DE3908078C1 - Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof - Google Patents

Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof

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Publication number
DE3908078C1
DE3908078C1 DE19893908078 DE3908078A DE3908078C1 DE 3908078 C1 DE3908078 C1 DE 3908078C1 DE 19893908078 DE19893908078 DE 19893908078 DE 3908078 A DE3908078 A DE 3908078A DE 3908078 C1 DE3908078 C1 DE 3908078C1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
layer
recording material
characterized
amorphous silicon
material according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
DE19893908078
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Ekkehard Dipl.-Phys. 6457 Maintal De Niemann
Dieter Dipl.-Ing. 6000 Frankfurt De Leidich
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Licentia Patent Verwaltungs-GmbH
Original Assignee
Licentia Patent Verwaltungs-GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Licentia Patent Verwaltungs-GmbH filed Critical Licentia Patent Verwaltungs-GmbH
Priority to DE19893908078 priority Critical patent/DE3908078C1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE3908078C1 publication Critical patent/DE3908078C1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G5/00Recording members for original recording by exposure, e.g. to light, to heat, to electrons; Manufacture thereof; Selection of materials therefor
    • G03G5/02Charge-receiving layers
    • G03G5/04Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor
    • G03G5/08Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic
    • G03G5/082Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic and not being incorporated in a bonding material, e.g. vacuum deposited
    • G03G5/08214Silicon-based
    • G03G5/08235Silicon-based comprising three or four silicon-based layers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G5/00Recording members for original recording by exposure, e.g. to light, to heat, to electrons; Manufacture thereof; Selection of materials therefor
    • G03G5/02Charge-receiving layers
    • G03G5/04Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor
    • G03G5/08Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic
    • G03G5/082Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic and not being incorporated in a bonding material, e.g. vacuum deposited
    • G03G5/08214Silicon-based
    • G03G5/08278Depositing methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G5/00Recording members for original recording by exposure, e.g. to light, to heat, to electrons; Manufacture thereof; Selection of materials therefor
    • G03G5/02Charge-receiving layers
    • G03G5/04Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor
    • G03G5/08Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic
    • G03G5/082Photoconductive layers; Charge-generation layers or charge-transporting layers; Additives therefor; Binders therefor characterised by the photoconductive material being inorganic and not being incorporated in a bonding material, e.g. vacuum deposited
    • G03G5/08285Carbon-based

Abstract

The invention relates to a process for the production of an electrophotographic recording material by deposition of at least one layer of amorphous silicon on a support (carrier, base, substrate) by means of direct-current magnetron cathode sputtering in an atmosphere containing argon, xenon, helium or neon in hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen, methane, nitrogen, nitrogen oxide or a hydrocarbon gas of the formula CnH2n+2. The layer (4) is irradiated with white light during and/or after the deposition. <IMAGE>

Description

The invention relates to a process for producing an electrophotographic recording material by depositing at least one layer of amorphous silicon on a support by means of DC magnetron sputtering in an argon, xenon, helium or neon in hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen, methane, nitrogen, nitrogen oxide or a Hydrocarbon gas of the formula C n H 2 n + 2- containing atmosphere and on an electrophotographic recording material, which is produced by the method.

A method of the type described above and a recording material prepared by the method are known (DE-OS 37 17 727). The amorphous silicon layer, hereinafter called the a-Si layer, is produced in the known method at a total pressure of 1 to 10 x 10 -3 mbar and at a power density of DC magnetron sputtering of about 2.0 to 13 W / cm 2. Deposition rates of <10 μm / h are achieved. The produced a-Si layers have good electrophotographic properties. The layers can be deposited on relatively large-scale copying drums, the standard pulps, z. B. DIN A4, A3, are adapted in length.

From an a-Si layer becomes a high dark resistance of <10¹² Ω · cm, a Charging field strength, of <40V / micron and a good chargeability required.  

The invention is based on the object, a method of the type described above Genus to the effect that the amorphous Silicon layer has a larger boot height.

The object is achieved in that the layer after is irradiated during and / or after deposition with white light. Under Layer are here also sub-layers to understand, one after the other be applied to obtain greater thicknesses. By a Such irradiation can be a layer with higher chargeability and to achieve improved charging height. It can therefore be a thinner layer than previously produced at the same chargeability, due to the shorter production time can be made more economical. Preferably lies the light in the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Favorable results were irradiated in the range of 12-50 milliwatts / cm 2 reached.

The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to an embodiment shown in a drawing. In the drawing, an electrophotographic recording material is shown in cross section. It consists of an aluminum support 1 or an aluminum alloy support on which a blocking layer 2 of amorphous silicon oxide or silicon nitride lies. Above the blocking layer 2 is a layer 3 of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si: H), which preferably contains boron, which is deposited from a target with a resistance of 1 Ω · cm. On this layer 3 is another layer 4 of amorphous hydrogenated silicon with boron from a target with a resistance of 36 Ω · cm. The layer 4 carries a covering layer 5 of amorphous carbon with hydrogen or of amorphous silicon with carbon.

On the aluminum support 1 , the blocking layer of the structure SiO x or SiN x is first deposited such that the oxygen content decreases in the direction of the later to be applied a-Si layer, so that a smooth transition to the next layer is achieved. Thereafter, a first a-Si layer by DC magnetron sputtering z. B. deposited under the following conditions:

Total pressure (argon + hydrogen) 5 × 10 -3 mbar Hydrogen content of sputtering atmosphere smaller than 50% substrate temperature 150 ° C Gas inflow argon 14 sccm Gas flow hydrogen 9.6 sccm Target: crystalline Si, boron or phosphorus or gallium doped 1 Ω · cm

The resistance of the target is suitably chosen to be 1 Ω · cm. The deposition can also take place in a xenon, helium or neon atmosphere containing hydrogen. Also, deposition of an argon, xenon, helium or neon in fluorine, oxygen, methane or a hydrocarbon gas of the formula C n H 2 n + 2 is possible.

With the resistance of the boron target a boron doping of about 2 × 10 +16 atoms / cm³ is achieved.

After the first a-Si layer has been cut off, a second a-Si layer is deposited, in which a higher boron content and a higher hydrogen content than the first a-Si layer are provided. The higher hydrogen content results in higher chargeability while reducing photosensitivity. A boron target of 36 Ω · cm is chosen so that a doping of about 4 × 10¹⁴ atoms / cm³ results. The hydrogen content of the sputtering atmosphere is set <50%. Accordingly, a different hydrogen content is present between layers 3 and 4 .

On the second a-Si layer, the cover layer 5 of amorphous carbon or silicon carbide is then deposited with a proportion of hydrogen and / or fluorine. The cover layer of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-Ci: H) is applied because of its high hardness. In the cover layer, a gradient of carbon is generated, which increases against the layer 4 to obtain a smooth transition. The capping layer is also formed by DC magnetron sputtering, preferably depositing the amorphous carbon with glassy carbon as a target in an argon-hydrogen atmosphere or an argon-hydrogen-fluorocarbon atmosphere. With glassy charcoal, which in its microporosity, gas impermeability and hardness approximately in line with glass, a cover or protective layer of high hardness and low specific conductivity can be produced. The layer is hydrophobic and resistant to acids and alkalis. Furthermore, high deposition rates can be achieved. The porosity of glassy carbon is in particular 0%, so that this material is particularly well suited for vacuum systems. The glassy coal has the following properties:

Apparent specific gravity: 1.5-1.55 g / cm³
Ash content <400 ppm,
Sulfur content about 50 ppm or less
Boron content about 2 ppm or less
Bending strength 600-1000 da N / cm²
Crush strength 1500-300 da N / cm²
Shore hardness 120-125
Micro-hardness according to Vickers: at 0.3 N 150-225,
Coefficient of thermal expansion 3.2 × 10 -6 per ° C at 100 ° C,
specific electrical conductivity: 2.2 × 10 2 (Ω.cm) -1 -1.8.10.² Ω -1 cm -1 .

The electrophotographic image prepared in the manner described above Recording material is after the deposition of the photoconductive layer or Layers irradiated with white light. It is z. As a support in succession passed several times at a Abscheidestation to a certain layer thickness to create. There is a window behind the separation station thrown by the light on the freshly deposited layer. It is also possible to light during deposition to the deposition site too judge. With rotating carriers, the deposition and irradiation on various places performed during the rotation. The light has one Wavelength within 400-900 nm. The irradiance is preferably between 12-50 mW / cm². The irradiance should be at least 5 mW / cm² be.

By irradiation with light, the chargeability of the a-Si increases. It can produce a significantly higher chargeability. This effect is probably related to this, the smaller state layers can be reached in the gap.  

example

An aluminum drum that has a blocking layer and on top of that described above Wrapped a-Si layers contained, with a sputtering performance of 500 W was applied after irradiation with white light with a 3-wire corotron of +/- 7 kv at 20 rpm. charged. The following Table gives for different thicknesses of the a-Si layer with and without cover layer the charging voltages with and without irradiation for positive and negative charges are denoted by ⊕ and ⊖.

From this it can be seen that by the irradiation a much better Chargeability is achieved. Due to the higher chargeability and the improved Charge height of the photoconductive layer or layers is it possible, compared to the previously used layers thinner layers deposit. This results in shorter production times, d. H. the Layers can be produced more cheaply.

Claims (9)

  1. A process for producing an electrophotographic recording material by depositing at least one layer of amorphous silicon on a support by means of DC magnetron sputtering in an argon, xenon, helium or neon in hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen, methane, nitrogen, nitrogen oxide or a hydrocarbon gas of formula C. n H 2 n + 2 atmosphere, characterized in that the layer is irradiated during and / or after the deposition of white light.
  2. 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the white light in Wavelength range of 400 to 900 nanometers.
  3. 3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized, that the irradiance is in the range of 12-50 milliwatts / cm².
  4. 4. Electrophotographic recording material having at least one Layer of amorphous silicon on a support marked by the preparation according to one or more of the preceding claims.  
  5. 5. Recording material according to claim 4, characterized, that the layer of amorphous silicon additionally boron, phosphorus or Contains gallium.
  6. 6. Recording material according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that two layers of amorphous silicon are provided, of which facing away from the substrate Layer has a higher doping of boron, phosphorus or gallium as the layer closer to the substrate.
  7. 7. Recording material according to one or more of the claims 4 to 6, characterized in that between the substrate and the amorphous silicon layer comprises a blocking layer Silicon oxide or silicon nitrite is arranged, which has a in Direction of the support decreasing gradient of oxide or Contains nitrite.
  8. 8. A recording material according to any one of claims 4 to 7, characterized in that on the outside of the amorphous Silicon layer, a top layer of amorphous carbon with Hydrogen and / or fluorine is arranged.
  9. 9. A recording material according to claim 8, characterized, that an increasing content of carbon in the direction of the amorphous Silicon layer is present.
DE19893908078 1989-03-13 1989-03-13 Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof Expired - Fee Related DE3908078C1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19893908078 DE3908078C1 (en) 1989-03-13 1989-03-13 Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19893908078 DE3908078C1 (en) 1989-03-13 1989-03-13 Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE3908078C1 true DE3908078C1 (en) 1990-08-30

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Family Applications (1)

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DE19893908078 Expired - Fee Related DE3908078C1 (en) 1989-03-13 1989-03-13 Electrophotographic recording material, and process for the production thereof

Country Status (1)

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DE (1) DE3908078C1 (en)

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3717727A1 (en) * 1987-05-26 1988-12-08 Licentia Gmbh recording material electrophotographic and process for its manufacture

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3717727A1 (en) * 1987-05-26 1988-12-08 Licentia Gmbh recording material electrophotographic and process for its manufacture

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