurring time measurement error ( 84 . 85 ) and that, depending on the detected maximum ( 80 . 81 . 82 ) determines a corresponding correction value and the measured time is corrected according to this correction value.
  38. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that outside the scanning angle range ( 54 ) a light-reflecting or scattering test body ( 86 ) in the way of the Abtastbe movement of the transmitting pulsed light beam ( 21 ) and the computer ( 38 ) during the sweeping of the test body ( 86 ) by the transmitted pulse light beam ( 21 ) checks whether the photoreceptor arrangement ( 22 ) is at least equal to a predetermined threshold (K1).
  39. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that outside the scanning angle range ( 54 ) a light emitting diode ( 88 ) in the path of the scan movement exporting pulse burst ( 21 ) and the computer ( 38 ) during the sweep of the light emitting diode ( 88 ) by a receive light pulse bundle ( 20 ) corresponding area of the rotating mirror ( 16 ) checks if the signal-to-noise ratio is at least equal to a predetermined threshold (K2).
  40. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the windscreen ( 41 ) about the axis of rotation ( 17 ) is curved and extends in the scanning direction at least over the Abtastwinkelbereich ( 54 ).
  41. Device according to one of claims 22 to 40, characterized in that to the computer ( 38 ) an interface ( 39 ) is connected, at the output of the desired output signals and values including error signals can be removed and supplied for further use.
  42. Laser distance determining device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it is used - in the self-control of vehicles ( 120 ) to create a defined area of protection ( 122 ) in front of the vehicle ( 120 ); - by arrangement on the front of a vehicle ( 120 ) for collision protection with obstacles ( 123 ) by defining an appropriate area of protection ( 122 ' ); - by arrangement on the front of a vehicle ( 120 ) to create a collision protection area ( 122 '' ) which is divided into several sectors (S1 to S16) of the scanning angle range ( 54 ), each of which defines its own and well-defined safety margin; - by arrangement on the front of a vehicle ( 120 ) for the purpose of defining a coverage area ( 124 ), due to which an in-vehicle navigation device ( 125 ) can be checked for correct functioning and, if necessary, corrected; - in the protection of persons ( 104 ) on dangerous machines ( 126 ) by definition of a distance-limited protection area ( 127 ), whereby the dangerous working machine ( 126 ) expediently in the of the device according to the invention ( 121 ) end region of the protected area ( 127 ) or under the machine.
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