DE20321667U1 - Liquid heater - Google Patents

Liquid heater

Info

Publication number
DE20321667U1
DE20321667U1 DE20321667U DE20321667U DE20321667U1 DE 20321667 U1 DE20321667 U1 DE 20321667U1 DE 20321667 U DE20321667 U DE 20321667U DE 20321667 U DE20321667 U DE 20321667U DE 20321667 U1 DE20321667 U1 DE 20321667U1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
flow
liquid
characterized
heater according
inner tube
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
DE20321667U
Other languages
German (de)
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
STIEBEL ELTRON GmbH and Co KG
Original Assignee
STIEBEL ELTRON GmbH and Co KG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by STIEBEL ELTRON GmbH and Co KG filed Critical STIEBEL ELTRON GmbH and Co KG
Priority to DE2003122034 priority Critical patent/DE10322034A1/en
Priority to DE20321667U priority patent/DE20321667U1/en
Publication of DE20321667U1 publication Critical patent/DE20321667U1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater
    • F24H1/10Continuous-flow heaters, i.e. in which heat is generated only while the water is flowing, e.g. with direct contact of the water with the heating medium
    • F24H1/101Continuous-flow heaters, i.e. in which heat is generated only while the water is flowing, e.g. with direct contact of the water with the heating medium using electric energy supply
    • F24H1/102Continuous-flow heaters, i.e. in which heat is generated only while the water is flowing, e.g. with direct contact of the water with the heating medium using electric energy supply with resistance
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/78Heating arrangements specially adapted for immersion heating
    • H05B3/82Fixedly-mounted immersion heaters

Abstract

Liquid heaters, in particular water instantaneous water heaters,
a) with a liquid-conducting flow space (4),
b) between an outer shell part (2) and an inner tube (3),
c) and with at least one on the outer shell part (2) and / or the Innenroht (3) applied surface heating element (11),
d) wherein the flow cross-section of the flow space (4) decreases in the flow direction (Z) and / or the heating power of the / the surface heating element (11, 15, 16) decreases in the flow direction.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a liquid heater, in particular Water flow heater of sanitary engineering.
  • In the GB 920 465 is an electric liquid heater, especially for paints, described in which between a conical outer wall portion and a flow guide body, a helical flow channel consists, whose cross-section decreases from an inlet to an outlet according to the temperature-dependent viscosity of the ink. In the flow guide längsachsparallele holes for a heating element, a thermostat and a fuse and a Vorwämkanal for air are provided.
  • From the DE 197 37 694 C1 is a flow heater for flowable or pasty, edible or drinkable preparations known. Between a cylindrical hollow core and a cylindrical shell there is an annular chamber in which a screw land is arranged as a flow guide. In the hollow core, a heating element is arranged. The outer surface of the shell is surrounded by a jacket heating. As a result, an accurate temperature control is achieved by an optimal heat transfer. The flow cross section and the heating power are the same in the flow direction.
  • In the DE 196 41 702 C1 is one of the DE 197 37 694 C1 similar liquid heater described. When the liquid heater of DE 196 41 702 C1 the flow cross-section of the helical flow channel increases in the flow direction, which makes the device suitable for evaporating the liquid. In a water water heater of the sanitary technology, the water should not be evaporated, but merely heated.
  • From the DE 197 20 880 A1 An electric heating element is known, which can be used in a tubular shape in a water heater, with water flowing through the pipe and the outside of the pipe carries a semiconductor Heizleiterschicht in thin-film technology. Along the tube, the flow rate and the heating power are constant.
  • In the DE-OS 22 40 186 . DE 35 45 442 A1 and the DE 195 47 705 A1 Radiators are described in which on a support plate heating elements, in particular in thick-film technology, printed or sprayed.
  • task The invention is, in a liquid heater, with the liquid, especially water, does not evaporate to be, a good heat transfer of the heating power on the liquid by in the direction of flow local Adjustment of the flow rate and / or the heating power to reach.
  • According to the invention above object solved by the features of claim 1.
  • Thereby, that the flow space between the outer shell part and the inner tube, the flow cross-section can be downsize in the flow direction in a structurally simple manner. This can be done by the flow space itself designed conically tapering in the flow direction is and / or in the flow space a helical Flow guide is arranged, the slope changes accordingly in the flow direction. By reducing the flow cross-section in the flow direction increases the flow velocity in the direction of flow, whereby the surface heater less heat can record.
  • By the application of at least one surface heating element, in particular thick-film radiator, on the outer shell part or to the inner tube, can be in a simple way the Thereby reducing heating power in the flow direction, that the surface heating a more or less large area of the circumference of the outer shell part or of the inner tube occupies.
  • It is thus possible, in different ways a local in the flow direction Adjustment of the heating power to the liquid flow to design. These possibilities can be combined be used.
  • Of the Surface heating element is preferably arranged there where he does not come in contact with the liquid, so on the outside of the outer shell part or on the inside of the inner tube - if not as a flow space is used for the liquid -.
  • Of / Surface heaters can on the outer shell part or run parallel to the axis on the inner tube or as the flow guide run helical.
  • Preferably, the inner tube forms a further flow space for the liquid. This further flow space can follow or precede in the flow direction the first flow space existing between the outer shell part and the inner tube. The additional flow space can serve for flow calming and / or temperature compensation in the flow. Structurally, the further flow space allows the liquid inlet and the liquid outlet on the same side of the liquid heater or the outside coat part.
  • Further advantageous embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the Subclaims and the following description.
  • In show the drawing:
  • 1 a liquid heater with inner tube, flow guide, outer tube, schematic,
  • 2 a perspective view of the inner tube with flow guide and cut cylindrical outer tube,
  • 3 an alternative to 2 wherein the inner tube and the outer tube are cylindrical and in the flow space a helical flow guide is arranged with decreasing slope in the flow direction,
  • 4 the outer tube with a thick film radiator extending in the tube longitudinal direction and decreases the heating power in the flow direction, and
  • 5 an alternative to 4 , wherein two parallel coiled thick film radiators of different power are applied to the outer tube.
  • A liquid heater 1 (see. 1 ) is preferably used as a water water heater, with the liquid, especially water, although heated, but should not be evaporated. For example, the liquid heater 1 For instantaneous water heaters of sanitary technology, such as water heaters for bathtubs, showers or for kitchen appliances, such as dishwashers, or appliances of space heating technology, or washing machines, suitable.
  • The liquid heater 1 has as outer shell part an outer tube 2 on, in which a two-sided open inner tube 3 is arranged. Between the inner circumference of the outer tube 2 and the outer circumference of the inner tube 3 there is a flow space 4 , In the flow space 4 to 1 . 2 and 3 is a helical flow guide 5 arranged. at 1 . 2 and 3 forms the interior of the inner tube 3 another flow space 6 that with the first flow space 4 one-sided in fluidic connection. The connection is aerodynamically and structurally by a cap 7 (see. 1 ) reached. The cap 7 Holds the outer tube 2 with the inner tube 3 Coaxially centered together and allows a flow passage between the first flow space 4 and the other flow space 6 ,
  • On the other side of the liquid heater 1 is a flange part 8th arranged at which an inlet connection 9 and an outlet connection 10 is designed. The inlet connection 9 flows into the flow space 4 , In the outlet connection 10 the further flow space opens 6 , The inflowing water flows in the flow direction Z through the flow space 4 and from this in the flow direction A through the further flow space 6 ,
  • The inlet connection 9 opens radially in the direction of the spiraling of the helical flow guide 5 in the flow space 4 , which improves the turbulence freedom of the flow and causes a radial flow. The outlet connection 10 goes axially out of the further flow space 6 , which also improves the turbulence freedom of the flow.
  • The inlet connection 9 and the outlet connection 10 on the same side of the liquid heater 1 (see. 1 ), also simplifies the installation of the liquid heater 1 in a water heater device.
  • The 2 and 3 show designs with which in the flow space 4 a flow velocity increasing in the flow direction Z can be achieved.
  • To 2 is the flow space 4 in the flow direction Z by tapering designed that the inner tube 3 flared in the flow direction Z, wherein the outer tube 2 is cylindrical. The on the outside of the inner tube 3 seated helical flow guide 5 has an outer edge 5 ' on. The distance of the outer edge 5 ' from the outer tube 2 decreases in the flow direction Z (see. 2 ). This results in an overall increase in the flow velocity in the flow direction with a long contact surface between the water and the heated outer tube 2 and / or the heated inner tube 3 reached.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment - not shown - the distance of the outer edge remains 5 ' from the outer tube 2 equal. It preferably decreases to the same extent as the cone diameter increases.
  • To 3 are the outer tube 2 and the inner tube 3 cylindrical. The flow velocity in the flow space 4 in the flow direction Z is increased by the fact that the pitch of the helical flow guide 5 flattened in the direction of flow Z and the coil becomes narrower. It narrows so in the flow direction Z of the flow cross-section.
  • To 4 is on the outside of the outside enrohrs 2 an electric surface heater 11 applied. This is preferably in thick-film technology on the outer tube 2 printed. The surface heater 11 is in its in the flow direction Z spaced end portions 12 . 13 to an electrical energy source 14 connected.
  • To 4 takes the surface heater 11 on the circumference of the outer tube 2 a decreasing in the flow direction Z of b1 to b2 width between the areas 12 and 13 one. The heating power of the surface heating element 11 thus decreases in the flow direction Z from.
  • An adaptation of the change of the flow cross-section in the flow direction Z to the heating power of the surface heating element 11 in the flow direction Z for the purpose of a locally in the flow direction Z favorable heat transfer can be achieved by various combinations of these measures. An effective heat transfer can be achieved in that the flow cross section in the flow direction Z with the measures after 2 and or 3 is set, wherein the heating power in the flow direction Z can be kept constant.
  • A favorable transfer can also be achieved if the flow cross-section or the flow velocity in the flow direction Z remains the same and correspondingly 4 the heat output in the flow direction Z decreases. It is also possible to combine both measures.
  • 5 shows an outer tube 2 with one too 4 alternative design of the surface heating elements.
  • When designing after 5 are on the outer tube 2 in which the in 4 and 5 not shown inner tube 3 sits, two panel radiators 15 . 16 In thick-film technique printed in parallel helically. The helical design of the surface heating elements 15 . 16 follows about the helical shape of the flow guide 5 of the 2 and 3 , The surface heaters 15 . 16 have different heating capacity. The surface heaters 15 . 16 can be separated by switching means not shown separately or together to the power source 14 be connectable.
  • It is also possible to use the helical radiators 15 . 16 be designed so that their heating power in the flow direction Z is different, in particular decreases in the flow direction Z, as well as the surface heating element 11 of the 4 the case is.
  • By the radiator design after 5 It is possible by means of the surface heating element 15 set a basic performance, if necessary - with increased water flow - by connecting the surface heating element 16 , if applicable, is increased. One and / or the other surface radiator 15 . 16 can be designed so that its heating power in the flow direction Z decreases. This is to be achieved by that accordingly 4 the width of the surface heater 15 or 16 of the 5 according to the surface radiator 11 of the 4 decreases in the flow direction Z.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, the surface heating elements 11 . 15 . 16 not outside on the outer tube 2 but inside the inner tube 3 arranged.
  • To detect the temperature of the heated or not yet heated liquid, can on the outer tube 2 and / or on the inner tube 3 each inside or outside temperature sensor, for example in the form of printed in particular in thick film technology temperature-dependent resistors, such as NTC resistors or PTC resistors may be provided.
  • By the increase of the flow velocity or Reduction of the heating power can reduce the calcification.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • - GB 920465 [0002]
    • - DE 19737694 C1 [0003, 0004]
    • - DE 19641702 C1 [0004, 0004]
    • DE 19720880 A1 [0005]
    • - DE 2240186 A [0006]
    • - DE 3545442 A1 [0006]
    • - DE 19547705 A1 [0006]

Claims (14)

  1. Liquid heater, in particular water flow heater, a) with a liquid flow leading space ( 4 ), b) between an outer shell part ( 2 ) and an inner tube ( 3 ), c) and with at least one on the outer shell part ( 2 ) and / or the inner raw ( 3 ) surface heating element ( 11 ), d) wherein the flow cross-section of the flow space ( 4 ) in the flow direction (Z) reduced and / or the heating power of the / surface heating element ( 11 . 15 . 16 ) decreases in the flow direction.
  2. Liquid heater according to claim 1, characterized in that the interior of the inner tube ( 3 ) a further flow space ( 6 ) forms for the liquid.
  3. Liquid heater according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the surface heating element (s) ( 11 ) outside the flow space ( 4 ) lie.
  4. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the flow space ( 4 ) a helical flow guide body ( 5 ) is arranged.
  5. Liquid heater according to claim 4, characterized in that the helical flow guide body ( 5 ) is coiled in such a way that the flow cross-section of the liquid decreases in the flow direction.
  6. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the inner tube ( 3 ) or the outer shell part ( 2 ) is conical such that the flow cross-section of the flow space ( 4 ) decreases in the flow direction (Z).
  7. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims 2 to 6, characterized in that on one side of the inner tube ( 3 ) and outer shell part ( 2 ) existing arrangement, the liquid flow of the between the outer shell part ( 2 ) and the inner tube ( 3 ) existing flow space ( 4 ) in the further flow space ( 6 ) or from the further flow space ( 6 ) in between the outer shell part ( 2 ) and the inner tube ( 3 ) existing flow space ( 4 ) is deflected and that on the other side of the arrangement, a flange ( 8th ), which has an inlet connection ( 9 ) and an outlet connection ( 10 ) for the liquid.
  8. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the outer shell part of an outer tube ( 2 ) is formed, which on one side by means of a liquid deflecting cap ( 7 ) and on the other side by means of the flange part ( 8th ) is completed.
  9. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the surface heating element (s) ( 11 . 15 . 16 ) is / are designed such that its / its heating power with respect to the flow direction (Z) decreases.
  10. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the surface heating element (s) ( 11 ) parallel to the longitudinal direction of the outer shell part ( 2 ) and / or the inner tube ( 3 ) extends / extend.
  11. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the surface heating element (s) ( 15 . 16 ) on the outer shell part ( 2 ) and / or on the inner tube ( 3 ) corresponding to the helical flow guide body ( 5 ) run helical.
  12. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the surface heating elements ( 11 ) are switchable separately.
  13. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the surface heating element (s) ( 11 ) Are thick film radiators.
  14. Liquid heater according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that on the outer shell part ( 2 ) and / or the inner tube ( 3 ) at least one temperature sensor element is applied.
DE20321667U 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 Liquid heater Expired - Lifetime DE20321667U1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2003122034 DE10322034A1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 A throughflow water heater has concentric tubes having a spiral fin around the inner and thick film surface heating elements with the water flowing through the tubes
DE20321667U DE20321667U1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 Liquid heater

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE20321667U DE20321667U1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 Liquid heater

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE20321667U1 true DE20321667U1 (en) 2008-10-09

Family

ID=33394652

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE20321667U Expired - Lifetime DE20321667U1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 Liquid heater
DE2003122034 Pending DE10322034A1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 A throughflow water heater has concentric tubes having a spiral fin around the inner and thick film surface heating elements with the water flowing through the tubes

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE2003122034 Pending DE10322034A1 (en) 2003-05-16 2003-05-16 A throughflow water heater has concentric tubes having a spiral fin around the inner and thick film surface heating elements with the water flowing through the tubes

Country Status (1)

Country Link
DE (2) DE20321667U1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102009021432B3 (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-10-14 Alexander Kunz Continuous-flow water heater for use in e.g. bathroom, has intermediate spaces formed between pipes and tube heating body, where intermediate spaces are extended in flow direction of water to be heated
EP2253899A2 (en) 2009-05-15 2010-11-24 Alexander Kunz Two-sided cavity chamber percolator

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EP1495702A1 (en) 2003-07-10 2005-01-12 Nestec S.A. Device for the extraction of a cartridge
US7363769B2 (en) * 2005-03-09 2008-04-29 Kelix Heat Transfer Systems, Llc Electromagnetic signal transmission/reception tower and accompanying base station employing system of coaxial-flow heat exchanging structures installed in well bores to thermally control the environment housing electronic equipment within the base station
FR2920657B1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2013-02-22 Cie Mediterraneenne Des Cafes Boiler for machine for preparing beverages.
BRPI0818185A2 (en) 2007-10-04 2019-07-16 Nestec Sa beverage preparation unit
EP2218371B1 (en) 2007-10-04 2017-02-15 Nestec S.A. Liquid food or beverage preparation machine
AU2009240123B2 (en) 2008-04-22 2015-06-25 Nestec S.A. Modular assembly of a beverage preparation machine
CN102118992B (en) 2008-08-08 2014-12-03 雀巢产品技术援助有限公司 Beverage machine with carrying handle and configurable appearance & side functions
PT2211670E (en) 2007-10-04 2011-07-04 Nestec Sa Heating device with an integrated thermoblock for a beverage preparation machine
JP2012521231A (en) 2009-03-23 2012-09-13 ネステク ソシエテ アノニム Pump installation in beverage preparation equipment
EP2223641B1 (en) 2009-02-18 2016-05-11 Nestec S.A. Heating device with a multi powering configuration
FR2942654B1 (en) * 2009-03-02 2011-12-16 Seb Sa Heating element for continuous hot water production
DE202009009340U1 (en) 2009-07-07 2010-11-18 Rehau Ag + Co. Liquid heater
BR112012029657A2 (en) 2010-05-21 2016-08-02 Nestec Sa dynamic dual circuit in-line heater
CN102946776B (en) 2010-06-17 2016-08-03 雀巢产品技术援助有限公司 Apparatus and method for controlling the thermal conditioning energy transfer means
EP2407069A1 (en) * 2010-07-12 2012-01-18 Bleckmann GmbH & Co. KG Dynamic flow-through heater
ES2474567T3 (en) 2010-07-16 2014-07-09 Nestec S.A. Advanced heating device
GB2484321A (en) * 2010-10-06 2012-04-11 Otter Controls Ltd A thick film heater/ heat dissipater assembly associate with a flow heater flow channel.
KR20130121917A (en) 2010-12-02 2013-11-06 네스텍 소시에테아노님 Low-inertia thermal sensor in a beverage machine
DE102011106425A1 (en) * 2011-07-02 2013-01-03 SEVERIN ELEKTROGERÄTE GmbH Heater
EP2443982A3 (en) * 2012-01-27 2012-08-22 V-Zug AG Household appliance with water heating unit
EP2849617B1 (en) 2012-05-15 2016-09-21 Bleckmann GmbH & Co. KG Helical dynamic flow through heater
CH706695A2 (en) 2012-06-19 2013-12-31 C3 Casting Competence Ct Gmbh Heater.
CN104110821A (en) * 2014-05-13 2014-10-22 陈永秋 Electric heating water pipe
WO2018158179A1 (en) 2017-02-28 2018-09-07 Nestec Sa Dispenser with parallel dispensing paths
CA3051781A1 (en) 2017-03-10 2018-09-13 Societe Des Produits Nestle S.A. Beverage preparation machine and method for the control of a thermal conditioning device of such a beverage preparation machine
DE102017003416A1 (en) * 2017-04-07 2018-10-11 Stiebel Eltron Gmbh & Co. Kg Electric water heating system

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB920465A (en) 1960-04-06 1963-03-06 Eskil Anders August Axelson Improved electrical flow heater for liquids
DE2240186A1 (en) 1972-08-16 1974-02-21 Stiebel Eltron Gmbh & Co Kg Heating flange for electrically heated hot water preparation geraete
DE3545442A1 (en) 1985-12-20 1987-06-25 Bosch Siemens Hausgeraete Heating element for thermal domestic appliances, in particular for cooking areas
DE19547705A1 (en) 1995-12-20 1997-06-26 Stiebel Eltron Gmbh & Co Kg Electric water heater
DE19641702C1 (en) 1996-10-10 1997-12-18 Daimler Benz Ag Liquid heating and vaporisation device, e.g. for fuels, use in motor vehicles
DE19737694C1 (en) 1997-08-29 1998-10-29 August Balke Elektro Geraete G Continuous-flow heater for free-flowing foodstuffs
DE19720880A1 (en) 1997-05-17 1998-11-19 Ego Elektro Geraetebau Gmbh Electric heating element with thermally conductive layer

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB920465A (en) 1960-04-06 1963-03-06 Eskil Anders August Axelson Improved electrical flow heater for liquids
DE2240186A1 (en) 1972-08-16 1974-02-21 Stiebel Eltron Gmbh & Co Kg Heating flange for electrically heated hot water preparation geraete
DE3545442A1 (en) 1985-12-20 1987-06-25 Bosch Siemens Hausgeraete Heating element for thermal domestic appliances, in particular for cooking areas
DE19547705A1 (en) 1995-12-20 1997-06-26 Stiebel Eltron Gmbh & Co Kg Electric water heater
DE19641702C1 (en) 1996-10-10 1997-12-18 Daimler Benz Ag Liquid heating and vaporisation device, e.g. for fuels, use in motor vehicles
DE19720880A1 (en) 1997-05-17 1998-11-19 Ego Elektro Geraetebau Gmbh Electric heating element with thermally conductive layer
DE19737694C1 (en) 1997-08-29 1998-10-29 August Balke Elektro Geraete G Continuous-flow heater for free-flowing foodstuffs

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102009021432B3 (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-10-14 Alexander Kunz Continuous-flow water heater for use in e.g. bathroom, has intermediate spaces formed between pipes and tube heating body, where intermediate spaces are extended in flow direction of water to be heated
EP2253899A2 (en) 2009-05-15 2010-11-24 Alexander Kunz Two-sided cavity chamber percolator
EP2253899A3 (en) * 2009-05-15 2013-09-18 Alexander Kunz Two-sided cavity chamber percolator

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