DE4225112C1 - Instrument position relative to processing object measuring apparatus - has measuring device for measuring position of instrument including inertia sensor unit - Google Patents

Instrument position relative to processing object measuring apparatus - has measuring device for measuring position of instrument including inertia sensor unit

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Publication number
DE4225112C1
DE4225112C1 DE19924225112 DE4225112A DE4225112C1 DE 4225112 C1 DE4225112 C1 DE 4225112C1 DE 19924225112 DE19924225112 DE 19924225112 DE 4225112 A DE4225112 A DE 4225112A DE 4225112 C1 DE4225112 C1 DE 4225112C1
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DE
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
instrument
position
measuring
sensor unit
coordinate system
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Expired - Fee Related
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DE19924225112
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German (de)
Inventor
Norbert Dipl Phys Dr Stelte
Max Dipl Phys Dr Rer Nat Seidl
Michael Dipl Phys Dr Raab
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STELTE, NORBERT, DR., 88662 UEBERLINGEN, DE
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Bodenseewerk Geratetechnik GmbH
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/12Devices for detecting or locating foreign bodies
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/06Measuring instruments not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/70Determining position or orientation of objects or cameras
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/107Visualisation of planned trajectories or target regions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2048Tracking techniques using an accelerometer or inertia sensor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2055Optical tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2072Reference field transducer attached to an instrument or patient

Abstract

The position measurement apparatus includes a computer (32) with memory (34) for storage layered images of the processing object (10) with a first coordinate system. A measuring device (16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26) measures the position of the instrument (12) in a second coordinate system. A further measuring device (20, 22, 24) measures the position of predefined points in the first coordinate system of the processing object in the second coordinate system. The computer has a coordinate transformation program. The layered image and the instrument in the other coordinate system are displayed on a screen (36). The measuring device for measuring the position of the instrument contains an inertia sensor unit (26). USE/ADVANTAGE - For use during surgery for example. Enables free handling of instrument and guarantees constant availability of position information.

Description

Die Erfindung geht aus von einer Einrichtung zum Messen der Position eines Instruments relativ zu einem Behandlungsobjekt, gemäß dem Oberbegriff des Patentanspruchs 1. The invention proceeds from a device for measuring the position of an instrument relative to a treatment object, according to the preamble of claim 1.

Eine solche Einrichtung ist bekannt durch die DE 37 17 871 C2. Such a device is known from DE 37 17 871 C2. Diese Druckschrift beschreibt ein Verfahren zur optischen Darstellung der Lage eines chirurgischen Instruments bei einem chirurgischen Eingriff. This publication describes a method for optical representation of the position of a surgical instrument in a surgical procedure. In einem Speicher eines Datenverarbeitungssystems werden Schichtbilder eines Körperteils abgelegt. In a memory of a data processing system layer images of a body part to be stored. Dabei sind bei der Herstellung der Schichtbilder an dem Körperteil Meßpunkte markiert oder festgelegt, die in den Schichtbildern erscheinen. Here, the slice images are marked on the body part or the measuring points determined that appear in the layer images in the production. Die Koordinaten dieser Meßpunkte in den Schichtbildern werden ermittelt. The coordinates of these measuring points in the tomographic images are determined. Bei dem chirurgischen Eingriff werden solche Schichtbilder auf einem Bildschirm dargestellt. In the surgical procedure, such a layer images are displayed on a screen. Während des Eingriffs wird mittels einer Abtasteinrichtung die Lage und Orientierung des Instruments in einem durch die Abtasteinrichtung bestimmten Koordinatensystem bestimmt. During the procedure, the position and orientation of the instrument in a predetermined coordinate system by the scanner is determined by means of a scanning device. Dementsprechend wird eine die Lage und Orientierung des Instruments wiedergebendes Bild ebenfalls auf dem Bildschirm dargestellt und der jeweiligen Schichtaufnahme überlagert. Accordingly, the position and orientation of the instrument, reproducing image is also displayed on the screen and superimposed on the respective layer recording.

Die Darstellung der Schichtbilder auf dem Bildschirm ist auf ein erstes "Schichtbilder"-Koordinatensystem bezogen. The display of the slice images on the screen is based on a first "slice images" coordinate system. Die Abtasteinrichtung liefert die Lage und Orientierung des Instruments in dem durch die Abtastvorrichtung bestimmten zweiten Koordinatensystem. The scanning device provides the position and orientation of the instrument in the area specified by the scanning second coordinate system. Die Beziehung zwischen den beiden Koordinatensystemen ist zunächst unbekannt. The relationship between the two coordinate systems is initially unknown. Diese Beziehung wird ermittelt, indem nacheinander die Meßpunkte an dem zu behandelnden Körperteil angefahren und deren Koordinaten in dem zweiten "Abtastvorrichtungs"-Koordinatensystem bestimmt werden. This relationship is determined by sequentially moved to the measurement points on the body part to be treated and their coordinates in the second "Abtastvorrichtungs" coordinate system are determined. Es kann dann eine Koordinatentransformation aus dem ersten in das zweite Koordinatensystem erfolgen, derart, daß die Meßpunkte auf dem Bildschirm in den durch das Anfahren bestimmten Punkten liegen und mit dem Bild des Instruments oder der Instrumentenspitze zur Deckung kommen. It can then be a coordinate transformation from the first to the second coordinate system such that the measurement points are located on the screen in the determined through the starting points and join with the image of the instrument or instrument tip to cover.

Der Operateur kann dann während der Operation laufend die Lage und Orientierung seines Instrumens in dem Körperteil verfolgen. The surgeon can then continuously monitor the position and orientation of his Instrumens in the body part during the operation. Das geschieht anhand von Schichtbilder, die vor dem Eingriff gemacht worden sind. This is done on the basis of slice images that have been made before the procedure. Es kann dafür gesorgt werden, daß stets jeweils die Schichtaufnahme auf dem Bildschirm dargestellt wird, die den Ort der Instrumentenspitze enthält. It can be ensured that always the respective layer image is displayed on the screen, which contains the location of the instrument tip.

Bei der DE 37 17 871 C2 ist die Abtastvorrichtung zum Messen der Koordinaten des Instruments eine Art passiver Roboterarm, an dem das Instrument sitzt, wobei die Lage des Instruments aus den Winkeln an den verschiedenen Gelenken des Roboterarmes bestimmt wird. In DE 37 17 871 C2, the scanning device for measuring the coordinates of the instrument is a type of passive robot arm, on which sits the instrument, wherein the position of the instrument from the angles of the various joints of the robot arm is determined. Es wird in der DE 37 17 871 C2 aber auch auf die Möglichkeit hingewiesen, eine berührungslose Abtastvorrichtung mit drei räumlich angeordneten Sonden vorzusehen. However, it is pointed out in the DE 37 17 871 C2 also to the possibility of providing a non-contact scanner having three spatially arranged probes.

Eine mechanische Abtastvorrichtung zur Bestimmung der Lage (Koordinaten) und der Orientierung des Instruments behindert die Handhabung des Instruments. A mechanical scanning to determine the position (coordinates) and the orientation of the instrument impedes the handling of the instrument. Der Benutzer hält nicht nur das Instrument, sondern muß auch den "Roboterarm" der mechanischen Abtastvorrichtung tragen. The user holds not only the instrument, but must also bear the "robotic arm" of the mechanical scanning device. Der dabei wirksame Gewichtsanteil des Roboterarmes hängt von der jeweiligen Lage des Instruments ab. The case effective weight fraction of the robot arm depends on the respective position of the instrument. Eine berührungslose Abtastung des Instruments z. A non-contact scanning of the instrument for. B. mit drei Videokameras birgt das Risiko in sich, daß durch Abdeckung eines oder mehrerer Sonden während des chirurgischen Eingriffs die Lage- und Orientierungsinformation vorübergehend verlorengeht. For example, with three video cameras carries the risk that the position and orientation information temporarily lost by covering one or more probes during the surgical procedure. Eine solche Situation kann schwerwiegende Folgen haben. Such a situation can have serious consequences.

Die DE 31 14 918 A1 beschreibt eine Vorrichtung zur quantitativen Lagebestimmung eines Körpers im Raum. The DE 31 14 918 A1 describes an apparatus for the quantitative determination of location of a body in space. An dem Körper sind Markierungspunkte angebracht. Markers are attached to the body. Die Markierungspunkte werden von einer Videokamera erfaßt. The markers are detected by a video camera. Aus den Videobildern werden mittels eines Rechners Translation und Rotation des Körpers in einem raumfesten Koordinatensystem bestimmt. Translation and rotation of the body are determined in a spatially fixed coordinate system by means of a computer from the video images. Die ermittelten Koordinaten werden mit abgespeicherten Werten verglichen. The determined coordinates are compared with stored values. Der Körper wird in seine Soll-Lage zurückgeführt. The body is returned to its set position.

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, bei einer Einrichtung der eingangs genannten Art einerseits eine freie Handhabung des Instruments zu ermöglichen und andererseits die ständige Verfügbarkeit der Lageinformation zu gewährleisten. The object underlying the invention is to enable the one hand, a free handling of the instrument in a device of the aforementioned type and the other hand to guarantee the continuous availability of the location information.

Diese Aufgabe wird mit der Einrichtung nach dem Patentanspruch 1 gelöst, dh durch den Einsatz einer Trägheitssensoreinheit. This object is achieved with the device according to the claim 1, that is through the use of an inertial sensor unit.

Trägheitssensoreinheiten lassen sich insbesondere unter Anwendung der Mikrosystemtechnik kompakt und leicht herstellen. Inertial sensor units can be produced compact and light in particular using microsystems technology. Sie liefern die Lage eines Instruments, ohne daß durch Abdecken einer Sonde ein Signalverlust eintreten kann. They provide the location of an instrument without can occur by covering a probe of a signal loss. Eine mechanische Abtasteinrichtung kann entfallen. A mechanical scanning device can be omitted.

Die Unteransprüche sind auf Ausführungsformen der Einrichtung nach dem Anspruch 1 gerichtet. The dependent claims are directed to embodiments of the device according to the claim. 1

Die Trägheitssensoreinheit kann Sensordaten nach Maßgabe von Lage und Orientierung des Instruments liefern. The inertial sensor unit may provide sensor data in accordance with the location and orientation of the instrument. Vorteilhaft ist es, wenn die Trägheitssensoreinheit redundante Sensordaten liefert. it is advantageous if the inertial sensor unit provides redundant sensor data. Weiterhin können Mittel zur Interpolation zwischen den redundanten Sensordaten der Trägheitssensoreinheit zur Erzeugung interpolierter Sensordaten vorgesehen sein. Furthermore, means for interpolating between the redundant sensor data from the inertial sensor unit for generating interpolated sensor data can be provided. Auf diese Weise wird die Zuverlässigkeit und Genauigkeit der inertialen Bestimmung von Lage und Orientierung des Instruments verbessert. In this way the reliability and accuracy of the inertial determination of position and orientation of the instrument is improved.

An dem Instrument kann ein Sender zur drahtlosen Übertragung der Sensordaten auf einen mit Signalverarbeitungsmitteln verbundenen Empfänger vorgesehen sein. a transmitter for wireless transmission of the sensor data can be provided to a signal processing means connected to the receiver to the instrument. Zur Erhöhung der Zuverlässigkeit ist es zweckmäßig, wennn an dem Instrument mehr als ein Sender vorgesehen ist und die Sender mit je einem oder mehreren Empfängern zusammenwirken. To increase the reliability, it is expedient wennn more than one transmitter is provided on the instrument and cooperating transmitters, each with one or more receivers. Weiterhin können die Sender und Empfänger mit unterschiedlichen physikalischen Trägern arbeiten, beispielsweise mit Infrarot und Radiofrequenzen. Furthermore, the transmitter and receiver can work with different physical media such as infrared and radio frequencies. Die Trägheitssensoreinheit kann von einer in die Trägheitssensoreinheit eingebauten Batterie gespeist werden. The inertial sensor unit may be powered by a built-in inertia sensor unit battery.

Es ergibt sich so ein Instrument, dessen Lage und Orientierung berührungslos gemessen und auf die Signalauswertung für die Anzeige des Instruments auf dem Bildschirm übertragen wird. This thus results in an instrument whose position and orientation is measured without contact and transferred to the signal processing for the display of the instrument on the screen.

Zusätzlich kann eine berührungslose, optische Abtasteinrichtung zur Bestimmung der Lage und Orientierung des Instruments vorgesehen sein. In addition, a non-contact optical scanning device can be provided for determining the position and orientation of the instrument. Dabei kann die Trägheitssensoreinheit von der optischen Abtasteinrichtung gestützt sein. The inertial sensor unit may be supported by the optical scanning device. Trägheitssensoreinheit und optische Abtasteinrichtung ergänzen sich dabei vorteilhaft: Die optische Abtasteinrichtung stützt die inertiale Messung der Lage und Orientierung des Instruments. An inertial sensor unit and optical scanning device complement each other advantageously: The optical pickup supports the inertial measurement of the position and orientation of the instrument. Es kann insbesondere auch die Drift der inertialen Sensoren bestimmt und bei der Berechnung der Lage und Orientierung aus den Sensorsignalen berücksichtigt werden. It can in particular be determined and taken into account when calculating the position and orientation from the sensor signals and the drift of the inertial sensors. Andererseits liefert die Trägheitssensoreinheit Signale auch dann, wenn die Sensoren der optischen Abtasteinrichtung vorübergehend abgedeckt sind. On the other hand, the inertial sensor unit provides signals even if the sensors of the optical scanning are temporarily covered.

Ein Ausführungsbeispiel der Erfindung ist nachstehend unter Bezugnahme auf die zugehörigen Zeichnungen näher erläutert. An embodiment of the invention is explained in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 ist eine schematisch-perspektivische Darstellung einer Einrichtung zur Bestimmung der Lage eines Instruments relativ zu einem Behandlungsobjekt, das hier als Kopf eines Patienten schematisch angedeutet ist. Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a device for determining the position of an instrument relative to a treatment object, which is indicated here schematically as a head of a patient.

Fig. 2 ist ein Blockdiagramm der Trägheitssensoreinheit. Fig. 2 is a block diagram of the inertial sensor unit.

In Fig. 1 ist mit 10 ein Behandlungsobjekt bezeichnet. In Fig. 1, a treatment object is designated 10. Das "Behandlungsobjekt" ist hier als Kopf eines Patienten angedeutet, an dem ein chirurgischer Eingriff vorgenommen werden soll. The "treatment object" is indicated here as the head of a patient on which surgery is to be performed. Solche medizinischen Anwendungen dürften die häufigsten Anwendungsfälle der vorliegenden Einrichtung sein. Such medical applications are likely to be the most common applications of the present device. Behandlungsobjekt kann aber auch ein Werkstück od. dgl. sein, das in bestimmterr Weise an nicht einsehbaren Stellen bearbeitet werden soll. Treatment object but also a workpiece can od. Like. Be, to be processed in bestimmterr manner not visible places. Die Behandlung erfolgt mittels eines Instruments 12 . The treatment is effected by means of an instrument 12th Das Instrument 12 hat einen Schaft 14 . The instrument 12 has a shaft fourteenth An dem Schaft 14 sitzen zwei oder mehr infrarotemittierende Leuchtdioden 16 und 18 . Sit on the shaft 14, two or more infrared-light emitting diodes 16 and 18th Die Leuchtdioden werden mit unterschiedlichen Zeittakten angesteuert und leuchten dementsprechend mit unterschiedlichen Zeittakten auf. The LEDs are driven with different timings and light up accordingly on with different timings. Die Leuchtdioden 16 und 18 werden von drei bilderfassenden Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 beobachtet. The light emitting diodes 16 and 18 are observed by three image detecting sensors 20, 22 and 24th Die bilderfassenden Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 können Bilder nach Art einer Videokamera erzeugen. The image detecting sensors 20, 22 and 24 can form images in the manner of a video camera. Aus den durch die unterschiedlichen Zeittakte unterscheidbaren Bildern der Leuchtdioden 16 und 18 , wie sie von den drei Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 gesehen werden, können Lage und Orientierung des Instruments 12 in einem durch die Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 bestimmten Koordinatensystem bestimmt werden. From the distinguishable by the different timings images of the light emitting diodes 16 and 18, as seen by the three sensors 20, 22 and 24, the position and orientation of the instrument 12 can be determined in a range determined by the sensors 20, 22 and 24 coordinate system.

An dem Instrument 12 sitzt außerdem eine Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 . To the instrument 12 also sits on an inertial sensor unit 26th Die Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 enthält Winkelgeschwindigkeits- Sensoren und Beschleunigungsmesser. The inertial sensor unit 26 includes angular velocity sensors and accelerometers. Die Winkelgeschwindigkeits-Sensoren und Beschleunigungsmesser liefern Sensordaten, aus denen durch Integration in üblicher Weise die Lage und die Orientierung der Trägheitssensoreinheit und damit des Instruments berechnet werden können. The angular velocity sensors and accelerometers providing sensor data from which the position and the orientation of the inertial sensor unit and thus the instrument can be calculated by integrating in a conventional manner. Die Sensordaten werden durch einen Sender, der in der Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 vorgesehen ist, auf einen stationären Empfänger 28 übertragen. The sensor data are transmitted by a transmitter which is provided in the inertial sensor assembly 26 to a stationary receiver 28th Das ist in Fig. 1 durch die Welle 30 angedeutet. This is indicated in Fig. 1 by the shaft 30. Der Empfänger 28 ist mit einem Rechner 32 verbunden. The receiver 28 is connected to a computer 32nd Auf den Rechner 32 sind weiterhin die bilderfassenden Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 sowie ein Speicher 34 aufgeschaltet. To the computer 32, the image detecting sensors 20, 22 and 24 and a memory 34 are still switched. In dem Speicher 34 sind die vor dem chirurgischen Eingriff durch Computertomographie oder Kernspintomographie hergestellten Schichtbilder gespeichert. In the memory 34, the layer images produced prior to surgery by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are stored. Der Rechner 32 liefert auf einem Bildschirm 36 , wie in Fig. 1 angedeutet, ein Bild mit der Schichtaufnahme der Schicht des Behandlungsobjektes 10 , in deren Bereich sich die Spitze des Instruments 12 befindet. The computer 32 provides on a screen 36, as indicated in Fig. 1, an image with the recording layer of the layer of the treating object 10, the tip of the instrument is located in the region 12. Diese Spitze ist in dem Bild durch ein Fadenkreuz 38 dargestellt. This peak is shown in the image by a crosshair 38th

Wie aus Fig. 2 ersichtlich ist, enthält die Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 zwei Gruppen von im wesentlichen übereinstimmenden Sensoren 40 und 42 . As is apparent from Fig. 2, the inertial sensor unit 26 includes two groups of substantially matching sensors 40 and 42. Eine Schaltung 44 bewirkt eine Interpolation zwischen den Sensordaten, die von den beiden Gruppen geliefert werden. A circuit 44 causes an interpolation between the sensor data, which are supplied from the two groups. Aus den zwei Sätzen von Sensordaten können Rückschlüsse auf die Zuverlässigkeit der Sensordaten gezogen werden. Conclusions as to the reliability of the sensor data can be drawn from the two sets of sensor data. Außerdem wird die Genauigkeit der am Ausgang erhaltenen, interpolierten Sensordaten verbessert. In addition, the accuracy of the obtained at the output interpolated sensor data is improved. Die interpolierten Sensordaten sind auf einen mit infraroter Strahlung arbeitenden Sender 46 und einen mit Radiofrequenz arbeitenden Sender 48 geschaltet. The interpolated sensor data are switched to an operating with infra-red radiation transmitter 46 and a radio frequency transmitter operating at 48th Der Empfänger 28 enthält einen Empfängerteil, der auf die infrarote Strahlung anspricht, und einen Empfängerteil, der auf die Radiofrequenz anspricht. The receiver 28 includes a receiver portion that is responsive to infrared radiation, and a receiver part, responsive to the radio frequency.

Die Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 ist von einer eingebauten Batterie 50 gespeist. The inertial sensor unit 26 is powered by a built-in battery 50th

An dem Behandlungsobjekt sind vier Marken 52 angebracht, die auf den Schichtbildern erscheinen. At the treatment object four brands 52 are mounted appearing on the slices. Am Ort dieser Marken sind bei der Behandlung, also während des chirurgischen Eingriffs, Leuchtdioden angebracht. At the location of such marks LEDs are in treatment, ie during the surgical procedure, appropriate. Diese Leuchtdioden werden von den bilderfassenden Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 ebenfalls erfaßt und liefern so den Ort der Marken 52 in dem zweiten "Abtasteinrichtung"-Koordinatensystem. These LEDs are also detected by the image detecting sensors 20, 22 and 24, thus providing the location of the marks 52 in the second "scanning" coordinate system.

Die beschriebene Einrichtung arbeitet wie folgt: The described device operates as follows:

Vor dem chirurgischen Eingriff wird ein Computertomogramm oder ein Kernspintomogramm des zu behandelnden Körperteils, z. Prior to surgery, a CT scan or an MRI scan of the treated body part, such is. B. des Kopfes des Patienten erstellt. As the patient's head created. Dabei werden an dem Körperteil vier Marken angebracht, die auch auf dem erhaltenen Schichtbildern sichtbar sind. Here, four marks are attached to the body part that is visible on the resulting slices. Der Ort dieser Marken in einem schichtbildfesten ersten Koordinatensystem wird bestimmt, indem die Schichtbilder auf dem Bildschirm dargestellt und die darin erscheinenden Bilder der Marken mit einer "Maus" angefahren werden. The location of these markers in a layer-fixed first coordinate system is determined by the slice images displayed on the screen and appearing in images of brands with a "mouse" to be approached.

Bei dem chirurgischen Eingriff, der "Behandlung", werden die am Ort der Marken 52 angebrachten Leuchtdioden durch die Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 erfaßt. In the surgical procedure, the "treatment", the attached at the place of light-emitting diodes 52 marks detected by the sensors 20, 22 and 24th Damit werden die Koordinaten der Marken 52 in dem zweiten Koordinatensystem ermittelt. So that the coordinates of the marks 52 are determined in the second coordinate system. Aus den vorher ermittelten Koordinaten der Marken 52 im schichtbildfesten ersten Koordinatensystem und den durch die Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 ermittelten Koordinaten der Marken im zweiten Koordinatensystem können die Transformationsparameter für die Koordinatentransformation aus einem Koordinatensystem in das andere bestimmt werden. The transformation parameters for the coordinate transformation from one coordinate system can be determined in the other of the previously determined coordinates of the marks 52 first in the layer-fixed coordinate system and the ascertained by the sensors 20, 22 and 24 coordinates of the marks in the second coordinate system.

Die Ermittlung der Koordinaten im zweiten Koordinatensystem aus den Sensordaten der Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 und die Bestimmung der Transformationsparameter für die Koordinatentransformation erfolgt in dem Rechner 32 . The determination of the coordinates in the second coordinate system from the sensor data of the sensors 20, 22 and 24, and the determination of the transformation parameters for the coordinate transformation in the computer 32nd Auf den Rechner 32 sind die Sensordaten von den Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 aufgeschaltet. To the computer 32, the sensor data from the sensors 20, 22 and 24 are switched.

Der Rechner 32 bestimmt auch aus der Lage der Leuchtdioden 16 und 18 die Lage und Orientierung des Instruments 12 in dem zweiten "Abtasteinrichtungs"-Koordinatensystem. The computer 32 also determines from the position of the light emitting diodes 16 and 18, the position and orientation of the instrument 12 in the second "Abtasteinrichtungs" coordinate system. Mittels der Koordinatentransformation werden diese Lage und Orientierung in das schichtbildfeste, erste Koordinatensystem transformiert und in der Darstellung auf dem Bildschirm in die jeweiligen Schichtbilder eingeblendet. By means of the coordinate transformation to be transformed, these position and orientation in the layer-fixed, first coordinate system and displayed in the display on the screen in the respective layer images.

Bei der Handhabung des Instruments können die Leuchtdioden vorübergehend abgedeckt werden, so daß sie von den Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 nicht erfaßt werden, oder nicht alle Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 die Leuchtdioden erfassen. In the handling of the instrument, the LEDs can be temporarily covered, so that they are not detected by the sensors 20, 22 and 24, or not all of the sensors 20, 22 and 24 detect the light emitting diodes. Aus diesem Grunde ist eine zweite Lage- und Orientierungs-Meßeinheit in Form der Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 vorgesehen. For this reason, a second position and orientation measuring unit is provided in the form of the inertial sensor unit 26th Die Trägheitssensoreinheit 26 liefert über die Sender 46 und 48 und den Empfänger 28 weitere Sätze von Lage- und Orientierungsdaten, die in gleicher Weise wie die Sensordaten von den Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 die Lage und Orientierung des Instruments in dem zweiten Koordinatensystem angeben und zur Darstellung des Instruments 12 auf dem Bildschirm 36 dienen können. The inertial sensor unit 26 provides via the transmitter 46 and 48 and the receiver 28 further sets of position and orientation data indicating the position and orientation of the instrument in the second coordinate system in the same manner as the sensor data from the sensors 20, 22 and 24 and representation of the instrument 12 can be used on the screen 36th Die Lage- und Orientierungsdaten von der Trägheitssensoreinheit werden normalerweise laufend gestützt von den aus den Sensordaten der Sensoren 20, 22 und 24 gewonnenen Lage- und Orientierungsdaten. The position and orientation data from the inertial sensor unit are normally continuously supported by the obtained from the sensor data of the sensors 20, 22 and 24 position and orientation data. Insbesondere wird auch die Drift der Trägheitssensoren bestimmt und bei der Berechnung der Koordinaten berücksichtigt. In particular, the drift of the inertial sensors is determined and taken into account in the calculation of the coordinates.

Claims (13)

  1. 1. Einrichtung zum Messen der Position eines Instruments ( 12 ) relativ zu einem Behandlungsobjekt ( 10 ), umfassend 1. A device for measuring the position of an instrument (12) relative to a treatment object (10) comprising
    • (a) einen Rechner ( 32 ) mit einem Speicher ( 34 ) zur Speicherung von Schichtbildern des Behandlungsobjektes ( 10 ) in einem ersten, schichtbildfesten Koordinatensystem, (a) a computer (32) having a memory (34) for storing slices of the treatment object (10) in a first layer-fixed coordinate system,
    • (b) eine Meßvorrichtung ( 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26 ) zum Messen der Position des Instruments ( 12 ) in einem zweiten Koordinatensystem, (b) a measuring device (16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26) for measuring the position of the instrument (12) in a second coordinate system,
    • (c) eine Meßvorrichtung ( 20, 22, 24 ) zum Messen der Position von in dem ersten Koordinatensystem vorgegebenen Meßpunkten ( 52 ) des Behandlungsobjektes ( 10 ) in dem zweiten Koordinatensystem, (c) a measuring device (20, 22, 24) for measuring the position of predetermined measuring points in the first coordinate system (52) of the treatment object (10) in the second coordinate system,
    • (d) den Rechner ( 32 ) mit einem Koordinatentransformationsprogramm zur Transformation der Positionsdaten aus einem der Koordinatensysteme in das andere, (d) the computer (32) with a coordinate transformation program for transforming the position data from one of the coordinate systems in the other,
    • (e) einen Bildschirm ( 36 ) zur Darstellung der Schichtbilder und des Instruments ( 12 ) in dem anderen Koordinatensystem, (e) a screen (36) for displaying the slice images and the instrument (12) in the other coordinate system,
  2. dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß characterized in that
    • (f) die Meßvorrichtung zum Messen der Position des Instruments ( 12 ) eine Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) enthält. (f) the measuring device for measuring the position of the instrument (12) includes an inertial sensor unit (26).
  3. 2. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) Sensordaten über die Lage und die Orientierung des Instruments ( 12 ) liefert. 2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the inertial sensor unit (26) provides sensor data on the position and orientation of the instrument (12).
  4. 3. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) redundante Sensordaten liefert. 3. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the inertial sensor unit (26) provides redundant sensor data.
  5. 4. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 3, gekennzeichnet durch den Rechner ( 32 ) mit einem Programm ( 44 ) zur Interpolation zwischen den Sensordaten der Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) zur Erzeugung interpolierter Sensordaten. 4. A device according to claim 3, characterized by the computer (32) having a program (44) for interpolation between the sensor data from the inertial sensor unit (26) for generating interpolated sensor data.
  6. 5. Einrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß an dem Instrument ( 12 ) ein Sender ( 46, 48 ) zur drahtlosen Übertragung der Sensordaten auf einen mit dem Rechner ( 32 ) verbundenen Empfänger ( 28 ) vorgesehen sind. 5. Device according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that on the instrument (12), a transmitter (46, 48) are provided for the wireless transmission of the sensor data to a to the computer (32) connected to the receiver (28).
  7. 6. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß an dem Instrument ( 12 ) mehr als ein Sender ( 46, 48 ) vorgesehen ist und die Sender ( 46, 48 ) mit je einem oder mehreren Empfängern zusammenwirken. 6. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that on the instrument (12) more than one transmitter (46, 48) is provided and the transmitter (46, 48) each cooperate with one or more receivers.
  8. 7. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Sender ( 46, 48 ) und Empfänger mit unterschiedlichen physikalischen Trägern arbeiten. 7. A device according to claim 6, characterized in that the transmitters (46, 48) and receivers with different physical media work.
  9. 8. Einrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) von einer in die Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) eingebauten Batterie energetisch versorgt wird. 8. Device according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the inertial sensor unit (26) from one to the inertial sensor unit (26) built-in battery is supplied with energy.
  10. 9. Einrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß zusätzlich eine berührungslose, optische Abtasteinrichtung ( 16, 18, 20, 20, 22, 24 ) zum Messen der Lage und der Orientierung des Instruments ( 12 ) vorgesehen ist. 9. Device according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that in addition a non-contact optical scanning device (16, 18, 20, 20, 22, 24) for measuring the position and orientation of the instrument (12) is provided.
  11. 10. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Trägheitssensoreinheit ( 26 ) von der optischen Abtasteinrichtung ( 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 ) gestützt ist. 10. A device according to claim 9, characterized in that the inertial sensor unit (26) from the optical pickup (16, 18, 20, 22, 24) is supported.
  12. 11. Einrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Meßvorrichtung ( 20, 22, 24 ) zum Messen der Position der vorgegebenen Meßpunkte ( 52 ) des Behandlungsobjekts ( 10 ) in dem zweiten Koordinatensystem von Leuchtdioden gebildet sind, die in den Meßpunkten an dem Behandlungsobjekt ( 10 ) angebracht sind, und von einer auf diese Leuchtdioden ansprechenden optischen Abtasteinrichtung ( 20, 22, 24 ). 11. Device according to one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the measuring device (20, 22, 24) for measuring the position of the predetermined measuring points (52) of the treatment object (10) in the second coordinate system of light emitting diodes are formed, which in the measuring points are attached to the object to be treated (10), and means responsive to these light-emitting optical scanning device (20, 22, 24).
  13. 12. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Leuchtdioden zur Unterscheidung voneinander mit unterschiedlichen Zeittakten ansteuerbar sind. 12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the LEDs are controllable to distinguish different timings from each other.
DE19924225112 1992-07-30 1992-07-30 Instrument position relative to processing object measuring apparatus - has measuring device for measuring position of instrument including inertia sensor unit Expired - Fee Related DE4225112C1 (en)

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