DE3900119C1 - Apparatus for measuring the urea concentration in an extracorporeal circulation - Google Patents

Apparatus for measuring the urea concentration in an extracorporeal circulation

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Publication number
DE3900119C1
DE3900119C1 DE3900119A DE3900119A DE3900119C1 DE 3900119 C1 DE3900119 C1 DE 3900119C1 DE 3900119 A DE3900119 A DE 3900119A DE 3900119 A DE3900119 A DE 3900119A DE 3900119 C1 DE3900119 C1 DE 3900119C1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
filtrate
urea
urease
cartridge
extracorporeal circulation
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
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DE3900119A
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German (de)
Inventor
Siegfried Stiller
Udo 5100 Aachen De Schallenberg
Original Assignee
Stiller, Siegfried, Dipl.-Phys., 5100 Aachen, De
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Application filed by Stiller, Siegfried, Dipl.-Phys., 5100 Aachen, De filed Critical Stiller, Siegfried, Dipl.-Phys., 5100 Aachen, De
Priority to DE3900119A priority Critical patent/DE3900119C1/en
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Publication of DE3900119C1 publication Critical patent/DE3900119C1/en
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Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material
    • G01N27/021Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material before and after chemical transformation of the material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • A61M1/1601Control or regulation
    • A61M1/1603Regulation parameters
    • A61M1/1605Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid
    • A61M1/1607Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid before use
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2230/00Measuring parameters of the user
    • A61M2230/65Impedance, e.g. conductivity, capacity

Abstract

A continuous stream of filtrate of about 2 millilitres per hour is removed from the extracorporeal circulation through a single capillary with a plasma filtration membrane and is passed successively through a first conductivity measurement cell, a cartridge with urease and a second conductivity measurement cell of the same design as the first. The stream of filtrate is maintained by the reduction in pressure generated by a syringe with retracted and locked plunger. The urea in the filtrate is chemically decomposed by the urease in the cartridge between the two conductivity measurement cells. This results in two millimole of NH3 and 1 mmol of CO2 per millimole of urea. NH3 is substantially dissociated at physiological pH so that the conductivity in the filtrate after passing through the cartridge with urease is increased. The difference between the conductivites determined by the first and the second measurement cell is therefore a measure of the urea concentration in the filtrate. This corresponds to the urea concentration in the blood (accurately in the plasma) in the extracorporeal circulation.

Description

Die Erfindung geht aus von einer Vorrichtung zum Messen der Harnstoffkonzentration nach dem Oberbegriff des Patentanspruchs 1, wie sie aus der DE 34 36 748 A1 bekannt ist. The invention proceeds from a device for measuring the urea concentration according to the preamble of patent claim 1, as known from DE 34 36 748 A1.

Die ausreichende Elimination von Harnstoff ist eine notwendige Bedingung für eine erfolgreiche Behandlung des akuten und terminalen Nierenversagens mit der künstlichen Niere. The sufficient elimination of urea is a necessary condition for a successful treatment of acute and renal failure with the artificial kidney. Der Zeitbedarf für die Harnstoffelimination bestimmt auch im wesentlichen die durchschnittliche Dauer der Behandlung. The time required for the urea elimination determines the average duration of treatment also substantially. Die Orientierung der Dauer der Behandlung an der Harnstoffausscheidung gilt als anerkannte Methode; The orientation of the duration of the treatment on the urea excretion is a recognized method; vgl. see. dazu z. to z. B. Lowry, EG, Teehan, BP, Principoles of prescribing dialysis therapy: implementing recomendations from the National Cooperative Dialysis Study. B. Lowry, EG, Teehan, BP, Principoles of prescribing dialysis therapy: Implementing recomendations from the National Cooperative Dialysis Study. Kidney International, 23, Suppl. 13, 1983: s113; Kidney International, 23, Suppl 13, 1983: p113;. oder Gotch, FA Sargent, JA, A mechanistik analysis of the National Cooperative Study Dialysis Study. or Gotch, FA Sargent, JA, A mechanistic analysis of the National Cooperative Study Dialysis Study. Kidney Internationl. Kidney Internationl. 28, 1985: s526. 28, 1985: S526.

Neben der ausreichenden Ausscheidung von Harnstoff muß auch die ausreichende Ausscheidung von höhermolekularer Urämietoxine, sowie ein Ausgleich des Wasser-, des Elektrolyt- und des Säurebasenhaushaltes erzielt werden. In addition to the adequate excretion of urea and the sufficient precipitation of higher molecular weight uremic toxins, and a balance of water, the electrolyte and acid base balance must be achieved. Diese Bedingungen lassen sich jedoch in der Regel innerhalb der für die Harnstoffelimination notwendigen Zeit erreichen. However, these conditions can be achieved usually within the necessary time for the urea elimination. Einzelheiten zur Hämodialyse anderer Verfahren der extrakorporalen Detoxifikation sind in Standardwerken enthalten, z. Details for hemodialysis other procedures extracorporeal detoxification are included in the standard works, such. B. Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, Hrsg.: W. Drukker, FM Parson, JF Maher, M. Nÿhoff Publishers, Boston/The Hague/Lancater, 2. Aufl. 1983; B. Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, Ed .: W. Drukker, FM Parson, JF Maher, M. Nyhoff Publishers, Boston / The Hague / Lancater, 2nd ed 1,983th; oder Hämodialyse, Peritonealdialyse, Plasmapherese und verwandte Verfahren, Hrsg.: E. Wetzels, A. Colombi, P. Dittrich, HJ Gurland, M. Kessel, H. Klinkmann. or hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, plasmapheresis and related methods, Ed .: E. Wetzel, A. Colombi, P. Dittrich, HJ Gurland, M. Kessel, H. Klinkmann.

Die Messung der Harnstoffkonzentration im extrakorporalen Kreislauf gestattet es deshalb, die kürzest mögliche Behandlungszeit für jede einzelne Dialysebehandlung zu finden. Therefore, the measurement of the urea concentration in the extracorporeal circuit makes it possible to find the shortest possible treatment time for each dialysis treatment.

Die Behandlungszeit liegt heute bei der Hämodialyse und verwandten Verfahren (Hämofiltration, Hämodiafiltration) zwischen 2 und 7 Stunden 3mal in der Woche (6 bis 21 Stunden in der Woche). The treatment time is now in hemodialysis and related methods (hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration) is between 2 and 7 hours 3 times a week (6 to 21 hours a week). Die Behandlungszeit ist aus verschiedenen Gründen von großer Bedeutung. The treatment time is, for various reasons of great importance. Eine kurze Behandlungszeit wird von einem Patienten eher akzeptiert, da ihm dann die soziale und berufliche Eingliederung leichter fällt. A short treatment time is more acceptable to the patient, as he then drops the social and professional integration easier. Auch das lange "Gefesseltsein" an der Dialysemaschine wird von den Patienten nicht geschätzt, manche fühlen sich in dieser Zeit nicht wohl. Also, the long "Gefesseltsein" on the dialysis machine is not appreciated by the patients, some feel at this time not well.

Die Dauer der Behandlung ist ein Kostenfaktor, da in dieser Zeit Behandlungsplätze, ärztliches Personal und Pflegepersonal bereit stehen müssen. The duration of treatment is, there must be available during this time treatment units, medical personnel and nurses a cost factor.

Eine verkürzte Dialysezeit kann deshalb zur Rehabilitation der Patienten und zur Senkung der Kosten für die Behandlung beitragen. A shorter dialysis time can therefore contribute to the rehabilitation of patients and reduce the cost of treatment.

Zum Messen der Harnstoffkonzentration sind eine Reihe von Verfahren bekannt, die entweder auf der Spaltung des Harnstoffs durch Urease und dem Nachweis von NH₃ beruhen (vgl. die eingangs genannte DE 34 36 748 A1) oder eine chromogene Reaktion herbeiführen und die Extinktion photometrisch messen; For measuring the urea concentration, a number of methods are known which are based either on the cleavage of the urea by urease and the detection of NH₃ (see the initially cited DE 34 36 748 A1.) Induce or a chromogenic reaction and measure the absorbance photometry; vgl. see. dazu: Clinical Chemistry: Principles and Techniques, Hrsg.: R. Henry, DC Cannon, JW Winkelmann, Harper and Row Publishers, New York 1974. to: Clinical Chemistry: Principles and Techniques, Ed .: R. Henry, DC Cannon, JW Winkelmann, Harper and Row Publishers, New York 1974th

Die Messung des freiwerdenden NH₃ über die Änderung der Leitfähigkeit wird von der Fa. Beckmann Instruments GmbH München in ihrem Gerät zur Messung der Harnstoffkonzentration im Blut angewandt; The measurement of the released NH₃ over the change in conductivity is applied from the company Beckmann Instruments GmbH Munich in their device for measuring the urea concentration in the blood. siehe "Blood Urea Nitrogen Chemistry Module", Operating and Service Instructions (015-5 55 587 A, 1981). see "Blood Urea Nitrogen Chemistry Module" Operating and Service Instructions (015-5 55 587 A, 1981).

Aufgabe der Erfindung ist es danach, die Vorrichtung nach dem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1 dahingehend weiterzuentwickeln, daß das Messen kontinuierlich erfolgt, so daß weder eine mehrmalige Probenentnahme unter Verwendung von umschaltbaren Ventilen erforderlich ist, noch ein Durchmischen der Probe mit einer Verdünnungsflüssigkeit durch Verrühren. The object of the invention is then to develop the device according to the preamble of claim 1 to the effect that measurement takes place continuously, so that neither a repeated sampling using switchable valves is required, nor a mixing of the sample with a diluting liquid by stirring.

Diese Aufgabe wird mit dem Gegenstand des Anspruchs 1 gelöst. This object is solved by the subject of claim 1. Vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen dieses Gegenstands sind in den Unteransprüchen angegeben. Advantageous embodiments of this object are specified in the dependent claims.

Ein Ausführungsbeispiel der beanspruchten Vorrichtung ist in Abb. 1 dargestellt. An embodiment of the claimed apparatus shown in FIG. 1. In den arteriellen Schenkel des extrakorporaten Kreislaufs, hinter der Blutpumpe, vor dem Blutfilter (Dialysator, Hämofilter) ist eine einzelne Kapillare integriert. In the arterial limb of the circuit extrakorporaten, behind the blood pump, in front of the blood filter (dialyzer, hemofilter) a single capillary is integrated. Die Anordnung im extrakorporalen Kreislauf bei der Hämodialyse ist in Abb. 2 dargestellt. The arrangement in the extracorporeal circuit in hemodialysis is illustrated in FIG. 2. Kapillaren mit einer symmetrischen Plasmafiltrationsmembran sind dafür geeignet. Capillaries with a symmetric plasma filtration membrane are suitable. Entsprechende Kapillaren sind kommerziell verfügbar. Corresponding capillaries are commercially available. Das offene Ende der Kapillaren ist über ein Y-Stück aus dem extrakorporalen Kreislauf herausgeführt, das geschlossene Ende schwimmt frei im Blutstrom. The open end of the capillaries is Y-piece guided out of the extracorporeal circuit via a, the closed end is free floating in the bloodstream.

Der Ausgang der Kapillaren ist mit einem Schlauch von geringen Lumen (Innendurchmesser <0,4 mm) mit der ersten Leitfähigkeitsmeßzelle M 1 , wie sie z. The output of the capillaries is provided with a tube of small lumen (internal diameter <0.4 mm) having the first conductivity cell M 1 as such. B. aus der Zeitschrift Medizintechik, 105. Jg., Nr. 4/85, S. 124 bis 131, bekannt ist, verbunden. For example, from the journal Medizintechik, 105. Jg., No. 4/85, pp 124-131, it is known connected. Über eine Patrone mit Urease-Granulat fließt das Filtrat in die zweite Meßzelle M 2 (mit der ersten gleich). A cartridge with urease granulate the filtrate in the second measuring cell M 2 flows (with the first equal). Beide Zellen und die Patrone mit Urease sind von einer Kapsel umschlossen, die durch Umströmung mit der Dialysierflüssigkeit auf konstanter Temperatur gehalten wird. Both cells and the cartridge with urease are enclosed by a capsule which is held by the dialysis fluid flow around having at a constant temperature. Die Temperatur der Dialysierflüssigkeit wird von der Dialysemaschine konstant gehalten. The temperature of the dialysis liquid is kept constant by the dialysis machine.

Hinter der zweiten Leitfähigkeitsmeßzelle ist ein Steckkontakt für eine Spritze mit Luer-Ansatz. Behind the second conductivity cell has a plug contact for a syringe with Luer. Vor dem Beginn der Messung wird der Kolben der Spritze zurückgezogen und arretiert. Before starting the measurement of the plunger of the syringe is retracted and locked. Durch den Unterdruck wird ein kontinuierlicher Filtratstrom durch die Leitfähigkeitsmeßzellen und die Patrone mit Urease erzeugt, der sich in der Spritze sammelt. By the negative pressure, a continuous filtrate stream is generated by the conductivity cells and the cartridge with urease, which accumulates in the syringe. Die Länge der Kapillaren und der Unterdruck in der Spritze werden so gewählt, daß ca. 2 Milliliter pro Stunde Filtrat erzeugt wird. The length of the capillaries and the negative pressure in the syringe to be chosen so that approximately 2 milliliters per hour is produced filtrate. Da der Druck in der Spritze mit der Zeit sinkt, nimmt der Filtratfluß mit der Zeit zu. Since the pressure in the syringe decreases with time, the filtrate flow increases with time. Deshalb wird das Volumen der Spritze so groß gewählt, daß auch am Ende der Behandlung noch ein ausreichender Filtratfluß besteht. Therefore, the volume of the syringe is chosen so large that still exists at the end of the treatment, a sufficient filtrate.

Die Messung der Leitfähigkeitsdifferenz erfolgt nach der üblichen Technik. The measurement of the conductivity difference is carried out according to the conventional technique. Widerstandsmessung mit ca. 1000 Hz Wechselstrom. Resistance measurement with 1000 Hz alternating current. Zur Sicherheit wird die Stromversorgung des Gerätes (12 Volt) durch einen Trenntransformator galvanisch entkoppelt. For safety, the power supply of the device (12 volts) is galvanically isolated by an isolation transformer.

Bei der Passage des Filtrates durch die Patrone mit Urease wird der Harnstoff im Filtrat chemisch zerlegt, dabei werden je Millimol Harnstoff 2 mmol NH₃ und 1 mmol CO₂ frei. During the passage of the filtrate through the cartridge with urease, the urea in the filtrate is chemically broken down, besides, per millimole of urea and NH₃ 2 mmol 1 mmol CO₂ will be released. Bei physiologischem pH (ca. 7,4) dissotiiert NH₃ und CO² weitgehend: At physiological pH (about 7.4) NH₃ and CO² dissotiiert largely:

Die Spaltung von Harnstoff führt zu einer Erhöhung der Ionenstärke und damit zu einer Erhöhung der Leitfähigkeit proportional zur Harnstoffkonzentration. The cleavage of urea leads to an increase in the ionic strength, and thereby increase the conductivity is proportional to the urea concentration. Die Leitfähigkeit, die in der zweiten Meßzelle gemessen wird, ist deshalb höher als in der ersten. The conductivity measured in the second measuring cell, is therefore higher than in the first. Die Differenz der Leitfähigkeit in der zweiten und der ersten Meßzelle ist der Harnstoffkonzentration im Filtrat proportional. The difference in the conductivity in the second and the first measuring cell is proportional to the urea concentration in the filtrate.

Claims (4)

1. Vorrichtung zum Messen der Harnstoffkonzentration in einem extrakorporalen Kreislauf, die Urease zum Zersetzen des Harnstoffs enthält, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß vor und nach einer kontinuierlich von Filtrat durchströmten Patrone mit der Urease je eine Leitfähigkeitsmeßzelle angeordnet ist. Contains 1. A device for measuring the urea concentration in an extracorporeal circulation, Urease for decomposing of the urea, characterized in that a respective conductivity cell is disposed before and after a continuous filtrate flowed through the cartridge with urease.
2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Filter zum Erzeugen des Filtratstroms aus einer einzelnen Kapillaren besteht, die an einem Ende verschlossen ist und mit diesem Ende frei im Blutstrom schwimmmt. 2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the filter is to generate the filtrate stream from a single capillary, which is closed at one end and free schwimmmt with this end in the bloodstream.
3. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, gekennzeichnet durch eine Spritze, deren Kolben zurückgezogen und arretiert ist, um den Unterdruck, der den Filtratstrom erzeugt, hervorzurufen. 3. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized by a syringe, the plunger is withdrawn and locked to the negative pressure which generates the filtrate to cause.
4. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, gekennzeichnet durch eine Einrichtung zum Umströmen der Leitfähigkeitsmeßzellen und der Patrone mit Dialysierflüssigkeit von konstanter Temperatur. 4. Device according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by means for flowing around the conductivity cells and the dialysis cartridge with constant temperature.
DE3900119A 1989-01-04 1989-01-04 Apparatus for measuring the urea concentration in an extracorporeal circulation Expired - Fee Related DE3900119C1 (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0549341A1 (en) * 1991-12-24 1993-06-30 W.R. Grace &amp; Co.-Conn. Hollow fiber plasma sampler
EP0614081A1 (en) * 1993-03-01 1994-09-07 BELLCO S.p.A. A method and a system for measuring the concentration of a substance in a fluid, and the use thereof
EP0621046A1 (en) * 1993-03-05 1994-10-26 Gambro Ab Method of measuring the effect of a dialysis treatment
DE4401400A1 (en) * 1994-01-19 1995-07-20 Ernst Prof Dr Pfeiffer Method and arrangement for continuously monitoring the concentration of a metabolite
WO1996004401A1 (en) * 1994-07-29 1996-02-15 Gambro Ab Method and device for measuring the concentration of a substance in a solution
WO1997025615A1 (en) * 1996-01-11 1997-07-17 Cambridge Consultants Limited Method and apparatus for measuring an electrical parameter of a fluid
NL1006711C2 (en) * 1997-08-04 1999-02-08 Nedap Nv System for monitoring and controlling protein utilization in animals.
WO1999062574A1 (en) * 1998-06-04 1999-12-09 Althin Medical Ab Method for determining waste products in the dialysis liquid in dialysis treatment
EP1338891A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2003-08-27 Toyo Engineering Corporation Method and apparatus for determining urea concentration

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3436748A1 (en) * 1983-12-22 1985-07-04 Messgeraetewerk Zwonitz Veb K Device for automatic determination of the efficacy of haemodialysis

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3436748A1 (en) * 1983-12-22 1985-07-04 Messgeraetewerk Zwonitz Veb K Device for automatic determination of the efficacy of haemodialysis

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
DE-Z.: Medizintechnik, 105.Jg. Nr.4/85, S.124-131 *
Firmendruckschrift: "Blood Urea Nitrogen ChemistryModule", Operating and Service-Instructions (015-555587A, 1981) *

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0549341A1 (en) * 1991-12-24 1993-06-30 W.R. Grace &amp; Co.-Conn. Hollow fiber plasma sampler
EP0614081A1 (en) * 1993-03-01 1994-09-07 BELLCO S.p.A. A method and a system for measuring the concentration of a substance in a fluid, and the use thereof
EP0621046A1 (en) * 1993-03-05 1994-10-26 Gambro Ab Method of measuring the effect of a dialysis treatment
DE4401400A1 (en) * 1994-01-19 1995-07-20 Ernst Prof Dr Pfeiffer Method and arrangement for continuously monitoring the concentration of a metabolite
EP1182264A3 (en) * 1994-07-29 2003-06-11 Gambro Lundia AB Method and device for assay of urea
WO1996004401A1 (en) * 1994-07-29 1996-02-15 Gambro Ab Method and device for measuring the concentration of a substance in a solution
EP1182264A2 (en) * 1994-07-29 2002-02-27 Gambro Lundia AB Method and device for assay of urea
WO1997025615A1 (en) * 1996-01-11 1997-07-17 Cambridge Consultants Limited Method and apparatus for measuring an electrical parameter of a fluid
EP0896222A2 (en) * 1997-08-04 1999-02-10 N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NEDAP System for monitoring and controlling protein utilization in animals
EP0896222A3 (en) * 1997-08-04 2001-03-14 N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NEDAP System for monitoring and controlling protein utilization in animals
NL1006711C2 (en) * 1997-08-04 1999-02-08 Nedap Nv System for monitoring and controlling protein utilization in animals.
WO1999062574A1 (en) * 1998-06-04 1999-12-09 Althin Medical Ab Method for determining waste products in the dialysis liquid in dialysis treatment
EP1338891A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2003-08-27 Toyo Engineering Corporation Method and apparatus for determining urea concentration
US7153693B2 (en) 2002-02-22 2006-12-26 Toyo Engineering Corporation Method and apparatus for determining urea concentration

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