DE3814723A1 - Pyrolysis reactor - Google Patents

Pyrolysis reactor

Info

Publication number
DE3814723A1
DE3814723A1 DE19883814723 DE3814723A DE3814723A1 DE 3814723 A1 DE3814723 A1 DE 3814723A1 DE 19883814723 DE19883814723 DE 19883814723 DE 3814723 A DE3814723 A DE 3814723A DE 3814723 A1 DE3814723 A1 DE 3814723A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
pyrolysis
flow
channel
reactor
reaction vessel
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE19883814723
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Lutz Dr Niemeyer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BBC Brown Boveri AG Switzerland
Original Assignee
BBC Brown Boveri AG Switzerland
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH173187 priority Critical
Application filed by BBC Brown Boveri AG Switzerland filed Critical BBC Brown Boveri AG Switzerland
Publication of DE3814723A1 publication Critical patent/DE3814723A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J8/00Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes
    • B01J8/08Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with moving particles
    • B01J8/14Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with moving particles moving in free vortex flow apparatus
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J19/2405Stationary reactors without moving elements inside provoking a turbulent flow of the reactants, such as in cyclones, or having a high Reynolds-number
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B49/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/02Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge
    • C10B49/04Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/08Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated in dispersed form
    • C10B49/12Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated in dispersed form by mixing tangentially, e.g. in vortex chambers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00049Controlling or regulating processes
    • B01J2219/00051Controlling the temperature
    • B01J2219/0015Controlling the temperature by thermal insulation means
    • B01J2219/00155Controlling the temperature by thermal insulation means using insulating materials or refractories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00049Controlling or regulating processes
    • B01J2219/00051Controlling the temperature
    • B01J2219/00157Controlling the temperature by means of a burner
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J2219/0894Processes carried out in the presence of a plasma

Abstract

In the pyrolysis reactor, by means of a heating apparatus (5), preferably constructed as a plasma burner, a flow (9) containing a pyrolysis material (3) to be treated is formed in a reaction vessel (1). In this flow (9), the pyrolysis material (3) to be treated is converted into gaseous and/or finely particulate pyrolysis products which are removed from the interior of the pyrolysis vessel (1). This pyrolysis reactor is to be distinguished by a high mass throughput and a high efficiency. This is achieved by the reaction vessel (1) having a duct (11) recycling the flow (9), which duct has at least one duct section (13) which is curved in the same direction and superposes a centrifugal force onto the flow (9). <IMAGE>

Description

Technical field

The invention is based on a pyrolysis reactor according to the first part of claim 1.

State of the art

Here, the invention takes on a prior art Pyrolysis reactors, as described, for example, by J. Kenneth et al. in the essay "The advanced electric reactor: a new technology for hazardous waste destruction "in J. of Hazardous Materials, 12 (1985), pp. 143 ff. In the well-known pyrolysis Reactor becomes pyrolysis material under the effect guided its own weight through a zone of high temperature, in which it is pyrolyzed. This must be done by a sufficient long stay in the high temperature zone affords that even the largest particles of pyrolysis good be completely pyrolyzed. However, this requires an extensive zone of high temperature and a large ver time of pyrolysis in this zone.

Presentation of the invention

The invention as characterized in claim 1 solves the task of specifying a pyrolysis reactor the pyrolysis material to be processed despite the short dwell time in the high temperature zone and despite a large mass sentence is almost completely pyrolyzed. With fiction pyrolysis reactor are already during pyrolysis pyrolysed and unpyrolyzed material from one another who separated and repeated the unpyrolized material recycled through the high temperature zone until full constant pyrolysis has taken place. The invention The pyrolysis reactor therefore has a large mass throughput and high efficiency.

Brief description of the invention

The invention is described below with reference to the drawing illustrated embodiments described in more detail. Here shows:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of a greatly simplified illustrated Pyrolysis reactor according to the invention,

Fig. 2 is a plan view of an axial section through a cylindrically formed Pyrolysis reactor according to the invention,

Fig. 3 is a plan view of a longitudinally guided III-III section through the pyrolysis reactor Fig. 2, and

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the pyrolysis reactor according to FIGS. 2 and 3.

In all figures, the same reference numerals designate parts with the same effect. The pyrolysis reactor shown in FIG. 1 has a reaction vessel 1 made of a heat-insulating, high-temperature-resistant material, for example a ceramic. The reaction vessel 1 has an inlet 2 , through which droplets or droplets or powdery pyrolysis material 3 , such as liquids or dusts contaminated with organic and / or inorganic chemical compounds, are fed, and outlets 4 , through which pyrolysis products formed in the reaction vessel 1 be removed. 5 denotes a heating device, preferably a plasma torch with electrodes 6 and 7 . The heating device 5 generates a hot gas jet 8 entering the reaction vessel 1 , preferably a plasma jet. The pyrolysis material 3 to be prepared is - if necessary together with an auxiliary gas, such as nitrogen - to form a flow 9 containing heated pyrolysis material via the inlet 2 into the hot gas jet 8 . However, it can also be entered directly into the heating device 5 via an input 10 . If the heating device 5 is designed as a plasma torch and the pyrolysis material 3 is input directly into the reaction vessel 1 via the inlet 2 , it is advisable to supply the plasma torch with inert auxiliary gas, such as nitrogen, via the inlet 10 in order to generate the flow necessary for generating the plasma jet maintain.

The reaction vessel 1 has an annularly curved channel 11 , in which the flow 9 is deflected and returned to itself. Channel 11 acts as a cyclone. As a result of centrifugal force, it enriches the larger (liquid and / or solid) particles 12 of the heated pyrolysis material 3 that are still in the flow 9 on the outer edge of the reaction vessel 1 . In this way, if they have not yet evaporated after being circulated in the channel 11 , he feeds them back to the hot gas jet 8 , so that they have to go through a further heating cycle. The gaseous and / or finely divided pyrolysis products (eg soot) formed during the heating cycle as a result of evaporation or physical and / or chemical reactions flow through the outlets 4 located on the side facing the center of curvature of the channel 11 . Because of the cyclone effect and because of the strong acceleration of the flow 9 when entering the exits 4 , the larger particles 12 of the pyrolysis material 3, which has not yet been fully pyrolyzed, cannot be entrained. In this way, continuous operation of the pyrolysis reactor is ensured, in which the pyrolysis products are immediately removed, but coarse-grained pyrolysis material which is still present is recycled through the hot gas jet 8 until it is completely implemented.

In the pyrolysis reactor shown in FIGS. 2 to 4, the reaction vessel 1 closes an essentially cylindrical channel 11 . This channel 11 contains a channel section 13 which is radially delimited by two concentric cylinders. An outer of both cylinders is designed as a tube 14 . This tube 14 is closed on its upper end by a cover 15 , on its lower end by a bottom 16 sen. The bottom 16 has a centrally inwardly directed cone crest 17 , which forms the inside of a shaped annular groove 18 in the bottom 16 . An inner of both cylinders is designed as a tubular piece 19 open on both sides. The pipe piece 19 is by means of a support star 20 to a coaxial output 4 serving as outflow duct 21 with at least one outflow opening 19 enclosed by the tube piece 22 arranged. Pipe 14 , cover 15 , bottom 16 , pipe section 19 , support star 20 and outflow pipe 21 are made of a heat-insulating, highly temperature-resistant material, for example a ceramic.

In this embodiment of the invention, the heating device 5 generates a flow 9 ( FIG. 3) which contains tangentially entering the annular channel 18 and heated pyrolysis material 3 ( FIG. 3). This flow 9 winds up in the channel section 13 in a spiral on the inner wall of the pipe 14 and is deflected by the cover 15 into the upper opening of the pipe piece 19 open on both sides and there via an annular channel formed by the inner wall of the pipe piece 19 and the outer wall of the outflow pipe 21 23 led down. When emerging from the ring channel 23 , the flow is divided into two partial streams 24 and 25 , of which the partial stream 24 , which mainly contains gases and very light dusts (e.g. soot), is led outside via the outflow pipe 21 , while the partial stream, which still contains comparatively heavy particles 25 is returned via an annular gap 26 formed by the flank of the conical cone 17 and the lower free end of the tube piece 19 into the channel 18 and thus into the heating area of the heating device 5 ( FIG. 4).

The concentration of comparatively heavy particles is comparatively low in that part of the flow 9 which is directed downward in the annular channel 23 , since these particles are not even lifted out of the trough 18 by the flow 9 but remain in the heating area of the heating device 5 for as long as possible. until they have become sufficiently small through evaporation. The forming in the channel section 13 , helically wound flow 9 also leads to the fact that due to centrifugal forces not yet pyrolyzed and therefore comparatively heavy particles in the vicinity of the tube 14 to enrich and from there by sliding back into the channel 18 .

Claims (8)

1. pyrolysis reactor with at least one input ( 2 , 10 ) for supplying pyrolysis material to be prepared ( 3 ), a Heizvor device ( 5 ) for generating a heated pyrolysis material ( 3 ) containing flow ( 9 ), a reaction vessel ( 1 ) for guiding the flow ( 9 ) and for converting the pyrolysis product ( 3 ) into pyrolysis products and an outlet ( 4 ) for removing the pyrolysis products, characterized in that the reaction vessel ( 1 ) has a channel ( 11 ) which leads back the flow ( 9 ) with at least a channel section ( 13 ) which is of the same curvature and which imposes a centrifugal force on the flow ( 9 ).
2. pyrolysis reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the channel ( 11 ) is annular and on its side facing the center of its curvature at least one serving as an outlet ( 4 ) opening for removing gaseous and / or finely divided pyrolysis products.
3. Pyrolysis reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the curved channel section ( 13 ) is delimited by two concentric cylinders, of which an outer tube ( 14 ) which is closed on both sides is formed.
4. pyrolysis reactor according to claim 3, characterized in that an inner of both cylinders is designed as a tubular piece ( 19 ) open on both sides.
5. Pyrolysis reactor according to claim 4, characterized in that the pipe section ( 19 ) is arranged coaxially to an outlet pipe ( 21 ) serving as an outlet ( 4 ) with at least one outflow opening ( 22 ) enclosed by the pipe section ( 19 ).
6. Plasma reactor according to one of claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the reaction vessel ( 1 ) has an annular groove ( 18 ) and the channel ( 11 ) axially delimiting bottom ( 16 ).
7. Plasma reactor according to claim 6, characterized in that the annular groove ( 18 ) is delimited on its inside by a centrally arranged conical crest ( 17 ).
8. Plasma reactor according to claim 7, characterized in that the heating device ( 5 ) generates a flow ( 9 ) flowing tangentially into the annular groove ( 18 ).
DE19883814723 1987-05-06 1988-04-30 Pyrolysis reactor Withdrawn DE3814723A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH173187 1987-05-06

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE3814723A1 true DE3814723A1 (en) 1988-11-17

Family

ID=4217275

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE19883814723 Withdrawn DE3814723A1 (en) 1987-05-06 1988-04-30 Pyrolysis reactor

Country Status (1)

Country Link
DE (1) DE3814723A1 (en)

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992009671A1 (en) * 1990-12-03 1992-06-11 Ireton International Inc. Method and apparatus for ablative heat transfer
DE4231771A1 (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-03-24 Bayer Ag Process for electricity generation from plastic waste
WO1995017982A1 (en) * 1993-12-24 1995-07-06 Torftech Limited Contaminant removal
US5582118A (en) * 1992-01-25 1996-12-10 Torftech Limited Removal of organic contaminants from solid particles
US5881654A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-03-16 International Technology Corporation Combustion apparatus for highly energetic materials
NL1013238C2 (en) * 1999-10-07 2001-04-10 Pacques Bv Crystallization Reactor.
SG79998A1 (en) * 1998-06-12 2001-04-17 Shimasaki Tatsuaki Dry and crush treating method using jet burner and treating apparatus therefor
US6352040B1 (en) 2000-11-22 2002-03-05 Randall P. Voorhees Mobile armored incinerator
WO2006064046A2 (en) * 2004-12-15 2006-06-22 Axel De Broqueville Rotary fluid bed device and method for using said device
ES2264400A1 (en) * 2006-05-04 2006-12-16 Universidad Politecnica De Madrid Thermolytic reactor is for decomposition of hydrocarbons and functions by application of high temperature heat to gaseous current of hydrocarbons which circulates in core of furnace
WO2007031573A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-22 Axel De Broqueville Device for injecting successive layers of fluid in a circulating fluidized bed and methods using same
GB2479924A (en) * 2010-04-29 2011-11-02 Mortimer Tech Holdings Torrefaction Process
GB2512367A (en) * 2013-03-28 2014-10-01 Carbon Gold Ltd A method of producing biochar
WO2015067310A1 (en) 2013-11-06 2015-05-14 Universiteit Twente Process for conversion of a feedstock comprising solid carbonaceous particles into at least a gaseous compound
WO2018036623A1 (en) * 2016-08-24 2018-03-01 Emco Water Patent Gmbh Device for the energy-optimised production of fluid eddies in a reaction chamber
WO2018036923A1 (en) * 2016-08-24 2018-03-01 Emco Water Patent Gmbh Device comprising a reactor facility and method for the electrolytic treatment, with relation to flow dynamics, of fluid or gaseous media or mixtures of the two in the reactor facility, and use of the device and the method

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AU642797B2 (en) * 1990-12-03 1993-10-28 Ireton International Inc. Method for ablative heat transfer
WO1992009671A1 (en) * 1990-12-03 1992-06-11 Ireton International Inc. Method and apparatus for ablative heat transfer
US5582118A (en) * 1992-01-25 1996-12-10 Torftech Limited Removal of organic contaminants from solid particles
DE4231771A1 (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-03-24 Bayer Ag Process for electricity generation from plastic waste
WO1995017982A1 (en) * 1993-12-24 1995-07-06 Torftech Limited Contaminant removal
US5881654A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-03-16 International Technology Corporation Combustion apparatus for highly energetic materials
SG79998A1 (en) * 1998-06-12 2001-04-17 Shimasaki Tatsuaki Dry and crush treating method using jet burner and treating apparatus therefor
NL1013238C2 (en) * 1999-10-07 2001-04-10 Pacques Bv Crystallization Reactor.
EP1090681A1 (en) * 1999-10-07 2001-04-11 Paques B.V. Crystallisation reactor
US6352040B1 (en) 2000-11-22 2002-03-05 Randall P. Voorhees Mobile armored incinerator
US8071034B2 (en) 2004-12-15 2011-12-06 De Broqueville Axel Rotary fluidized bed device and method for using said device
WO2006064046A2 (en) * 2004-12-15 2006-06-22 Axel De Broqueville Rotary fluid bed device and method for using said device
WO2006064046A3 (en) * 2004-12-15 2006-08-24 Broqueville Axel De Rotary fluid bed device and method for using said device
WO2007031573A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-22 Axel De Broqueville Device for injecting successive layers of fluid in a circulating fluidized bed and methods using same
BE1016766A5 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-06-05 Broqueville Axel De Device for the injection of successive layer fluid in a rotating fluidified bed and methods using the same.
ES2264400A1 (en) * 2006-05-04 2006-12-16 Universidad Politecnica De Madrid Thermolytic reactor is for decomposition of hydrocarbons and functions by application of high temperature heat to gaseous current of hydrocarbons which circulates in core of furnace
GB2479924A (en) * 2010-04-29 2011-11-02 Mortimer Tech Holdings Torrefaction Process
GB2512367A (en) * 2013-03-28 2014-10-01 Carbon Gold Ltd A method of producing biochar
WO2015067310A1 (en) 2013-11-06 2015-05-14 Universiteit Twente Process for conversion of a feedstock comprising solid carbonaceous particles into at least a gaseous compound
US10087381B2 (en) 2013-11-06 2018-10-02 Alucha Management B.V. Process for conversion of a feedstock comprising solid carbonaceous particles into at least a gaseous compound
WO2018036623A1 (en) * 2016-08-24 2018-03-01 Emco Water Patent Gmbh Device for the energy-optimised production of fluid eddies in a reaction chamber
WO2018036923A1 (en) * 2016-08-24 2018-03-01 Emco Water Patent Gmbh Device comprising a reactor facility and method for the electrolytic treatment, with relation to flow dynamics, of fluid or gaseous media or mixtures of the two in the reactor facility, and use of the device and the method

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