The invention relates to positioning systems with a vehicle, which
along a path or on or parallel to a given one
Surface is movable.
State of the art:
From the EP 00 39 921
It is known to provide a complete sequence of binary code marks on a code carrier. The code marks are hereby combined into blocks, each of which is identified by a special code mark. The binary code marks located within these special code marks together form a codeword. In order to be able to read the respective code word from the code carrier, a code reading device is provided which operates on an optical basis and contains a CCD line sensor. The conversion of the electrical signal from the sensors of the code reader into the binary number becomes more critical the fewer sensors the code reader contains per code mark. If, for example, only one sensor is present per code mark, it can no longer be distinguished whether, when the code reading device moves relative to the code carrier, all its sensors already detect code marks which correspond to the new position. If the sensors are unfavorably positioned on the edge between code marks of different significance, then the output signal is a random signal. The combination of such a signal with the other signals of the other sensors would lead to a false signal sequence.
"Taxes and Rules in Mechanical Engineering" 3rd edition, Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel,
Wuppertal, coded encoders are known, with which routes absolutely
are measurable. In this case, a code reading device is attached to a code carrier
moved along and located on the code carrier code marks
are scanned by read heads. Form several code marks
on the code carrier a codeword, which is a direct measure of
that from the code reader from a fixed point of reference
represents traveled way. In this known device
are the code marks of a codeword divided into several tracks,
which lie next to each other along the code carrier.
It must therefore be carefully considered that
the tracks are exactly next to each other, and also
allowed the reading heads, which are transverse to the direction of movement
lined up next to each other, no offset against
have the clock traces.
From the DE 38 25 097
a device for position measurement in crane and overhead monorail systems is known, in which along a rail a stationary code mark carrier is arranged, which continuously successively arranged code marks each having the same length. The code marks are arranged in a pseudo-random sequence. For reading the code word, a read head is provided which has reading stations corresponding to the intended number of bits. Each reading station contains three light barriers arranged side by side in the longitudinal direction. The photoelectric barriers are grouped into three nested groups. Each of the groups is connected to its own code detection circuit, which assigns the read code word to a distance value. In a 5-bit code used, for example, with which only 32 distance values can be distinguished, fifteen light barriers are already required.
From the EP 01 16 636
a position measuring device for determining the relative position of two mutually movable parts is known. At the one part a gapless sequence of equal length binary code marks is provided. In each case n consecutive code marks form an n-digit binary code word. Each codeword to be formed occurs only once. Such a sequence of code marks can be formed by means of a feedback shift register as a binary pseudorandom sequence. At the other part there is provided a code reading device which can detect at least n consecutive marks. For each code mark there is a plurality of sensors for this purpose. The maximum travel path is essentially limited by the sum of the lengths of all code marks occurring in the pseudorandom sequence. If you want to increase the distance, you must either increase the number of positions n of the code words or increase the length of the code marks.
The DE 39 10 873
discloses a position measuring device for longitudinally fixed webs running vehicles, having at least one track, along which a vehicle runs, with at least one code reader and at least one arranged in the direction of the track code carrier along its longitudinal extent in only one lane according to a pseudorandom sequence with predetermined education law bears formed code marks. Each n consecutive code marks form a codeword. Each code word occurs only once along the route. Code carrier and code reader are movable relative to each other in the direction of the travel. At least n code marks, which follow one another directly and represent at least one code word, form a block to which a block identifier is assigned. With the aid of an auxiliary reading device for block identification, it is decidable for an evaluation unit whether the signals supplied by the code reading device are merely Co demarken the block represent.
From the DE 42 09 629
a position measuring device is known which determines the longitudinal position of a reading head with respect to a code mark carrier. The code mark carrier has along its longitudinal extent two mutually parallel code mark tracks, namely a position track and an auxiliary track. The position track contains position information, the code marks each having a fixed length. For reading the position information, a read head is provided which has sensor groups for detecting both code mark tracks. The sensors for reading the position information are divided into two groups, which are offset from one another in the direction of the longitudinal extent of the code mark carrier by half a code mark length. The decision as to which of the two sensor groups emits a signal characterizing the position of the read head is made on the basis of phase information resulting from evaluation of the auxiliary track. There are two code mark tracks and a corresponding number of sensors required to read these tracks.
The DE 43 09 863
discloses a position measuring device with a reading head and code mark carrier, on which along its longitudinal direction binary code marks are applied in a pseudo-random sequence, wherein in each case m consecutive code marks form a code word. Each codeword appears only once on the code tag carrier. The read head has two groups of sensors, which are arranged continuously in the longitudinal direction of the code tag carrier. Connected to the sensors is an evaluation circuit for selecting the group whose sensors read directly consecutive code marks.
State of the art are also so-called WCS systems for position determination
For longitudinally defined vehicles running vehicles
known in which the position in a parallel to the web over
whose full length extending code fence is coded. Of the
Code fence consists of two longitudinal bars, between which
at irregular intervals crossbars
are arranged, and is thus similar to a small picket fence,
wherein the position information in the manner of a usual
Barcodes in the distances of the "fence slats", d. H. the crossbars,
is coded. Such systems work in the transmitted light method,
d. H. on one side of the fence is a light source
on the other side of the fence a light sensor, both the
Light source and the light sensor are rigidly mounted on the vehicle
and with this opposite drive along the fence,
so that the light path is interrupted when passing each crosspiece
becomes. From the location of these interruptions is the
Position information read out.
All of these systems known in the art share at least the following disadvantages:
The achievable accuracy of the position determination is limited by the length of the code marks or their elements, since the code elements are lined up in one or more parallel tracks along the guideway and must be scanned sequentially during the process. However, the packing density of the code elements on the code carrier can not be increased beyond a certain extent, because the spatial resolution of the scanning elements (eg light barriers) is limited. The length of the code carrier can therefore not be reduced below a certain minimum value, so that the position resolution limits are set.
is to complete coverage of a long track with
sufficient longitudinal resolution a large one
Number of code carriers and thus, if the code content
along the driveway should not repeat, a corresponding
large word length of the codes required. An increasing
Word width does not only allow the length of the
single code carrier, but especially the effort and
the cost for the code readers grow very fast.
mean longer code carrier lower resolution
the positioning, allowing a realization of driveways
of several kilometers, the z. B. in modern industrial production lines
desired or necessary, with sufficient
Resolution is very problematic. This problem becomes
even more aggravated when on the code carriers
redundant information should be present to ensure operational safety
of the system, e.g. B. its resistance to contamination or damage
parts of the code carrier, and thereby improve the
Risk of default or (possibly more momentous)
To reduce incorrect positioning.
another does not allow any of the mentioned systems additionally
for position determination in the direction of travel also a position determination
transverse to the direction of travel. Such can but z. B. for automatic
Compensation of temperature or load change induced bending deformations
be highly desirable. Furthermore
are the required scanning elements, preferably light barriers,
prone to misalignment and pollution
and thus maintenance-intensive. This problem plays a special one
Role in such systems, which numerous juxtaposed
Have sensing elements.
Another disadvantage of the said system me is that a position determination with a stationary vehicle is not readily possible. Those systems which work in the transmitted light method are also mechanically very complicated and prone to deformation of the code carrier.
The above systems are also very sensitive to change
the orientation of the code carrier over the
the said systems have the disadvantage that a
even only local modification of the code content only with considerable
Time and effort is possible, because this
must be the relevant code carrier or parts
be exchanged or pasted over, with the new
attached codes must be measured very accurately.
The invention is therefore based on the object, a positioning system
to create, which can work in the incident light method, one opposite the
State of the art greatly improved position resolution
allows, at the same time much longer distances
allows a position determination even when the vehicle is stationary
does not exclude, a positioning in addition
also allowed transverse to the direction of travel and in which a change
the code content is possible at any time with little effort.
A1 According to a first alternative, this object is achieved according to the invention by a positioning system which has the following components:
- A) a vehicle, such as conveyor cage, nacelle, trolley or self-propelled robot, which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a track or along or on a train, for. B. rail, is movable,
- B) at least one display, in particular LCD display, which is arranged in the surroundings of the vehicle, does not participate in its movement and on which at least one marker can be displayed,
- C) a camera, in particular a CCD camera, the position of which is known with respect to the vehicle in the x-direction and which is arranged on the vehicle, preferably rigidly, participates in the movement thereof and can be positioned by moving the vehicle so that the on the Display displayed marker in the detection range of the camera and thus is displayed by the camera as lying within the image field of the camera marker image,
- D) an EDP device connected to the camera, which is capable of using an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the image field of the camera to determine the x component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker shown on the display and to use the result, with the help of the drive to position the vehicle at an x-target position specified with respect to the display or marker or within a predetermined tolerance range about the x-target position in the x-direction.
Camera is preferably arranged rigidly on the vehicle. The on
the camera arranged camera is preferably opposite
the vehicle in the x-direction exactly measured, so that from the x-component
the location of a marker in the camera's field of view the x component of the
true position of the vehicle with respect to this marker follows
or determinable (eg, using the image scale
A2 The object is achieved according to a second alternative by a positioning system which has the following components:
- A ') a vehicle, such as conveyor cage, nacelle, trolley or self-propelled robot, which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a track or along or on a train, for. B. rail is movable,
- B ') a camera, in particular CCD camera, which is stationary, preferably rigid, in the vicinity of the vehicle,
- C ') at least one arranged on the vehicle, participating in the movement of his display, in particular LCD display on which at least one marker can be displayed, the position of the display with respect to the vehicle in the x-direction is known and the display by moving the vehicle can be positioned so that the marker lies within the detection range of the camera and thus is imaged by the camera as lying within the image field of the camera marker image,
- D ') an EDP device connected to the camera, which is capable of using an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the field of view of the camera to determine the x-component of the relative position of the vehicle relative to the camera and to use the result, with the aid of Drive the vehicle at an x-target position specified with respect to the camera or within a predetermined tolerance range to position the x-target position in the x-direction.
Both alternatives will each according to the invention
Relative position between camera and marker for execution
the positioning used; In this case, the camera is preferably stationary.
The first alternative is particularly suitable for positioning vehicles along long Travels, z. B. for positioning the gondola of a several kilometers long monorail overhead conveyor. The second alternative is particularly suitable for positioning vehicles along short travel paths, z. B. for positioning a robot within a painting line.
Computer equipment can be an integral part of the camera
itself, so be built into this, or the camera and the computer equipment
could form a common device.
is the vehicle in the x-direction along or on a rail,
traversable. The vehicle can in particular be a rail-bound
Be a vehicle.
A3 According to a very advantageous variant of the first alternative, ie in the case of a non-participating in the movement of the vehicle display is
so that the vehicle is two-dimensionally positionable at a target position, which is given by the x-target position and the y-target position, or within a predetermined tolerance zone around the target position.
- - The position of the camera with respect to the vehicle in the y-direction known, the vehicle additionally in the y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a predetermined movement surface, such as tread, movable, and
- - The computer device additionally capable of using the image processing program from the position of the marker image within the image field of the camera to determine the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker shown on the display and use the result, the vehicle using the Position the drive at a y-target position specified with respect to the display or the marker or within a predetermined tolerance distance of the same in the y-direction,
in this connection
is the camera is preferable to the vehicle in
x- and y-direction respectively exactly measured, thus out of the situation
a marker in the field of view of the camera the true position of the vehicle
with respect to this marker in the x and y directions
or determinable (eg, using the image scale
A3 According to a very advantageous variant of the second alternative, in the case of a display arranged on the vehicle, is
so that the vehicle is two-dimensionally positionable at a target position, which is given by the x-target position and the y-target position, or within a predetermined tolerance zone around the target position.
- The position of the display with respect to the vehicle is also known in the y-direction,
- - The vehicle additionally in the y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a predetermined movement surface, such as tread, movable, and
- - The computer device additionally capable of using the image processing program from the position of the marker image within the image field of the camera to determine the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera and use the result, the vehicle by means of the drive at a respect position the camera in the specified y-position or within a given tolerance distance of the same in the y-direction,
all embodiments of the invention in which the
Camera is not located on the vehicle, the camera is preferably
fixed in place; she can also directional here
Positioning system according to the invention works preferably
as incident light system, d. H. the markers do not need to be examined
to become. According to another embodiment
the display is backlit, so that the marker is dark from the
Display background takes off. After another
In another embodiment, the marker itself illuminates
Display can z. As an LCD display, as an LED display, as an OLED Dislpay
or be designed as a cathode ray tube monitor.
Vehicle can z. B. rolling, sliding or on an air or
Magnetic cushion to be suspended floating. The train can z. B. a
Crane boom, a monorail, a conveyor belt,
a rail, an elevator shaft or the guide rope of a
Be cable car. The movement area can z. B. an area
be the floor of an assembly hall.
Case of the first alternative, d. H. not at the movement of the
Vehicle participating display and arranged on the vehicle
Camera, the x target position is reached when the x component of the
Relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker one
certain, predetermined value, and also the y-set position
achieved when the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to
the marker takes on a certain, predetermined value.
In the case of the second alternative, ie with the display arranged on the vehicle and stationary camera, the x-target position is reached when the x-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera assumes a specific, predetermined value, and also the y-desired position is sufficient if the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera assumes a certain, predetermined value.
Positioning in the y direction can be done according to a
Variant can also be executed when the vehicle
along a track or rail in the x-direction and at the same time vertically
or obliquely movable in the y-direction. An example
this is a cable car or a monorail overhead conveyor to
which hangs the vehicle as a gondola. The vehicle is
can be moved one-dimensionally along the path in the x-direction and can
at the same time also opposite the railway in the height (in
y-direction) be adjustable. The y-positioning can then be performed
Do not use the gondola with the help of the marker or the marker
Position only in the direction of the train but also in height.
The nacelle can thus in this case by means of the method according to the invention
so be positioned in two directions.
the vehicle is preferably in and against the x-direction, ie
back and forth, movable, respectively in the x and in the y direction respectively
moved back and forth. Furthermore, the vehicle, if
it is movable in the x- and in the y-direction, preferably by superposition
or alternating the movements in the x and y directions in all
Movable intermediate directions, d. H. in all directions, which
lying in the xy plane.
Preferably, the marker shown on the display is a code carrier
or a character or a string or pattern or
Dot pattern and carries one by means of the camera and the image processing program
readable information. This information can z. B. from one or
consist of several alphanumeric characters or symbols which
z. As a marker associated with the consecutive number or a
absolute position specification with respect to a reference point
form. According to another variant, this is
Information coded, z. B. in a dot or bar pattern or other
Graphic or in a hologram.
is the display or marker relative to the reference point
in the x-direction or in x- and in y-direction exactly or as exactly as
According to a variant are on the display a
Plurality of markers or code carriers at the same time or in succession
represented. There may be several or many displays available
be, on each of which one or more markers dergestellt are.
The marker shown on the display can be z. B. a one-dimensional
Barcode or the markers shown on the display
be one-dimensional barcodes. These can be in any
Direction be aligned, since the recognition using image processing
he follows. Therefore, the bars of the one-dimensional or the
Barcodes in particular parallel to the x-direction. hereby
can change the word width of the barcode (s) without loss of resolution
the positioning accuracy increases arbitrarily
What is the realization of very long travels at the same time
high density of barcodes and the use of redundancy in the data content
the barcodes allowed. The width of the barcodes in the x-direction,
d. H. the length of the bars, this can be kept small
be what a high density of one-dimensional bar codes in the x direction
allows. Below the bars of the barcodes will be here
the parallel, spaced-apart strokes of the one-dimensional
the recognition of the marker according to the invention by image processing
is a scanning of the bars of the bar code (s) of the series
is by means of a mitbewegten with the vehicle laser beam
According to a preferred variant of the on the
Displayed code carrier a two-dimensional barcode
or a data matrix code, or are those shown on the display
Marker two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes. hereby
can be realized an extremely high data density, whereby the
Word width of the code also without loss of resolution
the positioning accuracy increased almost arbitrarily
can be, so also the realization of very long travels
at the same time very high density of the code carrier and the
Use of redundancy in the data content of the code carrier
are readily possible.
The information that the marker displayed on the display carries
can in particular be situation-dependent or program-controlled,
be temporally changeable or changeable.
In the case of not participating in the movement of the vehicle
Displays can be the marker or code carrier shown thereon
in particular, information about its own absolute position along
the route or track or the absolute position of its projection
on the movement area respectively with respect to one
carry predetermined reference point, this information at least partially
readable by means of the camera and the image processing program
and for performing a positioning of the vehicle
A7 In the alternative case of a display arranged on the vehicle, the marker or code carrier shown thereon can display information about its Carry position with respect to the vehicle, this information is at least partially readable by means of the camera and the image processing program and zoom in to carry out a positioning of the vehicle.
Preference is given to the usable surface for the display
the display is larger than the area
of the marker shown on it. A9 Here, the location at which
the marker or code carrier is shown on the display
is, in particular situation-dependent or program-controlled,
to be temporally changeable; z. B. can the illustrated
Hike markers on the display.
According to a very advantageous variant is a
caused by temperature change or load change drift
the location of the display not participating in the movement of the vehicle
at least partially by shifting the place where the
Marker or code carrier is shown on the display,
Compensable in a direction opposite to the direction of the drift,
so that the drift or shift of the absolute position of the marker smaller
as that of the display or, ideally, entirely
is canceled. This means that the marker is so on display
migrates that decreases the temperature drift of the marker site or
Preferably, the display is switchable between a first state,
in which there is at least a first marker at a first location
on the surface usable for the display
represents the display and thus a first x-target position or
specifies a first target position, and a second state in which
it has at least the first or a second marker on one of
the first place different second place on the for the
Representation usable surface of the display represents
and thus a second x-target position or a second target position
In this case, the first and the second location preferably differ
and also the first and second target positions respectively at least
in their y-coordinate, allowing the target position by switching
between the first and the second state between the first
and the second target position is switchable, and thereby the
Travel of the vehicle is selectable or influenced.
According to one embodiment, everyone is on
the display shown markers of all other markers
different and individually by means of the camera and image processing
A plurality of different desired x-position or target positions is preferred
specifiable and positioning one after the other for each
x target position or target position can be executed separately.
Preferably, the positioning is sequential for each
x target position separately executable so that the vehicle
not before reaching the last of the specified x-target positions
or the tolerance range stops around it, or the
Positioning one after another for each target position separately
so executable that the vehicle does not reach the last
the specified target positions or the tolerance zone around the same
Preferably, the magnification camera and the x-target position
chosen so that when they reach both these as
also the marker shown on the display in the detection area
of the camera, or the magnification of the camera and
the target position is chosen so that when it reaches the same
both these and the markers shown on the display in the
Detection range of the camera.
According to a preferred variant, in the case of
first alternative a plurality or plurality of not at
participating in the movement of dews vehicle, preferably stationary,
Displays along the track or the track or at the movement area
distributed or distributed along the same, being on each
Display at least one marker is displayed, or in the case of
second alternative, a plurality or plurality of displays, which
are arranged on the vehicle, wherein on each display at least
a marker can be displayed.
Case of using many displays, which along the driveway
or the web or the movement surface are arranged
and on which at least one marker can be represented, needs
the density of the displays is not necessarily everywhere
the driveway or the train or on the movement area
to be constant. Areas where no positioning takes place
should not necessarily be provided with displays.
optical axis of the camera is preferably transversely to the x-direction or
aligned both transversely to the x and across the y direction. The
Display or the displays are preferably oriented so that their normals
not parallel to the x or y direction. Especially
For example, the x and y directions may both be perpendicular to the normal
of the display. The optical axis of the camera runs
preferably parallel to the normal of the display. The x-direction and
the y-direction can be at an angle to each other.
Preferably, however, the x and y directions are perpendicular to each other and
thus form two axes, z. As the x-axis and the y-axis, one
Cartesian coordinate system.
Advantageously, the functionality is the positioning system according to the invention completely insensitive to rotation of the markers or displays around the direction of the optical axis of the camera, so that when attaching the display no care needs to be taken to align the displays in a uniform orientation. Preferably, the normals of all displays run parallel. In particular, the displays can all have a planar surface, which preferably runs parallel to the xy plane. Preferably, all displays lie in one plane. You can z. B. be glued to the tread or other ground.
Computer equipment is preferably set up to be near real-time
Detection and evaluation of the marker can be done. The resolution
the position value is preferably at least 1 mm.
The capture of the markers by the camera and the processing of the
Marker image by image processing are preferably equally during
the drive of the vehicle and at its standstill possible.
The working speeds of the camera and the computer device are preferred
so high that a traversing speed of the reader
or the camera relative to the code carrier or marker of
at least 2 m / s is possible.
is the magnification camera chosen so small
that no marker image completes the field of view of the camera
is able to fill. In this way can be achieved
that all points of the marker are mapped simultaneously in the image field
and thus complete detection of the marker
stationary vehicle is possible.
According to a variant, in the case of the first alternative,
So in the case that the camera is placed on the vehicle and at least
a not participating in the movement of the vehicle display with
a markable thereon, the vehicle for
Purpose of its orientation in a particular direction with the help of a
Rotary drive to a parallel to the optical axis of the camera or
oblique axis so with respect to this marker
rotatable that the image of the marker in the field of view of the camera has a certain,
having predetermined orientation.
According to another variant is in the case of the second
Alternative, so in the case that the camera is not on the vehicle
arranged and at least one arranged on the vehicle display
a markable on it is present, the vehicle for
Purpose of its orientation in a particular direction with the help of a
Rotary drive about one to the optical axis of the camera parallel or oblique
extending axis so with respect to the camera rotatable that
the image of the marker in the image field of the camera a specific, predetermined
for the latter two variants is that the marker
is not rotationally symmetric.
According to another variant is in the case of
first alternative, so in the case of one not to the movement of the
Vehicle participating displays, the vehicle by means of a rotary drive
for the purpose of its orientation in a particular direction by one
to the optical axis perpendicular or oblique axis
rotatable with respect to this marker so that the image of the
Markers in the field of view of the camera a certain, predetermined perspective
According to another variant is in the case of
second alternative, so in the case of one arranged on the vehicle
Displays, the vehicle by means of a rotary drive for the purpose of its orientation
in a certain direction around the camera's optical axis
perpendicular or oblique axis so with respect
The camera rotates the image of the marker in the field of view of the camera
has certain, predetermined perspective distortion.
According to a variant, the positions are
in a two-dimensionally movable vehicle in both directions,
x- and y-direction, at the same time or temporally overlapping
executable. The positioning can also be done in this way,
that the ratio of speed in x-direction to speed
is variable in time in the y-direction, so that the vehicle at the
Positioning follows a given path or a given curve.
Specification of several target positions and successive execution
The positioning for each target position can be separately
Vehicle any route are given, which z. B. by
the connecting lines of the target positions can be given. On
this way can z. B. two-dimensional movable robots
certain track inside an assembly hall, on the floor
Displays (eg sunk) arranged with markers on it
are, be given. This is no rail or other
mechanical guidance of the robot needed because
the robot looks at the markers optically with the help of the camera
oriented, which recognizes markers individually by means of image processing
and so the software default path
to be able to follow independently.
A21 The computer equipment is preferably capable of positioning the vehicle along one or more of the positioning surface on or parallel to the movement surface to control the given path.
Track can be programmed in the computer equipment, according to a
Variant based on the marker (s) imaged by the camera
at any time a position determination and thus automatically a controller
of the vehicle along the guideway is possible.
A change of the route can therefore advantageously z. B. can be achieved
- - by deleting a marker on a display and, instead, a marker appears on another display located in the detection range of the camera, thereby giving a new target position,
- - or by deleting a marker on a display and instead a marker appears in the detection range of the camera elsewhere on the same display and thereby a new target position is given,
- - or by moving a marker on a display to a new position, this sets a new target position.
the route can therefore advantageously be achieved simply by reprogramming
become; a mechanical conversion can be omitted.
According to a variant of the invention
Method is a line sensor instead of the camera, in particular
Diode line, provided by means of which the marker by scanning
can be detected, with the image information thus obtained transferable to the computer equipment
and is approachable by this for positioning of the vehicle.
The scanning of the marker can in this case in particular by methods
of the vehicle or by pivoting the line sensor opposite
the marker when the vehicle is stationary.
Markers can be barcodes; this is a special case
the area of informational displays. The markers can
Information displays of all kinds, which can be displayed on a display
are. The display can z. As an LCD display, an alphanumeric
Illuminated display or a line of lamps or LEDs or
Be a matrix.
In particular, the markers can
- • 1D barcodes
- • 2D barcodes (Datamatrix)
- • 3D representations (holograms)
- • Alphanumeric representations
- • Symbol representations
- • lamps (on / off / dimmed / flashing)
According to the invention
determine the position of the vehicle by means of a camera system.
For determining position information z. B. on a tape
Applied (usually bar codes), by the camera system
is read. Due to the read barcodes, the position becomes
of the vehicle. The system is also applicable to systems
where the barcodes are arranged in a matrix. Possibly. can
the entire system align itself with the barcodes and a predefined one
Follow the train.
can change the information in the reading area too
or are displayed.
the drawing, in which reference to preferred embodiments
of the invention schematically show:
1 a side view of an embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley, which can run along a provided with many attached markers and an LCD display double-T-carrier on wheels,
2 the image field of the camera from 1 which I in the in 1 shown position of the trolley, wherein in the image field markers are shown,
3 the image field of the camera from 1 at one opposite 1 shifted to the right position of the trolley, wherein in the image field, the display and the marker shown thereon are shown,
4 a side view of an embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley, which can run along a provided with many LCD displays double-T-carrier on wheels,
5 the same frame as 3 in which the image of the display but not the image of the marker shown on the display is shifted in the image field due to temperature expansion of the double-T carrier,
6 and 7 in each case a series of markers which are designed as one-dimensional barcodes and are arranged along a rail branching on a switch, wherein the markers are arranged in the region of the switch on a display, and 6 the situation in a first position and 7 shows the situation in a second position of the switch,
8th a plan view of another embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention, with a robot, which on a grid similarly provided with displays tread is two-dimensionally movable, wherein on the robot also a camera for detecting and imaging of marks shown on the displays is mounted, and
9 the image field of the camera from 8th with a pictured marker,
1 shows a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley LK, which can run along a double-T carrier TT on rollers LR. The double-T-carrier TT can z. B. be a jib. The trolley LK can by means of a built-in drive, not shown, for. B. electric motor, along the double-T carrier TT in the x direction forward (in 1 to the right) or backwards (in 1 to the left) are moved by motor, which is in 1 indicated by a horizontal double arrow. The double-T carrier TT thus forms a path along which a vehicle, namely here the trolley LK, can be displaced unidirectionally in the x-direction forwards or backwards.
the top of the trolley LK is a CCD camera K arranged
which via a support rod H rigid with the trolley
LK is connected and thus participates in their movement.
At the bottom of the trolley LK a substructure U is arranged, in which there is a winch SW, by means of which a downward hanging out of the substructure U rope S up and can be unwound. The winch S can be driven by means of an electric winch motor, not shown. The rope S is used for lifting and carrying a load, not shown, and this can at its lower end z. B. have a Hakten or an electromagnet. By winding or unwinding of the rope S by means of the cable winch SW, the load can be arbitrarily raised or lowered, which in 1 is indicated by a vertical double arrow.
the trolley LK is also an EDP device, not shown
arranged, which is connected to the camera K and in which
an image processing program processing by the camera K
delivered images of the marker expires. Alternatively to this
the computer equipment can be an integral part of the camera K itself,
So be built into this. According to another
Alternatively, the computer equipment is not on the trolley LK, but outside
the same arranged and receives at a fixed location
the image data from the camera K via a data channel, eg.
B. via radio, an infrared interface or at least
a data line.
Power supply to the drive of the trolley LK and the winch SW
as well as for the camera K and the EDP device EDV takes over
not shown, arranged on the trolley LK sliding contacts,
which tap a voltage of busbars, the longitudinal
of the double-T carrier TT and also not shown
are. Likewise, data lines can be provided, which
also run along the double-T carrier TT
and via sliding contacts a communication of the computer equipment
Computer with at least one other computer device, eg. B. a stationary
Central, enable. According to another
Variant is a communication of the EDP device EDV with at least
another computer equipment via radio.
the vertical surface of the double-T beam
TT, which faces the camera K, is a variety of markers
M, M1, M2, M3 arranged side by side, z. B. glued.
the double T-beam TT is further according to the invention a
LCD display D arranged on which a marker DM1 shown
is. The markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are in a horizontal row
arranged and can each particular one-dimensional
or two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes. Of the
Detection area E of the camera K passes over this row,
if the trolley LK together with the camera K in the x-direction, d. H.
forward or backward along the double T-beam
TT, will proceed. This way you can successively
all markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 from the detection area E of the camera
K crossed over and in their image field BF as marker images
Camera K is thus by moving the trolley LK in the x direction
positionable forwards or backwards,
that the marker shown on the LCD D display in the detection area
E of the camera K is.
2 shows the image field BF of the camera K of 1 with markers displayed on it. In the situation of 1 the markers M1 and M2 are completely and the marker M3 partially in the detection range E of the camera K. In the image field BF of 2 therefore, the markers M1 and M2 are complete and the marker M3 partially imaged; the images M1 ', M2', M3 'of the markers M1, M2, M3 in the image field BF are referred to below as marker images M1', M2 'and M3'.
3 shows the image field of the camera from 1 at one opposite 1 so far moved to the right position of the trolley LK, that in the image field, the display D as a display image D 'and the marker DM1 shown thereon as a marker image DM1' are shown.
In the example of 1 to 3 is the magnification camera K chosen so small that no Marker image M1 ', M2', M3 ', DM1' completely fills the image field BF of the camera K.
According to the invention, the EDP device is also capable, by means of image processing, of the position of the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF of the camera K (FIG. 3 ) to determine the component of the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to the marker DM1 in the x-direction, ie the x-component of this relative position.
If the computer device is capable according to the invention,
the result, ie the thus-found x-component of said relative position,
to use, with the help of the drive, the trolley LK in the x direction
at an x target position predetermined with respect to the marker DM1
automatically position, so move the trolley LK so that
the x component of the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to
of the marker DM1 assumes a certain, predetermined value.
Implementation of a positioning according to the invention
the trolley LK, for example, with respect to the marker DM1
one-dimensional in the x-direction along the double-T carrier
TT is thus the camera K by moving the trolley LK first
positioned so that the marker DM1 in the detection area E of
Camera K is located and thus as lying in their image field BF marker image
DM1 'is displayed. Now in a further step, the x-component
the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to the marker
DM1 determined and the result used to the trolley
LK with respect to the marker DM1 in the x direction at the given
Position x target position.
Achieving the x-target position is indicated by the fact that the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF in the x-direction at a certain point, ie at a certain distance to the left or right edge of the image field BF of 3 , comes to rest. For example, the x-target position can then be reached, ie the desired positioning in the x-direction can be completed if the center Z of the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF is located on a line L which runs in the y-direction centrally through the image field BF ,
In the situation of 3 z. B. the point Z 'in the image field BF is not on the center line L, but has a deviation dx' from the center line L in the x direction. This is inventively recognized by the computer equipment by means of image processing; Subsequently, the trolley drive is controlled by the EDP device so that the trolley LK moves by such a distance in the x-direction that the deviation dx 'to zero, or becomes so small that it is no longer measurable by means of the positioning device according to the invention , or less than a given tolerance.
Positioning can in particular with several, always finer
Intermediate steps take place, whereby after execution each
Intermediate step of the computer equipment checks the remaining deviation
and optionally further reduced. Preferably, the entire
Positioning including the intermediate steps feasible,
without stopping the trolley LK before reaching the target position.
The x-target position itself is in 1 is not drawn and can of course be outside the detection range E, since the x-target position is reached automatically when the image of the marker M1 is located at a specific location in the image field BF. It does not matter where the x-target position itself lies; only the x component of its relative position with respect to the marker M1 must be known.
The center of the marker DM1 need not be marked on the marker DM1, ie the image Z 'of this center can be seen in the image field BF of FIG 3 be an imaginary point only if the location of the point Z 'in the image field BF can be calculated by the computing device, z. B. based on the course of the edges of the marker image DM1 '.
Limit of measurability of deviation and thus the limit
the achievable positioning accuracy can in particular by
the finite resolution of the camera K will be limited. A
Accuracy of 1 mm is using the invention in practice without
further feasible. The trolley LK needs on reaching the
x target position not to be stopped; rather, she can immediately
without stopping, activate a new x-set position.
the EDP device is also capable of using image processing
from the location of any other marker image in the BF field of the camera
K, the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to
of the relevant marker in the x-direction, ie the x-component of this
Relative position, to determine; insofar exists between the marker DM1
and the other markers M, M1, M2, M3 no difference.
significant advantage of the marker shown on the display D
DM1 against the pasted markers M, M1, M2, M3
in that the information which the marker carries DM1,
So the content of the code contained in this marker, at any time
can be changed arbitrarily. If z. B. the marker DM1
an information about its own absolute position in the x-direction
carries this information when mounting the display
D not yet known.
can the display D after its mounting on the double-T-beam
TT are measured in the x-direction, the information which
the marker DM1 to be displayed on the display D should be in
Depending on the result of the measurement is determined.
When mounting the display D on the double carrier TT needs
Therefore, no special care needs to be put on the display
D to be mounted exactly at a specific x-position The invention
Positioning system is also insensitive to the same reason
a misplacement of the display in the y direction, provided the marker
DM1 within the range detectable by the camera K
remain of the double-T carrier TT.
Markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are different from each other (what in the
Figures is not shown), so that each imaged in the image field BF marker
individually identifiable by means of image processing. Prefers
Each marker carries information by means of the camera
K and read by image processing.
Information can be in particular a code and z. B. the current
Specify the number or absolute position of the marker in question. The
Markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are here preferably two-dimensional
Barcodes or data matrix codes, each of which has information about
its own absolute position along the double-T-beam
TT in the x-direction with respect to a given reference point
carries, so that each marker MD in the x-direction opposite
the reference point is appropriate. In this case, the invention is a
Absolute positioning of the trolley relative to the reference point
possible in x-direction; the reference point needs of course
not to be within the detection range E of the camera LK.
Another is the positioning system according to the invention
also insensitive to a rotation of the display
D about its normal axis, and also insensitive to it
a rotation of the marker shown on the display to the
Normal axis of the display D. These insensitivity lower the
Production costs and increase reliability
a positioning system according to the invention considerably,
especially with very long track length, as in the
Attachment of the displays D to an exact orientation thereof
can be waived.
This insensitivity also has a very beneficial effect if z. B. with the rope S of 1 As heavy loads are lifted that it comes to a noticeable deflection of the double-T-beam TT. Because an associated rotation of markers with respect to the camera K does not affect the operation due to the said insensitivity of the system; Likewise, it does not bother if the trolley LK springs in due to the weight of the load and thereby changes its y-position relative to the double-T-beam. The insensitivity mentioned thus also increases the reliability of the positioning system
Another significant advantage of the shown on the display
Markers DM1 opposite the pasted markers M, M1, M2,
M3 is that the place where the marker DM1 is located
is changeable at any time, since the marker DM1 on the usable
Surface of the display D be moved to another location
or wander over the usable area of the display D
caused by temperature change or load change drift
the position of the display D can therefore be adjusted by moving the location,
at which the marker DM1 is shown on the display D, in
one of the direction of the drift opposite direction compensated
so that the absolute position of the marker has no drift.
such compensation can take place both in the x and in the y direction.
5 illustrates such compensation in the x direction. 5 shows a situation in which the trolley LK is in the same position as in FIG 3 However, the double-T carrier TT due to a temperature increase over the situation of 3 has extended, so the display D compared to the situation of 3 has drifted to the right (in positive x-direction). In the picture field BF of 5 Therefore, the image D of the display D is opposite 3 also moved to the right.
If now on the display D, the marker DM1 would be displayed at the same location (with respect to the display D) as in the situation of 3 , the image DM1 'of the marker DM1 would be in 5 also on one opposite 3 located to the right; this place is in 5 dashed lines. According to the invention, however, the location at which the marker DM1 is shown on the display D, in the situation of 5 compensated in a direction opposite to the drift, so that the absolute position of the marker DM1 has no drift.
Therefore, in the situation of FIG. 5, the marker DM1 is located in the same place as in the situation of FIG 3 ; the temperature drift of the location of the marker DM1 is compensated. The trolley is in the situation of 5 with respect to the temperature drift-free marker DM1 positioned at the same position as in the situation of 3 , Therefore, the image DM1 "of the DM1 marker is in 5 at the same location within the image field BF as the marker image DM1 'in 3 ,
additional advantage of the display D shown
Markers DM 1 opposite the pasted markers M, M1,
M2, M3 consists in that the DM1 marker can be switched off at any time if required
are the mutual distances of the markers and the magnification
Camera K each chosen so small that the camera K on
every location, to which they by method of trolley LK
along the double-T carrier TT is traversable, at least
completely captures and maps one of the markers. On
this way is at any time a position determination at least
relative to the currently fully recorded and
pictured marker possible.
Use of two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes
Being a marker offers the great advantage of being great
Word lengths can be realized in a very small space, so
that it is readily possible, along a track of the
Trolley LK of several kilometers consistently markers
with a size of z. B. 1 cm by 1 cm at intervals
each also z. B. 1 cm on the double T-beam
to apply, so 50 markers per meter of the track or several hundred thousand
Markers along the entire length of the track, without even
Two identical markers must be used and without
that the extreme length of the web is at the expense of the resolution
or positioning accuracy of the system goes. Thus, that allows
Positioning system according to the invention compared
conventional systems the realization of extremely long track lengths
and travel paths without any loss of resolution
or accuracy of positioning.
Use of two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes
As a marker also has the advantage that the markers redundant
Can carry information without sacrificing the
Dissolution or increase of the equipment expenditure
Double-T-girder TT and thus also the track of the trolley
LK can be curved. The x-direction can then
in the manner of a curvilinear coordinate at each position locally
the local direction of the tangent be given on the path. The
Absolute position of the trolley LK in the x-direction opposite
The reference point can then be defined by the integral
Length of the winding lane of the trolley LK up to that point
the path closest to the reference point.
Trolley LK can according to a not shown,
refined embodiment of the invention over
have a lifting and lowering drive, not shown, by means
which the trolley LK by a certain distance to upper resp.
is movable down. This corresponds to the field of view BF of the camera
K movability in y-direction.
Trolley LK is thus two-dimensional horizontally in this case
traversable, namely over a long distance forward
and backwards in the x-direction along the double-T beam
TT and a short distance across it in the y direction. According to this
Embodiment of the invention, the trolley LK not
only in the manner mentioned with respect to the marker DM1, preferably
with respect to each marker M, M1, M2, M3, DM1, horizontally
in the x-direction, but completely analogous to this and independent of this
each with respect to the same marker also perpendicular in the y direction
be positioned according to the invention.
According to this embodiment, the
Trolley thus two-dimensional movable and two-dimensional positioning,
whereby z. B. load-displacement deformations are compensated
An already mentioned advantage that the information carrying the markers shown on the displays, can be changed at any time, is now based on 4 illustrating an embodiment of the invention, which differs from that of 1 differs in that the pasted and thus invariable marker M, M1, M2, M3 are not present. Instead, at the double T-beam TT of 4 many displays D are arranged in a horizontal row, on each of which two markers MD are shown. Regarding each of these markers MD, positioning of the trolley LK is possible in the manner described above.
Also, all markers MD are different from each other (which in the 4 not shown), so that each of them is individually identifiable by means of image processing, each marker MD carries one about its own x-absolute position information that can be read by means of the camera K and by image processing.
The embodiment of 4 is different from that of 1 furthermore, that in 4 an additional piece ZTT of length .DELTA.L is inserted in the double-T carrier TT, on which four additional displays ZD are arranged. On each additional display ZD two additional markers ZDM are shown, each of which also carries information about its own absolute position in the x-direction with respect to the reference point.
The additional piece ZTT was retrofitted in inserted the double-T-beam TT. As a result, all displays located to the right of the additional piece ZTT were shifted to the right by the distance ΔL, so that the markers displayed on these displays no longer indicate their own absolute position in the x-direction, but rather an x-absolute position which is too low by ΔL. However, this problem can be very easily and within a short time purely software, ie without any mechanical modification, be corrected by the code content of these markers is corrected accordingly with the help of the invention.
Now on the 6 and 7 Referring, each showing a series of markers, which are all one-dimensional barcodes. The markers are arranged along a rail, not shown, carry consecutive numbers and serve in the manner described above for positioning a vehicle which is movable on or along the rail and on which a moving camera for detecting the marker is rigidly arranged. The rail branches at a switch Y-shaped or fork-shaped. The vehicle, the camera and the switch are also not shown.
Outside the area of the switch, the markers are formed by stickers N1, N8a, N8b, on each of which a one-dimensional barcode is printed. In the area of the switch there is a large LCD display D2, on which further markers DN2-DN7 can be represented as one-dimensional barcodes. The image field which the camera detects when the vehicle is opposite the marker DN2 is in the 6 and 7 denoted by the reference E2.
The switch may be in a first or in a second position. A vehicle moving from left to right on the rail passes first the marker N1, then the switch and then, depending on the position of the switch, either the marker N8a or the marker N8b. 6 shows the situation when the switch is in the first position. In this case, the markers DN2, DN3, DN4, DN5, DN6 and DN7 are shown on the display D2 in such an arrangement that these markers are marked in 6 form a rising line or chain connecting the marker N1 with the marker N8a from left to right. This line or chain runs parallel to the track followed by the vehicle when the switch is in the first position and the vehicle travels on the rail from left to right over the switch in the first position.
7 shows the situation when the switch is in the second position. In this case, the markers DN2-DN7 are shown on the display D2 in such an arrangement that these markers have an in 7 form a left-to-right sloping line or chain connecting the marker N1 with the marker N8b. This line or chain runs parallel to the track followed by the vehicle when the switch is in the second position and the vehicle travels on the rail from left to right over the switch in the second position.
Marker DN2 does not change its location when switching the switch;
the markers DN3-DN7 will change when the switch is changed
Vertically offset by a certain distance, this distance
increases from marker to marker from left to right and therefore im
present example for the marker DN7 largest
With the help of the marker DN2-DN7 is thus a positioning
always possible in the area of the switch, indifferent
whether the switch is in the first or in the second position.
With the help of the invention is thus a complete positioning
given the vehicle along branching routes.
According to a modified embodiment of the invention, the vehicle does not move along a rail, but is two-dimensionally movable on a tread, wherein the vehicle in the case of the display of the markers DN2-DN6 on the display D2 according to 6 is capable of positioning successively with respect to the marks N1, DN2-DN7 and N8a so that the vehicle follows the line spanned by the markers N1, DN2-DN7 and N8a.
When switching the display D2 to the marker display of 7 on the other hand, the vehicle positions itself successively with respect to the marks N1, DN2-DN7 and N8b, so that the vehicle now follows the line spanned by the markers N1, DN2-DN7 and N8b.
According to this embodiment of the invention is thus by switching the display between the representations of 6 and 7 realized a switch in the track of the vehicle without moving parts.
Now on the 8th and 9 Referenced. 8th shows a plan view of a further embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention, 9 the image field of the camera from 8th with the image DM3 'of a DM3 marker.
Vehicle is in this embodiment of the invention a
by means of a (not shown) electric motor self-propelled robot
R, which on a tread F two-dimensionally movable
is, namely in the x-direction, transverse to it in the y-direction and
in all intermediate directions, forwards and backwards.
The tread F, from which 8th only shows a section, z. B. be an area of the floor of an assembly hall, in which the robot R carries out transport or manufacturing tasks automatically.
At the bottom of the robot R, a camera K which faces downward on the tread F is arranged. In the in 8th shown position of the robot R, the camera K detects a region E of the tread F, in the center of which is a marker DM3, which in the situation of 8th is turned on, that is currently visible.
The position of the CCD camera is known with respect to the robot in the x and y directions; it is rigidly attached to the robot R and participates in its movements. The switched-on marker DM3 lies within the detection range of the camera K and is therefore imaged by the same as a marker image DM3 'lying within its image field ( 9 ).
to the camera K connected computer equipment is capable of using
of the image processing program from the position of the marker image in
Image field BF of the camera K the x and the y component of the relative position
of the robot R with respect to that shown on the display
Markers DM3 and to use the result, with
Help of the electric motor the robot R at a re
of the marker DM3 predetermined target position in the x and y direction
position. In the situation, the robot R is positioned
that he is in the middle of the marker DM3, and has
so that the currently specified target position reached.
along the tread F are practically nationwide
Displays D arranged; For example, the tread
F be formed by a strong glass plate, below which
the displays D are arranged.
Additional markers DM2, DM4 can be displayed using the displays D; but they are in the situation of 8th switched off, so currently not visible and from the camera K therefore currently not detectable. This condition is in 8th indicated that the markers DM2, DM4 are shown in dashed lines.
In the image field BF of the camera K therefore appears in the situation of 8th only one marker image, namely the image DM3 'of the marker DM3. The images of the displays D, each partly located in the detection area E of the camera K, are in 9 each marked with the reference numeral D '. The position in the image field BF at which further marker images DM2 ', DM4' would appear if the relevant markers were currently switched on are in 9 shown in dashed lines.
along the tread F displays D are arranged; for example
the running surface F can be formed by a strong glass plate,
below which the displays D are arranged.
Positions of the markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are along the tread
F arranged in a chain; their connecting line defines a line
Markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are two-dimensional barcodes, each of which
an information about the absolute position in x and in
y-direction of its projection on the tread F contains
so that all markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are different from each other and
each of them, if turned on, with the help of the camera K and
individually identified by the EDP device by means of image processing
The positioning in the x-direction takes place in principle the same manner as already described above with reference to the 1 and 3 was explained. The positioning in the y-direction also takes place in a basically completely analogous manner transversely to the positioning in the x-direction.
Positioning in the x and y directions can be advantageous
at the same time, so that the robot R in the positioning
can be moved obliquely to the x and y direction.
The positioning in the x and y directions can also do so
take that ratio of velocity in the x direction
to the speed in y-direction is temporally variable, so that
the robot R follows in positioning a given curve.
Target positions are selected in the present example,
when reaching a target position, the next target position
already in the detection range E of the camera K is.
The robot R need not be stopped when reaching a target position; rather, he can immediately go to a new target position, etc .. The target positions are in the example of 8th predetermined so that the robot R is positioned in order from left to right over the markers DM2, DM3, DM4 and thus follows the line FW, so that this determines the travel path FW of the robot R; In this case, preferably only that marker is turned on, which is needed for the current positioning. This has the advantage that adjacent markers can overlap, as in 8th the example of some of the markers DM2 and DM4 is shown.
According to one
another variant, the markers overlap DM2, DM3,
DM4 nowhere and are all turned on at the same time.
can have several target positions to be approached one after the other
be given with respect to one and the same marker. The
individual target positions can of course
arbitrarily inside or outside of markers. The
mutual distances of the target positions can
be very small, z. In the range of centimeters. The
Of course, target positions themselves can be outside
of the detection range of the camera lie as a target position then
is achieved when the image of a particular marker at a particular location
in the image field BF. It does not matter where the target position
itself lies; only their relative position with respect
the marker must be known.
Since the displays D in the example of 8th form a blanket grid, can be determined in this way by turning on or off markers at corresponding target positions any, constantly changing routes FW for the robot R, without this must pass through a region of the tread F, at which no marker in Detection range of the camera K is. Here also changing branches and crossings of driveways are possible.
Positioning system according to the invention can thus
very beneficial for the targeted process of the robot R along
used arbitrarily specifiable and arbitrarily changeable routes
become. The robot may also be capable of referring to
not only position on a marker, but also in a specific one
To align direction, d. H. a certain orientation on the
Tread F take. This can be done in particular
happen that the robot is so long around its own vertical axis
turns until the image of a particular captured by the camera K.
Markers in frame BF a specific, given orientation
Preferably, the positioning system of 8th and 9 other (not shown) on robots, all of which, like the robot R on the tread individually go back and forth, are each equipped with a camera, whose coverage area passes over the markers when driving the robot, and each have a computing device , by means of which the marker images supplied by the camera of the relevant robot are evaluated in the manner described by image processing and used for continuous repositioning, ie for the purposeful movement of the relevant robot along a predetermined route.
so guided movements of individual robots can through
mutual data exchange or z. B. star-type data communication with
a headquarters be related to each other to collisions
prevent and coordinate the robot movements. The invention
Method thus allows a collision-free, coordinated
Operation with several or many individually movable robots along
any, at any arbitrary changeable routes.
Invention is industrially applicable for. In the field of logistics,
warehousing, industrial manufacturing and robotics.
- LCD displays
- on connected
- DM1 '
- DM1 ''
from DM1 after compensation for the temperature drift
- DM2 '
Pictures of DM2 ', DM4'
- DN2 DN7
D2 shown 1D markers
- detection zones
- dx '
between L and Z in the x-direction
from R to F
- CCD camera
y-direction extending message line from BF
M1, M2, M3
- Z1 '
from DM '
- additional display
- additional markers
- additional pieces
QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
The documents listed by the applicant have been automated
generated and is solely for better information
recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German
Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over
no liability for any errors or omissions.
Cited patent literature
- - EP 0039921 
- - DE 3825097 
- EP 0116636 
- - DE 3910873 
- - DE 4209629 
- - DE 4309863