DE202007012798U1 - positioning Systems - Google Patents

positioning Systems

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Publication number
DE202007012798U1
DE202007012798U1 DE200720012798 DE202007012798U DE202007012798U1 DE 202007012798 U1 DE202007012798 U1 DE 202007012798U1 DE 200720012798 DE200720012798 DE 200720012798 DE 202007012798 U DE202007012798 U DE 202007012798U DE 202007012798 U1 DE202007012798 U1 DE 202007012798U1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
vehicle
camera
marker
display
dm1
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
DE200720012798
Other languages
German (de)
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Pepperl and Fuchs GmbH
Original Assignee
Pepperl and Fuchs GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Pepperl and Fuchs GmbH filed Critical Pepperl and Fuchs GmbH
Priority to DE200720012798 priority Critical patent/DE202007012798U1/en
Priority claimed from ES08005213.7T external-priority patent/ES2564810T3/en
Priority claimed from US12/207,589 external-priority patent/US8385594B2/en
Publication of DE202007012798U1 publication Critical patent/DE202007012798U1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B66HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING
    • B66CCRANES; LOAD-ENGAGING ELEMENTS OR DEVICES FOR CRANES, CAPSTANS, WINCHES, OR TACKLES
    • B66C13/00Other constructional features or details
    • B66C13/18Control systems or devices

Abstract

Positioning system comprising the following components:
A) a vehicle (LK, R), such as conveyor cage, nacelle, trolley (LK) or self-propelled robot (R), which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a track or along or on a train, for. B. rail, is movable,
B) at least one display (D, D2), in particular LCD display (D, D2), which in the vicinity of the vehicle (LK, R) is arranged, does not participate in the movement and on which at least one marker (DM1, DM2 , DM3, DM4, DN2, DN3, DN4, DN5, DN6, DN7),
C) a camera (K), in particular CCD camera (K) whose position relative to the vehicle (LK, R) in the x-direction is known and which on the vehicle (LK, R), preferably rigidly arranged on whose movement participates and can be positioned by moving the vehicle (LK, R) in such a way that the marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) shown on the display (D, D2) is located in the detection area (E, E2) of the camera (K) lies and ...

Description

  • Technical area:
  • The The invention relates to positioning systems with a vehicle, which along a path or on or parallel to a given one Surface is movable.
  • State of the art:
  • From the EP 00 39 921 It is known to provide a complete sequence of binary code marks on a code carrier. The code marks are hereby combined into blocks, each of which is identified by a special code mark. The binary code marks located within these special code marks together form a codeword. In order to be able to read the respective code word from the code carrier, a code reading device is provided which operates on an optical basis and contains a CCD line sensor. The conversion of the electrical signal from the sensors of the code reader into the binary number becomes more critical the fewer sensors the code reader contains per code mark. If, for example, only one sensor is present per code mark, it can no longer be distinguished whether, when the code reading device moves relative to the code carrier, all its sensors already detect code marks which correspond to the new position. If the sensors are unfavorably positioned on the edge between code marks of different significance, then the output signal is a random signal. The combination of such a signal with the other signals of the other sensors would lead to a false signal sequence.
  • Out "Taxes and Rules in Mechanical Engineering" 3rd edition, Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Wuppertal, coded encoders are known, with which routes absolutely are measurable. In this case, a code reading device is attached to a code carrier moved along and located on the code carrier code marks are scanned by read heads. Form several code marks on the code carrier a codeword, which is a direct measure of that from the code reader from a fixed point of reference represents traveled way. In this known device are the code marks of a codeword divided into several tracks, which lie next to each other along the code carrier. It must therefore be carefully considered that the tracks are exactly next to each other, and also allowed the reading heads, which are transverse to the direction of movement lined up next to each other, no offset against have the clock traces.
  • From the DE 38 25 097 a device for position measurement in crane and overhead monorail systems is known, in which along a rail a stationary code mark carrier is arranged, which continuously successively arranged code marks each having the same length. The code marks are arranged in a pseudo-random sequence. For reading the code word, a read head is provided which has reading stations corresponding to the intended number of bits. Each reading station contains three light barriers arranged side by side in the longitudinal direction. The photoelectric barriers are grouped into three nested groups. Each of the groups is connected to its own code detection circuit, which assigns the read code word to a distance value. In a 5-bit code used, for example, with which only 32 distance values can be distinguished, fifteen light barriers are already required.
  • From the EP 01 16 636 a position measuring device for determining the relative position of two mutually movable parts is known. At the one part a gapless sequence of equal length binary code marks is provided. In each case n consecutive code marks form an n-digit binary code word. Each codeword to be formed occurs only once. Such a sequence of code marks can be formed by means of a feedback shift register as a binary pseudorandom sequence. At the other part there is provided a code reading device which can detect at least n consecutive marks. For each code mark there is a plurality of sensors for this purpose. The maximum travel path is essentially limited by the sum of the lengths of all code marks occurring in the pseudorandom sequence. If you want to increase the distance, you must either increase the number of positions n of the code words or increase the length of the code marks.
  • The DE 39 10 873 discloses a position measuring device for longitudinally fixed webs running vehicles, having at least one track, along which a vehicle runs, with at least one code reader and at least one arranged in the direction of the track code carrier along its longitudinal extent in only one lane according to a pseudorandom sequence with predetermined education law bears formed code marks. Each n consecutive code marks form a codeword. Each code word occurs only once along the route. Code carrier and code reader are movable relative to each other in the direction of the travel. At least n code marks, which follow one another directly and represent at least one code word, form a block to which a block identifier is assigned. With the aid of an auxiliary reading device for block identification, it is decidable for an evaluation unit whether the signals supplied by the code reading device are merely Co demarken the block represent.
  • From the DE 42 09 629 a position measuring device is known which determines the longitudinal position of a reading head with respect to a code mark carrier. The code mark carrier has along its longitudinal extent two mutually parallel code mark tracks, namely a position track and an auxiliary track. The position track contains position information, the code marks each having a fixed length. For reading the position information, a read head is provided which has sensor groups for detecting both code mark tracks. The sensors for reading the position information are divided into two groups, which are offset from one another in the direction of the longitudinal extent of the code mark carrier by half a code mark length. The decision as to which of the two sensor groups emits a signal characterizing the position of the read head is made on the basis of phase information resulting from evaluation of the auxiliary track. There are two code mark tracks and a corresponding number of sensors required to read these tracks.
  • The DE 43 09 863 discloses a position measuring device with a reading head and code mark carrier, on which along its longitudinal direction binary code marks are applied in a pseudo-random sequence, wherein in each case m consecutive code marks form a code word. Each codeword appears only once on the code tag carrier. The read head has two groups of sensors, which are arranged continuously in the longitudinal direction of the code tag carrier. Connected to the sensors is an evaluation circuit for selecting the group whose sensors read directly consecutive code marks.
  • in the State of the art are also so-called WCS systems for position determination For longitudinally defined vehicles running vehicles known in which the position in a parallel to the web over whose full length extending code fence is coded. Of the Code fence consists of two longitudinal bars, between which at irregular intervals crossbars are arranged, and is thus similar to a small picket fence, wherein the position information in the manner of a usual Barcodes in the distances of the "fence slats", d. H. the crossbars, is coded. Such systems work in the transmitted light method, d. H. on one side of the fence is a light source on the other side of the fence a light sensor, both the Light source and the light sensor are rigidly mounted on the vehicle and with this opposite drive along the fence, so that the light path is interrupted when passing each crosspiece becomes. From the location of these interruptions is the Position information read out.
  • All of these systems known in the art share at least the following disadvantages:
    The achievable accuracy of the position determination is limited by the length of the code marks or their elements, since the code elements are lined up in one or more parallel tracks along the guideway and must be scanned sequentially during the process. However, the packing density of the code elements on the code carrier can not be increased beyond a certain extent, because the spatial resolution of the scanning elements (eg light barriers) is limited. The length of the code carrier can therefore not be reduced below a certain minimum value, so that the position resolution limits are set.
  • Further is to complete coverage of a long track with sufficient longitudinal resolution a large one Number of code carriers and thus, if the code content along the driveway should not repeat, a corresponding large word length of the codes required. An increasing Word width does not only allow the length of the single code carrier, but especially the effort and the cost for the code readers grow very fast.
  • Further mean longer code carrier lower resolution the positioning, allowing a realization of driveways of several kilometers, the z. B. in modern industrial production lines desired or necessary, with sufficient Resolution is very problematic. This problem becomes even more aggravated when on the code carriers redundant information should be present to ensure operational safety of the system, e.g. B. its resistance to contamination or damage parts of the code carrier, and thereby improve the Risk of default or (possibly more momentous) To reduce incorrect positioning.
  • Of another does not allow any of the mentioned systems additionally for position determination in the direction of travel also a position determination transverse to the direction of travel. Such can but z. B. for automatic Compensation of temperature or load change induced bending deformations be highly desirable. Furthermore are the required scanning elements, preferably light barriers, prone to misalignment and pollution and thus maintenance-intensive. This problem plays a special one Role in such systems, which numerous juxtaposed Have sensing elements.
  • Another disadvantage of the said system me is that a position determination with a stationary vehicle is not readily possible. Those systems which work in the transmitted light method are also mechanically very complicated and prone to deformation of the code carrier.
  • Some The above systems are also very sensitive to change the orientation of the code carrier over the Code reader.
  • Further the said systems have the disadvantage that a even only local modification of the code content only with considerable Time and effort is possible, because this must be the relevant code carrier or parts be exchanged or pasted over, with the new attached codes must be measured very accurately.
  • Of the The invention is therefore based on the object, a positioning system to create, which can work in the incident light method, one opposite the State of the art greatly improved position resolution allows, at the same time much longer distances allows a position determination even when the vehicle is stationary does not exclude, a positioning in addition also allowed transverse to the direction of travel and in which a change the code content is possible at any time with little effort.
  • A1 According to a first alternative, this object is achieved according to the invention by a positioning system which has the following components:
    • A) a vehicle, such as conveyor cage, nacelle, trolley or self-propelled robot, which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a track or along or on a train, for. B. rail, is movable,
    • B) at least one display, in particular LCD display, which is arranged in the surroundings of the vehicle, does not participate in its movement and on which at least one marker can be displayed,
    • C) a camera, in particular a CCD camera, the position of which is known with respect to the vehicle in the x-direction and which is arranged on the vehicle, preferably rigidly, participates in the movement thereof and can be positioned by moving the vehicle so that the on the Display displayed marker in the detection range of the camera and thus is displayed by the camera as lying within the image field of the camera marker image,
    • D) an EDP device connected to the camera, which is capable of using an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the image field of the camera to determine the x component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker shown on the display and to use the result, with the help of the drive to position the vehicle at an x-target position specified with respect to the display or marker or within a predetermined tolerance range about the x-target position in the x-direction.
  • The Camera is preferably arranged rigidly on the vehicle. The on the camera arranged camera is preferably opposite the vehicle in the x-direction exactly measured, so that from the x-component the location of a marker in the camera's field of view the x component of the true position of the vehicle with respect to this marker follows or determinable (eg, using the image scale the camera).
  • A2 The object is achieved according to a second alternative by a positioning system which has the following components:
    • A ') a vehicle, such as conveyor cage, nacelle, trolley or self-propelled robot, which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a track or along or on a train, for. B. rail is movable,
    • B ') a camera, in particular CCD camera, which is stationary, preferably rigid, in the vicinity of the vehicle,
    • C ') at least one arranged on the vehicle, participating in the movement of his display, in particular LCD display on which at least one marker can be displayed, the position of the display with respect to the vehicle in the x-direction is known and the display by moving the vehicle can be positioned so that the marker lies within the detection range of the camera and thus is imaged by the camera as lying within the image field of the camera marker image,
    • D ') an EDP device connected to the camera, which is capable of using an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the field of view of the camera to determine the x-component of the relative position of the vehicle relative to the camera and to use the result, with the aid of Drive the vehicle at an x-target position specified with respect to the camera or within a predetermined tolerance range to position the x-target position in the x-direction.
  • In Both alternatives will each according to the invention Relative position between camera and marker for execution the positioning used; In this case, the camera is preferably stationary.
  • The first alternative is particularly suitable for positioning vehicles along long Travels, z. B. for positioning the gondola of a several kilometers long monorail overhead conveyor. The second alternative is particularly suitable for positioning vehicles along short travel paths, z. B. for positioning a robot within a painting line.
  • The Computer equipment can be an integral part of the camera itself, so be built into this, or the camera and the computer equipment could form a common device.
  • Prefers is the vehicle in the x-direction along or on a rail, traversable. The vehicle can in particular be a rail-bound Be a vehicle.
  • A3 According to a very advantageous variant of the first alternative, ie in the case of a non-participating in the movement of the vehicle display is
    • - The position of the camera with respect to the vehicle in the y-direction known, the vehicle additionally in the y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a predetermined movement surface, such as tread, movable, and
    • - The computer device additionally capable of using the image processing program from the position of the marker image within the image field of the camera to determine the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker shown on the display and use the result, the vehicle using the Position the drive at a y-target position specified with respect to the display or the marker or within a predetermined tolerance distance of the same in the y-direction,
    so that the vehicle is two-dimensionally positionable at a target position, which is given by the x-target position and the y-target position, or within a predetermined tolerance zone around the target position.
  • in this connection is the camera is preferable to the vehicle in x- and y-direction respectively exactly measured, thus out of the situation a marker in the field of view of the camera the true position of the vehicle with respect to this marker in the x and y directions or determinable (eg, using the image scale the camera).
  • A3 According to a very advantageous variant of the second alternative, in the case of a display arranged on the vehicle, is
    • The position of the display with respect to the vehicle is also known in the y-direction,
    • - The vehicle additionally in the y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a predetermined movement surface, such as tread, movable, and
    • - The computer device additionally capable of using the image processing program from the position of the marker image within the image field of the camera to determine the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera and use the result, the vehicle by means of the drive at a respect position the camera in the specified y-position or within a given tolerance distance of the same in the y-direction,
    so that the vehicle is two-dimensionally positionable at a target position, which is given by the x-target position and the y-target position, or within a predetermined tolerance zone around the target position.
  • at all embodiments of the invention in which the Camera is not located on the vehicle, the camera is preferably fixed in place; she can also directional here be arranged.
  • The Positioning system according to the invention works preferably as incident light system, d. H. the markers do not need to be examined to become. According to another embodiment the display is backlit, so that the marker is dark from the Display background takes off. After another In another embodiment, the marker itself illuminates Display can z. As an LCD display, as an LED display, as an OLED Dislpay or be designed as a cathode ray tube monitor.
  • The Vehicle can z. B. rolling, sliding or on an air or Magnetic cushion to be suspended floating. The train can z. B. a Crane boom, a monorail, a conveyor belt, a rail, an elevator shaft or the guide rope of a Be cable car. The movement area can z. B. an area be the floor of an assembly hall.
  • in the Case of the first alternative, d. H. not at the movement of the Vehicle participating display and arranged on the vehicle Camera, the x target position is reached when the x component of the Relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker one certain, predetermined value, and also the y-set position achieved when the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the marker takes on a certain, predetermined value.
  • In the case of the second alternative, ie with the display arranged on the vehicle and stationary camera, the x-target position is reached when the x-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera assumes a specific, predetermined value, and also the y-desired position is sufficient if the y-component of the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera assumes a certain, predetermined value.
  • The Positioning in the y direction can be done according to a Variant can also be executed when the vehicle along a track or rail in the x-direction and at the same time vertically or obliquely movable in the y-direction. An example this is a cable car or a monorail overhead conveyor to which hangs the vehicle as a gondola. The vehicle is can be moved one-dimensionally along the path in the x-direction and can at the same time also opposite the railway in the height (in y-direction) be adjustable. The y-positioning can then be performed Do not use the gondola with the help of the marker or the marker Position only in the direction of the train but also in height. The nacelle can thus in this case by means of the method according to the invention so be positioned in two directions.
  • Of course the vehicle is preferably in and against the x-direction, ie back and forth, movable, respectively in the x and in the y direction respectively moved back and forth. Furthermore, the vehicle, if it is movable in the x- and in the y-direction, preferably by superposition or alternating the movements in the x and y directions in all Movable intermediate directions, d. H. in all directions, which lying in the xy plane.
  • A4 Preferably, the marker shown on the display is a code carrier or a character or a string or pattern or Dot pattern and carries one by means of the camera and the image processing program readable information. This information can z. B. from one or consist of several alphanumeric characters or symbols which z. As a marker associated with the consecutive number or a absolute position specification with respect to a reference point form. According to another variant, this is Information coded, z. B. in a dot or bar pattern or other Graphic or in a hologram.
  • Prefers is the display or marker relative to the reference point in the x-direction or in x- and in y-direction exactly or as exactly as possible measured.
  • A11 According to a variant are on the display a Plurality of markers or code carriers at the same time or in succession represented. There may be several or many displays available be, on each of which one or more markers dergestellt are.
  • A5 The marker shown on the display can be z. B. a one-dimensional Barcode or the markers shown on the display be one-dimensional barcodes. These can be in any Direction be aligned, since the recognition using image processing he follows. Therefore, the bars of the one-dimensional or the Barcodes in particular parallel to the x-direction. hereby can change the word width of the barcode (s) without loss of resolution the positioning accuracy increases arbitrarily What is the realization of very long travels at the same time high density of barcodes and the use of redundancy in the data content the barcodes allowed. The width of the barcodes in the x-direction, d. H. the length of the bars, this can be kept small be what a high density of one-dimensional bar codes in the x direction allows. Below the bars of the barcodes will be here the parallel, spaced-apart strokes of the one-dimensional Barcodes understood.
  • There the recognition of the marker according to the invention by image processing is a scanning of the bars of the bar code (s) of the series is by means of a mitbewegten with the vehicle laser beam not mandatory.
  • A5 According to a preferred variant of the on the Displayed code carrier a two-dimensional barcode or a data matrix code, or are those shown on the display Marker two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes. hereby can be realized an extremely high data density, whereby the Word width of the code also without loss of resolution the positioning accuracy increased almost arbitrarily can be, so also the realization of very long travels at the same time very high density of the code carrier and the Use of redundancy in the data content of the code carrier are readily possible.
  • A6 The information that the marker displayed on the display carries can in particular be situation-dependent or program-controlled, be temporally changeable or changeable.
  • A7 In the case of not participating in the movement of the vehicle Displays can be the marker or code carrier shown thereon in particular, information about its own absolute position along the route or track or the absolute position of its projection on the movement area respectively with respect to one carry predetermined reference point, this information at least partially readable by means of the camera and the image processing program and for performing a positioning of the vehicle is approachable.
  • A7 In the alternative case of a display arranged on the vehicle, the marker or code carrier shown thereon can display information about its Carry position with respect to the vehicle, this information is at least partially readable by means of the camera and the image processing program and zoom in to carry out a positioning of the vehicle.
  • A8 Preference is given to the usable surface for the display the display is larger than the area of the marker shown on it. A9 Here, the location at which the marker or code carrier is shown on the display is, in particular situation-dependent or program-controlled, to be temporally changeable; z. B. can the illustrated Hike markers on the display.
  • A10 According to a very advantageous variant is a caused by temperature change or load change drift the location of the display not participating in the movement of the vehicle at least partially by shifting the place where the Marker or code carrier is shown on the display, Compensable in a direction opposite to the direction of the drift, so that the drift or shift of the absolute position of the marker smaller as that of the display or, ideally, entirely is canceled. This means that the marker is so on display migrates that decreases the temperature drift of the marker site or eliminated.
  • A12 Preferably, the display is switchable between a first state, in which there is at least a first marker at a first location on the surface usable for the display represents the display and thus a first x-target position or specifies a first target position, and a second state in which it has at least the first or a second marker on one of the first place different second place on the for the Representation usable surface of the display represents and thus a second x-target position or a second target position pretends.
  • A13 In this case, the first and the second location preferably differ and also the first and second target positions respectively at least in their y-coordinate, allowing the target position by switching between the first and the second state between the first and the second target position is switchable, and thereby the Travel of the vehicle is selectable or influenced.
  • A14 According to one embodiment, everyone is on the display shown markers of all other markers different and individually by means of the camera and image processing identifiable.
  • A15 A plurality of different desired x-position or target positions is preferred specifiable and positioning one after the other for each x target position or target position can be executed separately.
  • A16 Preferably, the positioning is sequential for each x target position separately executable so that the vehicle not before reaching the last of the specified x-target positions or the tolerance range stops around it, or the Positioning one after another for each target position separately so executable that the vehicle does not reach the last the specified target positions or the tolerance zone around the same stops.
  • A17 Preferably, the magnification camera and the x-target position chosen so that when they reach both these as also the marker shown on the display in the detection area of the camera, or the magnification of the camera and the target position is chosen so that when it reaches the same both these and the markers shown on the display in the Detection range of the camera.
  • A23 According to a preferred variant, in the case of first alternative a plurality or plurality of not at participating in the movement of dews vehicle, preferably stationary, Displays along the track or the track or at the movement area distributed or distributed along the same, being on each Display at least one marker is displayed, or in the case of second alternative, a plurality or plurality of displays, which are arranged on the vehicle, wherein on each display at least a marker can be displayed.
  • in the Case of using many displays, which along the driveway or the web or the movement surface are arranged and on which at least one marker can be represented, needs the density of the displays is not necessarily everywhere the driveway or the train or on the movement area to be constant. Areas where no positioning takes place should not necessarily be provided with displays.
  • The optical axis of the camera is preferably transversely to the x-direction or aligned both transversely to the x and across the y direction. The Display or the displays are preferably oriented so that their normals not parallel to the x or y direction. Especially For example, the x and y directions may both be perpendicular to the normal of the display. The optical axis of the camera runs preferably parallel to the normal of the display. The x-direction and the y-direction can be at an angle to each other. Preferably, however, the x and y directions are perpendicular to each other and thus form two axes, z. As the x-axis and the y-axis, one Cartesian coordinate system.
  • Advantageously, the functionality is the positioning system according to the invention completely insensitive to rotation of the markers or displays around the direction of the optical axis of the camera, so that when attaching the display no care needs to be taken to align the displays in a uniform orientation. Preferably, the normals of all displays run parallel. In particular, the displays can all have a planar surface, which preferably runs parallel to the xy plane. Preferably, all displays lie in one plane. You can z. B. be glued to the tread or other ground.
  • The Computer equipment is preferably set up to be near real-time Detection and evaluation of the marker can be done. The resolution the position value is preferably at least 1 mm. The capture of the markers by the camera and the processing of the Marker image by image processing are preferably equally during the drive of the vehicle and at its standstill possible. The working speeds of the camera and the computer device are preferred so high that a traversing speed of the reader or the camera relative to the code carrier or marker of at least 2 m / s is possible.
  • Prefers is the magnification camera chosen so small that no marker image completes the field of view of the camera is able to fill. In this way can be achieved that all points of the marker are mapped simultaneously in the image field and thus complete detection of the marker stationary vehicle is possible.
  • A18 According to a variant, in the case of the first alternative, So in the case that the camera is placed on the vehicle and at least a not participating in the movement of the vehicle display with a markable thereon, the vehicle for Purpose of its orientation in a particular direction with the help of a Rotary drive to a parallel to the optical axis of the camera or oblique axis so with respect to this marker rotatable that the image of the marker in the field of view of the camera has a certain, having predetermined orientation.
  • A18 According to another variant is in the case of the second Alternative, so in the case that the camera is not on the vehicle arranged and at least one arranged on the vehicle display a markable on it is present, the vehicle for Purpose of its orientation in a particular direction with the help of a Rotary drive about one to the optical axis of the camera parallel or oblique extending axis so with respect to the camera rotatable that the image of the marker in the image field of the camera a specific, predetermined Orientation has.
  • requirement for the latter two variants is that the marker is not rotationally symmetric.
  • A19 According to another variant is in the case of first alternative, so in the case of one not to the movement of the Vehicle participating displays, the vehicle by means of a rotary drive for the purpose of its orientation in a particular direction by one to the optical axis perpendicular or oblique axis rotatable with respect to this marker so that the image of the Markers in the field of view of the camera a certain, predetermined perspective Has distortion.
  • A19 According to another variant is in the case of second alternative, so in the case of one arranged on the vehicle Displays, the vehicle by means of a rotary drive for the purpose of its orientation in a certain direction around the camera's optical axis perpendicular or oblique axis so with respect The camera rotates the image of the marker in the field of view of the camera has certain, predetermined perspective distortion.
  • A20 According to a variant, the positions are in a two-dimensionally movable vehicle in both directions, x- and y-direction, at the same time or temporally overlapping executable. The positioning can also be done in this way, that the ratio of speed in x-direction to speed is variable in time in the y-direction, so that the vehicle at the Positioning follows a given path or a given curve.
  • By Specification of several target positions and successive execution The positioning for each target position can be separately Vehicle any route are given, which z. B. by the connecting lines of the target positions can be given. On this way can z. B. two-dimensional movable robots certain track inside an assembly hall, on the floor Displays (eg sunk) arranged with markers on it are, be given. This is no rail or other mechanical guidance of the robot needed because the robot looks at the markers optically with the help of the camera oriented, which recognizes markers individually by means of image processing and so the software default path to be able to follow independently.
  • A21 The computer equipment is preferably capable of positioning the vehicle along one or more of the positioning surface on or parallel to the movement surface to control the given path.
  • Of the Track can be programmed in the computer equipment, according to a Variant based on the marker (s) imaged by the camera at any time a position determination and thus automatically a controller of the vehicle along the guideway is possible.
  • A change of the route can therefore advantageously z. B. can be achieved
    • - by deleting a marker on a display and, instead, a marker appears on another display located in the detection range of the camera, thereby giving a new target position,
    • - or by deleting a marker on a display and instead a marker appears in the detection range of the camera elsewhere on the same display and thereby a new target position is given,
    • - or by moving a marker on a display to a new position, this sets a new target position.
  • A change the route can therefore advantageously be achieved simply by reprogramming become; a mechanical conversion can be omitted.
  • A22 According to a variant of the invention Method is a line sensor instead of the camera, in particular Diode line, provided by means of which the marker by scanning can be detected, with the image information thus obtained transferable to the computer equipment and is approachable by this for positioning of the vehicle. The scanning of the marker can in this case in particular by methods of the vehicle or by pivoting the line sensor opposite the marker when the vehicle is stationary.
  • The Markers can be barcodes; this is a special case the area of informational displays. The markers can Information displays of all kinds, which can be displayed on a display are. The display can z. As an LCD display, an alphanumeric Illuminated display or a line of lamps or LEDs or Be a matrix.
  • In particular, the markers can
    • • 1D barcodes
    • • 2D barcodes (Datamatrix)
    • • 3D representations (holograms)
    • • Alphanumeric representations
    • • Symbol representations
    • • lamps (on / off / dimmed / flashing)
    be.
  • According to the invention determine the position of the vehicle by means of a camera system. For determining position information z. B. on a tape Applied (usually bar codes), by the camera system is read. Due to the read barcodes, the position becomes of the vehicle. The system is also applicable to systems where the barcodes are arranged in a matrix. Possibly. can the entire system align itself with the barcodes and a predefined one Follow the train.
  • Preferably can change the information in the reading area too or are displayed.
  • Summary the drawing, in which reference to preferred embodiments of the invention schematically show:
  • 1 a side view of an embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley, which can run along a provided with many attached markers and an LCD display double-T-carrier on wheels,
  • 2 the image field of the camera from 1 which I in the in 1 shown position of the trolley, wherein in the image field markers are shown,
  • 3 the image field of the camera from 1 at one opposite 1 shifted to the right position of the trolley, wherein in the image field, the display and the marker shown thereon are shown,
  • 4 a side view of an embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley, which can run along a provided with many LCD displays double-T-carrier on wheels,
  • 5 the same frame as 3 in which the image of the display but not the image of the marker shown on the display is shifted in the image field due to temperature expansion of the double-T carrier,
  • 6 and 7 in each case a series of markers which are designed as one-dimensional barcodes and are arranged along a rail branching on a switch, wherein the markers are arranged in the region of the switch on a display, and 6 the situation in a first position and 7 shows the situation in a second position of the switch,
  • 8th a plan view of another embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention, with a robot, which on a grid similarly provided with displays tread is two-dimensionally movable, wherein on the robot also a camera for detecting and imaging of marks shown on the displays is mounted, and
  • 9 the image field of the camera from 8th with a pictured marker,
  • 1 shows a positioning system according to the invention with a trolley LK, which can run along a double-T carrier TT on rollers LR. The double-T-carrier TT can z. B. be a jib. The trolley LK can by means of a built-in drive, not shown, for. B. electric motor, along the double-T carrier TT in the x direction forward (in 1 to the right) or backwards (in 1 to the left) are moved by motor, which is in 1 indicated by a horizontal double arrow. The double-T carrier TT thus forms a path along which a vehicle, namely here the trolley LK, can be displaced unidirectionally in the x-direction forwards or backwards.
  • At the top of the trolley LK is a CCD camera K arranged which via a support rod H rigid with the trolley LK is connected and thus participates in their movement.
  • At the bottom of the trolley LK a substructure U is arranged, in which there is a winch SW, by means of which a downward hanging out of the substructure U rope S up and can be unwound. The winch S can be driven by means of an electric winch motor, not shown. The rope S is used for lifting and carrying a load, not shown, and this can at its lower end z. B. have a Hakten or an electromagnet. By winding or unwinding of the rope S by means of the cable winch SW, the load can be arbitrarily raised or lowered, which in 1 is indicated by a vertical double arrow.
  • At the trolley LK is also an EDP device, not shown arranged, which is connected to the camera K and in which an image processing program processing by the camera K delivered images of the marker expires. Alternatively to this the computer equipment can be an integral part of the camera K itself, So be built into this. According to another Alternatively, the computer equipment is not on the trolley LK, but outside the same arranged and receives at a fixed location the image data from the camera K via a data channel, eg. B. via radio, an infrared interface or at least a data line.
  • The Power supply to the drive of the trolley LK and the winch SW as well as for the camera K and the EDP device EDV takes over not shown, arranged on the trolley LK sliding contacts, which tap a voltage of busbars, the longitudinal of the double-T carrier TT and also not shown are. Likewise, data lines can be provided, which also run along the double-T carrier TT and via sliding contacts a communication of the computer equipment Computer with at least one other computer device, eg. B. a stationary Central, enable. According to another Variant is a communication of the EDP device EDV with at least another computer equipment via radio.
  • At the vertical surface of the double-T beam TT, which faces the camera K, is a variety of markers M, M1, M2, M3 arranged side by side, z. B. glued.
  • At the double T-beam TT is further according to the invention a LCD display D arranged on which a marker DM1 shown is. The markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are in a horizontal row arranged and can each particular one-dimensional or two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes. Of the Detection area E of the camera K passes over this row, if the trolley LK together with the camera K in the x-direction, d. H. forward or backward along the double T-beam TT, will proceed. This way you can successively all markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 from the detection area E of the camera K crossed over and in their image field BF as marker images be imaged.
  • The Camera K is thus by moving the trolley LK in the x direction positionable forwards or backwards, that the marker shown on the LCD D display in the detection area E of the camera K is.
  • 2 shows the image field BF of the camera K of 1 with markers displayed on it. In the situation of 1 the markers M1 and M2 are completely and the marker M3 partially in the detection range E of the camera K. In the image field BF of 2 therefore, the markers M1 and M2 are complete and the marker M3 partially imaged; the images M1 ', M2', M3 'of the markers M1, M2, M3 in the image field BF are referred to below as marker images M1', M2 'and M3'.
  • 3 shows the image field of the camera from 1 at one opposite 1 so far moved to the right position of the trolley LK, that in the image field, the display D as a display image D 'and the marker DM1 shown thereon as a marker image DM1' are shown.
  • In the example of 1 to 3 is the magnification camera K chosen so small that no Marker image M1 ', M2', M3 ', DM1' completely fills the image field BF of the camera K.
  • According to the invention, the EDP device is also capable, by means of image processing, of the position of the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF of the camera K (FIG. 3 ) to determine the component of the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to the marker DM1 in the x-direction, ie the x-component of this relative position.
  • Further If the computer device is capable according to the invention, the result, ie the thus-found x-component of said relative position, to use, with the help of the drive, the trolley LK in the x direction at an x target position predetermined with respect to the marker DM1 automatically position, so move the trolley LK so that the x component of the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to of the marker DM1 assumes a certain, predetermined value.
  • to Implementation of a positioning according to the invention the trolley LK, for example, with respect to the marker DM1 one-dimensional in the x-direction along the double-T carrier TT is thus the camera K by moving the trolley LK first positioned so that the marker DM1 in the detection area E of Camera K is located and thus as lying in their image field BF marker image DM1 'is displayed. Now in a further step, the x-component the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to the marker DM1 determined and the result used to the trolley LK with respect to the marker DM1 in the x direction at the given Position x target position.
  • Achieving the x-target position is indicated by the fact that the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF in the x-direction at a certain point, ie at a certain distance to the left or right edge of the image field BF of 3 , comes to rest. For example, the x-target position can then be reached, ie the desired positioning in the x-direction can be completed if the center Z of the marker image DM1 'in the image field BF is located on a line L which runs in the y-direction centrally through the image field BF ,
  • In the situation of 3 z. B. the point Z 'in the image field BF is not on the center line L, but has a deviation dx' from the center line L in the x direction. This is inventively recognized by the computer equipment by means of image processing; Subsequently, the trolley drive is controlled by the EDP device so that the trolley LK moves by such a distance in the x-direction that the deviation dx 'to zero, or becomes so small that it is no longer measurable by means of the positioning device according to the invention , or less than a given tolerance.
  • These Positioning can in particular with several, always finer Intermediate steps take place, whereby after execution each Intermediate step of the computer equipment checks the remaining deviation and optionally further reduced. Preferably, the entire Positioning including the intermediate steps feasible, without stopping the trolley LK before reaching the target position.
  • The x-target position itself is in 1 is not drawn and can of course be outside the detection range E, since the x-target position is reached automatically when the image of the marker M1 is located at a specific location in the image field BF. It does not matter where the x-target position itself lies; only the x component of its relative position with respect to the marker M1 must be known.
  • The center of the marker DM1 need not be marked on the marker DM1, ie the image Z 'of this center can be seen in the image field BF of FIG 3 be an imaginary point only if the location of the point Z 'in the image field BF can be calculated by the computing device, z. B. based on the course of the edges of the marker image DM1 '.
  • The Limit of measurability of deviation and thus the limit the achievable positioning accuracy can in particular by the finite resolution of the camera K will be limited. A Accuracy of 1 mm is using the invention in practice without further feasible. The trolley LK needs on reaching the x target position not to be stopped; rather, she can immediately without stopping, activate a new x-set position.
  • Prefers the EDP device is also capable of using image processing from the location of any other marker image in the BF field of the camera K, the relative position of the trolley LK with respect to of the relevant marker in the x-direction, ie the x-component of this Relative position, to determine; insofar exists between the marker DM1 and the other markers M, M1, M2, M3 no difference.
  • One significant advantage of the marker shown on the display D DM1 against the pasted markers M, M1, M2, M3 in that the information which the marker carries DM1, So the content of the code contained in this marker, at any time can be changed arbitrarily. If z. B. the marker DM1 an information about its own absolute position in the x-direction carries this information when mounting the display D not yet known.
  • Much more can the display D after its mounting on the double-T-beam TT are measured in the x-direction, the information which the marker DM1 to be displayed on the display D should be in Depending on the result of the measurement is determined. When mounting the display D on the double carrier TT needs Therefore, no special care needs to be put on the display D to be mounted exactly at a specific x-position The invention Positioning system is also insensitive to the same reason a misplacement of the display in the y direction, provided the marker DM1 within the range detectable by the camera K remain of the double-T carrier TT.
  • All Markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are different from each other (what in the Figures is not shown), so that each imaged in the image field BF marker individually identifiable by means of image processing. Prefers Each marker carries information by means of the camera K and read by image processing.
  • These Information can be in particular a code and z. B. the current Specify the number or absolute position of the marker in question. The Markers M, M1, M2, M3, DM1 are here preferably two-dimensional Barcodes or data matrix codes, each of which has information about its own absolute position along the double-T-beam TT in the x-direction with respect to a given reference point carries, so that each marker MD in the x-direction opposite the reference point is appropriate. In this case, the invention is a Absolute positioning of the trolley relative to the reference point possible in x-direction; the reference point needs of course not to be within the detection range E of the camera LK.
  • Of Another is the positioning system according to the invention also insensitive to a rotation of the display D about its normal axis, and also insensitive to it a rotation of the marker shown on the display to the Normal axis of the display D. These insensitivity lower the Production costs and increase reliability a positioning system according to the invention considerably, especially with very long track length, as in the Attachment of the displays D to an exact orientation thereof can be waived.
  • This insensitivity also has a very beneficial effect if z. B. with the rope S of 1 As heavy loads are lifted that it comes to a noticeable deflection of the double-T-beam TT. Because an associated rotation of markers with respect to the camera K does not affect the operation due to the said insensitivity of the system; Likewise, it does not bother if the trolley LK springs in due to the weight of the load and thereby changes its y-position relative to the double-T-beam. The insensitivity mentioned thus also increases the reliability of the positioning system
  • One Another significant advantage of the shown on the display Markers DM1 opposite the pasted markers M, M1, M2, M3 is that the place where the marker DM1 is located is changeable at any time, since the marker DM1 on the usable Surface of the display D be moved to another location or wander over the usable area of the display D can.
  • A caused by temperature change or load change drift the position of the display D can therefore be adjusted by moving the location, at which the marker DM1 is shown on the display D, in one of the direction of the drift opposite direction compensated so that the absolute position of the marker has no drift.
  • A such compensation can take place both in the x and in the y direction.
  • 5 illustrates such compensation in the x direction. 5 shows a situation in which the trolley LK is in the same position as in FIG 3 However, the double-T carrier TT due to a temperature increase over the situation of 3 has extended, so the display D compared to the situation of 3 has drifted to the right (in positive x-direction). In the picture field BF of 5 Therefore, the image D of the display D is opposite 3 also moved to the right.
  • If now on the display D, the marker DM1 would be displayed at the same location (with respect to the display D) as in the situation of 3 , the image DM1 'of the marker DM1 would be in 5 also on one opposite 3 located to the right; this place is in 5 dashed lines. According to the invention, however, the location at which the marker DM1 is shown on the display D, in the situation of 5 compensated in a direction opposite to the drift, so that the absolute position of the marker DM1 has no drift.
  • Therefore, in the situation of FIG. 5, the marker DM1 is located in the same place as in the situation of FIG 3 ; the temperature drift of the location of the marker DM1 is compensated. The trolley is in the situation of 5 with respect to the temperature drift-free marker DM1 positioned at the same position as in the situation of 3 , Therefore, the image DM1 "of the DM1 marker is in 5 at the same location within the image field BF as the marker image DM1 'in 3 ,
  • One additional advantage of the display D shown Markers DM 1 opposite the pasted markers M, M1, M2, M3 consists in that the DM1 marker can be switched off at any time if required is.
  • Prefers are the mutual distances of the markers and the magnification Camera K each chosen so small that the camera K on every location, to which they by method of trolley LK along the double-T carrier TT is traversable, at least completely captures and maps one of the markers. On this way is at any time a position determination at least relative to the currently fully recorded and pictured marker possible.
  • The Use of two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes Being a marker offers the great advantage of being great Word lengths can be realized in a very small space, so that it is readily possible, along a track of the Trolley LK of several kilometers consistently markers with a size of z. B. 1 cm by 1 cm at intervals each also z. B. 1 cm on the double T-beam to apply, so 50 markers per meter of the track or several hundred thousand Markers along the entire length of the track, without even Two identical markers must be used and without that the extreme length of the web is at the expense of the resolution or positioning accuracy of the system goes. Thus, that allows Positioning system according to the invention compared conventional systems the realization of extremely long track lengths and travel paths without any loss of resolution or accuracy of positioning.
  • The Use of two-dimensional barcodes or data matrix codes As a marker also has the advantage that the markers redundant Can carry information without sacrificing the Dissolution or increase of the equipment expenditure connected is.
  • Of the Double-T-girder TT and thus also the track of the trolley LK can be curved. The x-direction can then in the manner of a curvilinear coordinate at each position locally the local direction of the tangent be given on the path. The Absolute position of the trolley LK in the x-direction opposite The reference point can then be defined by the integral Length of the winding lane of the trolley LK up to that point the path closest to the reference point.
  • The Trolley LK can according to a not shown, refined embodiment of the invention over have a lifting and lowering drive, not shown, by means which the trolley LK by a certain distance to upper resp. is movable down. This corresponds to the field of view BF of the camera K movability in y-direction.
  • The Trolley LK is thus two-dimensional horizontally in this case traversable, namely over a long distance forward and backwards in the x-direction along the double-T beam TT and a short distance across it in the y direction. According to this Embodiment of the invention, the trolley LK not only in the manner mentioned with respect to the marker DM1, preferably with respect to each marker M, M1, M2, M3, DM1, horizontally in the x-direction, but completely analogous to this and independent of this each with respect to the same marker also perpendicular in the y direction be positioned according to the invention. According to this embodiment, the Trolley thus two-dimensional movable and two-dimensional positioning, whereby z. B. load-displacement deformations are compensated can.
  • An already mentioned advantage that the information carrying the markers shown on the displays, can be changed at any time, is now based on 4 illustrating an embodiment of the invention, which differs from that of 1 differs in that the pasted and thus invariable marker M, M1, M2, M3 are not present. Instead, at the double T-beam TT of 4 many displays D are arranged in a horizontal row, on each of which two markers MD are shown. Regarding each of these markers MD, positioning of the trolley LK is possible in the manner described above.
  • Also, all markers MD are different from each other (which in the 4 not shown), so that each of them is individually identifiable by means of image processing, each marker MD carries one about its own x-absolute position information that can be read by means of the camera K and by image processing.
  • The embodiment of 4 is different from that of 1 furthermore, that in 4 an additional piece ZTT of length .DELTA.L is inserted in the double-T carrier TT, on which four additional displays ZD are arranged. On each additional display ZD two additional markers ZDM are shown, each of which also carries information about its own absolute position in the x-direction with respect to the reference point.
  • The additional piece ZTT was retrofitted in inserted the double-T-beam TT. As a result, all displays located to the right of the additional piece ZTT were shifted to the right by the distance ΔL, so that the markers displayed on these displays no longer indicate their own absolute position in the x-direction, but rather an x-absolute position which is too low by ΔL. However, this problem can be very easily and within a short time purely software, ie without any mechanical modification, be corrected by the code content of these markers is corrected accordingly with the help of the invention.
  • Now on the 6 and 7 Referring, each showing a series of markers, which are all one-dimensional barcodes. The markers are arranged along a rail, not shown, carry consecutive numbers and serve in the manner described above for positioning a vehicle which is movable on or along the rail and on which a moving camera for detecting the marker is rigidly arranged. The rail branches at a switch Y-shaped or fork-shaped. The vehicle, the camera and the switch are also not shown.
  • Outside the area of the switch, the markers are formed by stickers N1, N8a, N8b, on each of which a one-dimensional barcode is printed. In the area of the switch there is a large LCD display D2, on which further markers DN2-DN7 can be represented as one-dimensional barcodes. The image field which the camera detects when the vehicle is opposite the marker DN2 is in the 6 and 7 denoted by the reference E2.
  • The switch may be in a first or in a second position. A vehicle moving from left to right on the rail passes first the marker N1, then the switch and then, depending on the position of the switch, either the marker N8a or the marker N8b. 6 shows the situation when the switch is in the first position. In this case, the markers DN2, DN3, DN4, DN5, DN6 and DN7 are shown on the display D2 in such an arrangement that these markers are marked in 6 form a rising line or chain connecting the marker N1 with the marker N8a from left to right. This line or chain runs parallel to the track followed by the vehicle when the switch is in the first position and the vehicle travels on the rail from left to right over the switch in the first position.
  • 7 shows the situation when the switch is in the second position. In this case, the markers DN2-DN7 are shown on the display D2 in such an arrangement that these markers have an in 7 form a left-to-right sloping line or chain connecting the marker N1 with the marker N8b. This line or chain runs parallel to the track followed by the vehicle when the switch is in the second position and the vehicle travels on the rail from left to right over the switch in the second position.
  • Of the Marker DN2 does not change its location when switching the switch; the markers DN3-DN7 will change when the switch is changed Vertically offset by a certain distance, this distance increases from marker to marker from left to right and therefore im present example for the marker DN7 largest With the help of the marker DN2-DN7 is thus a positioning always possible in the area of the switch, indifferent whether the switch is in the first or in the second position. With the help of the invention is thus a complete positioning given the vehicle along branching routes.
  • According to a modified embodiment of the invention, the vehicle does not move along a rail, but is two-dimensionally movable on a tread, wherein the vehicle in the case of the display of the markers DN2-DN6 on the display D2 according to 6 is capable of positioning successively with respect to the marks N1, DN2-DN7 and N8a so that the vehicle follows the line spanned by the markers N1, DN2-DN7 and N8a.
  • When switching the display D2 to the marker display of 7 on the other hand, the vehicle positions itself successively with respect to the marks N1, DN2-DN7 and N8b, so that the vehicle now follows the line spanned by the markers N1, DN2-DN7 and N8b.
  • According to this embodiment of the invention is thus by switching the display between the representations of 6 and 7 realized a switch in the track of the vehicle without moving parts.
  • Now on the 8th and 9 Referenced. 8th shows a plan view of a further embodiment of a positioning system according to the invention, 9 the image field of the camera from 8th with the image DM3 'of a DM3 marker.
  • The Vehicle is in this embodiment of the invention a by means of a (not shown) electric motor self-propelled robot R, which on a tread F two-dimensionally movable is, namely in the x-direction, transverse to it in the y-direction and in all intermediate directions, forwards and backwards.
  • The tread F, from which 8th only shows a section, z. B. be an area of the floor of an assembly hall, in which the robot R carries out transport or manufacturing tasks automatically.
  • At the bottom of the robot R, a camera K which faces downward on the tread F is arranged. In the in 8th shown position of the robot R, the camera K detects a region E of the tread F, in the center of which is a marker DM3, which in the situation of 8th is turned on, that is currently visible.
  • The position of the CCD camera is known with respect to the robot in the x and y directions; it is rigidly attached to the robot R and participates in its movements. The switched-on marker DM3 lies within the detection range of the camera K and is therefore imaged by the same as a marker image DM3 'lying within its image field ( 9 ).
  • The to the camera K connected computer equipment is capable of using of the image processing program from the position of the marker image in Image field BF of the camera K the x and the y component of the relative position of the robot R with respect to that shown on the display Markers DM3 and to use the result, with Help of the electric motor the robot R at a re of the marker DM3 predetermined target position in the x and y direction position. In the situation, the robot R is positioned that he is in the middle of the marker DM3, and has so that the currently specified target position reached.
  • grid-like along the tread F are practically nationwide Displays D arranged; For example, the tread F be formed by a strong glass plate, below which the displays D are arranged.
  • Additional markers DM2, DM4 can be displayed using the displays D; but they are in the situation of 8th switched off, so currently not visible and from the camera K therefore currently not detectable. This condition is in 8th indicated that the markers DM2, DM4 are shown in dashed lines.
  • In the image field BF of the camera K therefore appears in the situation of 8th only one marker image, namely the image DM3 'of the marker DM3. The images of the displays D, each partly located in the detection area E of the camera K, are in 9 each marked with the reference numeral D '. The position in the image field BF at which further marker images DM2 ', DM4' would appear if the relevant markers were currently switched on are in 9 shown in dashed lines.
  • grid-like along the tread F displays D are arranged; for example the running surface F can be formed by a strong glass plate, below which the displays D are arranged.
  • The Positions of the markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are along the tread F arranged in a chain; their connecting line defines a line FW.
  • All Markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are two-dimensional barcodes, each of which an information about the absolute position in x and in y-direction of its projection on the tread F contains so that all markers DM2, DM3, DM4 are different from each other and each of them, if turned on, with the help of the camera K and individually identified by the EDP device by means of image processing can be.
  • The positioning in the x-direction takes place in principle the same manner as already described above with reference to the 1 and 3 was explained. The positioning in the y-direction also takes place in a basically completely analogous manner transversely to the positioning in the x-direction.
  • The Positioning in the x and y directions can be advantageous at the same time, so that the robot R in the positioning can be moved obliquely to the x and y direction. The positioning in the x and y directions can also do so take that ratio of velocity in the x direction to the speed in y-direction is temporally variable, so that the robot R follows in positioning a given curve.
  • The Target positions are selected in the present example, when reaching a target position, the next target position already in the detection range E of the camera K is.
  • The robot R need not be stopped when reaching a target position; rather, he can immediately go to a new target position, etc .. The target positions are in the example of 8th predetermined so that the robot R is positioned in order from left to right over the markers DM2, DM3, DM4 and thus follows the line FW, so that this determines the travel path FW of the robot R; In this case, preferably only that marker is turned on, which is needed for the current positioning. This has the advantage that adjacent markers can overlap, as in 8th the example of some of the markers DM2 and DM4 is shown.
  • According to one another variant, the markers overlap DM2, DM3, DM4 nowhere and are all turned on at the same time.
  • It can have several target positions to be approached one after the other be given with respect to one and the same marker. The individual target positions can of course arbitrarily inside or outside of markers. The mutual distances of the target positions can be very small, z. In the range of centimeters. The Of course, target positions themselves can be outside of the detection range of the camera lie as a target position then is achieved when the image of a particular marker at a particular location in the image field BF. It does not matter where the target position itself lies; only their relative position with respect the marker must be known.
  • Since the displays D in the example of 8th form a blanket grid, can be determined in this way by turning on or off markers at corresponding target positions any, constantly changing routes FW for the robot R, without this must pass through a region of the tread F, at which no marker in Detection range of the camera K is. Here also changing branches and crossings of driveways are possible.
  • The Positioning system according to the invention can thus very beneficial for the targeted process of the robot R along used arbitrarily specifiable and arbitrarily changeable routes become. The robot may also be capable of referring to not only position on a marker, but also in a specific one To align direction, d. H. a certain orientation on the Tread F take. This can be done in particular happen that the robot is so long around its own vertical axis turns until the image of a particular captured by the camera K. Markers in frame BF a specific, given orientation having.
  • Preferably, the positioning system of 8th and 9 other (not shown) on robots, all of which, like the robot R on the tread individually go back and forth, are each equipped with a camera, whose coverage area passes over the markers when driving the robot, and each have a computing device , by means of which the marker images supplied by the camera of the relevant robot are evaluated in the manner described by image processing and used for continuous repositioning, ie for the purposeful movement of the relevant robot along a predetermined route.
  • The so guided movements of individual robots can through mutual data exchange or z. B. star-type data communication with a headquarters be related to each other to collisions prevent and coordinate the robot movements. The invention Method thus allows a collision-free, coordinated Operation with several or many individually movable robots along any, at any arbitrary changeable routes.
  • Industrial Applicability:
  • The Invention is industrially applicable for. In the field of logistics, warehousing, industrial manufacturing and robotics.
  • BF
    field from K
    D D2
    LCD displays
    DM1, DM3
    on connected marker
    DM2, DM4
    disconnected marker
    DM1 ' DM3 '
    images from DM3
    DM1 ''
    image from DM1 after compensation for the temperature drift
    DM2 ' DM4 '
    places Pictures of DM2 ', DM4'
    DN2 DN7
    on D2 shown 1D markers
    e, E2
    detection zones
    dx '
    distance between L and Z in the x-direction
    FW
    roadway from R to F
    H
    holder
    K
    CCD camera
    L
    in y-direction extending message line from BF
    LK
    trolley
    LR
    castors
    M, M1, M2, M3
    glued 2D marker
    N1, N8a, N8b
    glued 1D marker
    R
    robot
    S
    rope
    SW
    winch
    TT
    Double-T-carrier
    U
    substructure
    Z1 '
    center from DM '
    ZD
    additional display
    ZDM
    additional markers
    ZTT
    additional pieces from TT
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • - EP 0039921 [0002]
    • - DE 3825097 [0004]
    • EP 0116636 [0005]
    • - DE 3910873 [0006]
    • - DE 4209629 [0007]
    • - DE 4309863 [0008]

Claims (23)

  1. Positioning system, which has the following components having: A) a vehicle (LK, R), such as a conveyor cage, Gondola, trolley (LK) or self-propelled robot (R), which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x-direction along a driveway or along or on a train, z. Rail, is movable, B) at least one display (D, D2), in particular LCD display (D, D2), which is arranged in the vicinity of the vehicle (LK, R) is, does not participate in its movement and on which at least one Marker (DM1, DM2, DM3, DM4, DN2, DN3, DN4, DN5, DN6, DN7) can be displayed is C) a camera (K), in particular CCD camera (K) whose Location with respect to the vehicle (LK, R) in the x-direction known is and which on the vehicle (LK, R), preferably rigidly arranged is, takes part in the movement and by moving the vehicle (LK, R) is positionable so that the on the display (D, D2) displayed markers (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) in the detection area (E, E2) of the camera (K) and thus of the camera (K) as within the Image field (BF) of the camera (K) retaining marker image (DM1 ', DM2', DM3 ', DM4'), D) one connected to the camera (K) Computer-aided device, which is capable of, by means of an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the image field (BF) of the camera (K, K ') the x component of the relative position of the vehicle (LK, R) with respect to on the display (D, D2) shown marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) and to use the result, with the help of the drive, the vehicle (LK, R) at a respect of the display (D, D2) or marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) x target position or within a specified tolerance range to position the x-target position in x-direction.
  2. Positioning system comprising the following components: A ') a vehicle, such as hoist, nacelle, trolley or self-propelled Robot, which by means of a drive at least one-dimensional in the x direction along a track or along or on a track, z. B. rail, is movable, B ') a camera, in particular CCD camera, which is stationary in the vicinity of the vehicle, preferably rigid, arranged, C ') at least one arranged on the vehicle, at whose movement participating display, especially LCD display, on which at least one marker can be displayed, the position the display with respect to the vehicle in the x direction known and the display can be positioned by moving the vehicle is that the marker is within the detection range of the camera and thus from the camera as being within the field of view of the camera Marker image is displayed, D ') one connected to the camera Computer-aided device, which is capable of, by means of an image processing program from the position of the marker image in the image field of the camera the x-component the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera to determine and use the result, with the help of Drive the vehicle at a predetermined with respect to the camera x target position or within a specified tolerance range to position the x-target position in x-direction.
  3. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that (a) in the case of one not on Movement of the vehicle (R) participating display (D, D2) - the Position of the camera (K) with respect to the vehicle (R) also in y direction is known - The vehicle (R) in addition in y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a given movement area (F), such as tread (F), traversable, and - the computer equipment in addition is capable of using the image processing program from the location of the marker image (DM1 ', DM2', DM3 ', DM4') within the image field (BF) of the camera (K) and the y-component of the relative position of the Vehicle (R) with respect to the marker shown on the display (D, D2) (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) and determine the result For this, use the vehicle (R) with the help of the drive at one with respect to the display (D, D2) or the marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) predetermined y-target position or within a preset tolerance distance of the same in the y direction to position or b) in the case of a display arranged on the vehicle - the Position of the display with respect to the vehicle also in the y-direction is known - the vehicle additionally in y-direction and thus two-dimensional on or parallel to a given movement surface, such as running surface, movable is and - the computer equipment in addition is capable of using the image processing program from the location of the marker image within the image field of the camera also the y-component the relative position of the vehicle with respect to the camera to determine and use the result, the vehicle with Help the drive on a given with respect to the camera y setpoint position or within a specified tolerance distance to position from the same in the y-direction, leaving the vehicle two-dimensionally at a target position, which by the x-target position and the y-target position is given, or within a predetermined Tolerance zone can be positioned around the target position.
  4. Positioning system according to one of the previous An Claims, characterized in that the marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) shown on the display (D, D2) is a code carrier (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) or a character or a string or an image pattern or dot pattern, and carries information readable by the camera (K) and the image processing program.
  5. Positioning system according to claim 4, characterized in that that the code carrier shown on the display (D, D2) a one-dimensional barcode (DN2-DN7) or a two-dimensional one Barcode (DM1-DM4) or a data matrix code is.
  6. Positioning system according to one of claims 4 or 5, characterized in that the information which the markers displayed on the display (D, D2) (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) carries, in particular situation-dependent or program-controlled, is temporally variable or changeable.
  7. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that (a) in the case of one not on Movement of the vehicle (LK, R) participating display (D, D2) of it represented markers or code carriers (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) information about its own absolute position along the track or the track (TT, ZTT) or the absolute position its projection on the movement surface (F) with respect to each carries a predetermined reference point, or b) in the case of a display arranged on the vehicle, the one shown thereon Marker or code carrier information about his Bearing position with respect to the vehicle, and this information at least partially by means of the camera (K) and the image processing program readable and to carry out positioning of the vehicle (LK, R) can be used.
  8. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the usable for the presentation Surface of the display (D, D2) larger is the area of the marker (DM1-DM4, DN2 DN7).
  9. Positioning system according to claim 8, characterized in that that the place where the marker (DM1-DM4, DN3-DN7) or code carrier (DM1-DM4, DN3-DN7) the display (D, D2) is shown, in particular situation-dependent or programmatically, is time-varying.
  10. Positioning system according to claim 9, characterized that due to a change in temperature or load change Drift the location of not participating in the movement of the vehicle (LK) Displays (D) at least partially by moving the place to which of the marker (DM1) or code carrier (DM1) on the Display (D) is shown, in a direction opposite to the drift Direction is compensated.
  11. Positioning system according to one of claims 8 to 10, characterized in that on the display (D, D2) a Multiple markers (DM2-DM4, DN2-DN7) or code carriers (DM2-DM4, DN2-DN7) at the same time or in succession is representable.
  12. Positioning system according to claim 8, characterized in that that the display (D, D2) is switchable between - one first state in which there is at least one first marker (DM3, DN3-DN7) at a first location on the display usable surface of the display (D, D2) represents and thus predetermines a first x-target position or a first target position, and - one second state, in which it at least the first or a second marker (DM2, DM4, DN3-DN7) on one of the first Place different second place on the for presentation usable surface of the display (D, D2) represents and thus predetermines a second x-target position or a second target position.
  13. Positioning system according to claims 3 and 8, characterized in that - the first and the second place and - the first and the second target position each differ at least in their y-coordinate, so that - the target position by switching between the first and the second state between the first and the second Target position is switchable, - and thereby the Traverse (FW) of the vehicle (R) selectable or influenced is.
  14. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that each shown on the display (D, D2) Marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) from all others Markers (M, M1, M2, M3, DM1-M4, DN2-DN7, N1, N8a, N8b) differently and by means of the camera (K) and image processing individually identifiable.
  15. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a plurality of different x-target position or target positions can be specified and positioning in succession Executable separately for each x-target position or target position is.
  16. Positioning system according to claim 15, characterized in that - the positioning in succession for each x-target position is separately executable so that the vehicle (R) not before reaching the last of the predetermined x positioning positions or the tolerance range around the same stops, or - the positioning is successively separately executable for each target position such that the vehicle (R) does not stop before reaching the last one of the predetermined target positions or the tolerance zone therearound.
  17. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that - the reproduction scale Camera (K) and the x-target position are selected so that when they reach both this and the one on the display (D, D2) displayed markers (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) lie in the detection range (E, E2) of the camera (K), or - of the Mapping scale camera (K) and the target position so chosen are that when they reach both this and the on markers shown on the display (D, D2) (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) in the detection range (E, E2) of the camera (K).
  18. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that (a) in the case of one not on Movement of the vehicle participating display (D) the vehicle (R) for Purpose of its orientation in a particular direction with the help of a Rotary drive about one to the optical axis of the camera (K) in parallel or oblique axis so with respect to this Marker (DM2, DM3, DM4) is rotatable, or b) in the case of on the vehicle displays arranged the vehicle for the purpose of his Orientation in a certain direction with the aid of a rotary drive one parallel to the optical axis of the camera or at an angle extending axis is rotatable with respect to the camera, that the image of the marker shown on the display (M, M8-M18) in the image field (BF) of the camera (K) a certain predetermined orientation having.
  19. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that (a) in the case of one not on Movement of the vehicle participating displays the vehicle with the help a rotary drive for the purpose of its orientation in a certain Direction around one to the optical axis perpendicular or oblique extending axis is rotatable with respect to this marker, or b) in the case of a display arranged on the vehicle the vehicle by means of a rotary drive for the purpose of its orientation in a certain direction around the camera's optical axis perpendicular or oblique axis so with respect to Camera is rotatable, that the image of the marker in the image field of Camera has a certain, predetermined perspective distortion.
  20. Positioning system according to claim 3, characterized that the positioning in the x-direction and in the y-direction simultaneously or executable overlapping in time.
  21. Positioning system according to claim 20, characterized in that that the computer equipment is capable of the vehicle (R) at the Positioning on or parallel to the movement surface (F) along a given path (FW) to control.
  22. Positioning system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that instead of the camera (K) with a Computerized device associated line sensor, in particular diode array, is provided by means of which the marker (DM1-DM4, DN2-DN7) can be detected by scanning, and the image information thus obtained transferable to the IT equipment and from there for positioning of the vehicle (LK, R) can be used.
  23. Positioning system according to any preceding claim, marked by - a plurality or multiplicity of not participating in the movement of dews vehicle, preferably stationary, Displays (D) along the track or track (TT, ZTT) or distributed along or along the movement surface (F) are arranged distributed, - or a plurality or Variety of displays arranged on the vehicle, in which on each display (D) at least one marker (DM1, DM2, DM3, DM4) is representable.
DE200720012798 2007-09-12 2007-09-12 positioning Systems Expired - Lifetime DE202007012798U1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200720012798 DE202007012798U1 (en) 2007-09-12 2007-09-12 positioning Systems

Applications Claiming Priority (13)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200720012798 DE202007012798U1 (en) 2007-09-12 2007-09-12 positioning Systems
ES08005213.7T ES2564810T3 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Procedure and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP20080005216 EP2037225B1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP08005214.5A EP2037224B1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP08005215.2A EP2037227B1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle
ES08005214.5T ES2556174T3 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Procedure and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP08005217.8A EP2037228B1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the maintenance interval of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
ES08005215.2T ES2558022T3 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Procedure and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP08005213.7A EP2037226B1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
AT08005216T AT522788T (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product
EP08005218A EP2037229A1 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Method and device for determining the position of a vehicle
ES08005217.8T ES2558801T3 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-03-19 Procedure and device for determining a maintenance interval of a vehicle, computer program and software product
US12/207,589 US8385594B2 (en) 2007-09-12 2008-09-10 Method and apparatus for determining the position of a vehicle, computer program and computer program product

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE202007012798U1 true DE202007012798U1 (en) 2009-02-12

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DE200720012798 Expired - Lifetime DE202007012798U1 (en) 2007-09-12 2007-09-12 positioning Systems

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CN102515034A (en) * 2011-12-27 2012-06-27 北京佰能电气技术有限公司 Dry coke quenching lifter and lifter positioning method
DE202014000374U1 (en) 2014-01-14 2014-03-28 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Device for orientation for automatically in factory halls run, electrically operated, transport vehicles
DE102014000375A1 (en) 2014-01-14 2015-07-16 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Device for orientation for automatically in factory halls run, electrically operated, transport vehicles
US9354070B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2016-05-31 Crown Equipment Corporation Systems, methods, and industrial vehicles for determining the visibility of features
WO2017045704A1 (en) * 2015-09-15 2017-03-23 Pepperl+Fuchs Gmbh Apparatus and method for reliably determining the position of an object

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EP0039921A2 (en) 1980-05-12 1981-11-18 Tokyo Kogaku Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha Encoder device and method of use of it
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EP0039921A2 (en) 1980-05-12 1981-11-18 Tokyo Kogaku Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha Encoder device and method of use of it
EP0116636A1 (en) 1982-09-01 1984-08-29 Rosemount Eng Co Ltd Position measuring apparatus.
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DE4209629A1 (en) 1991-03-25 1992-10-01 Nikon Corp Absolute position encoder with coding element having absolute and incremental symbol patterns in parallel - has detector with sensors for recording two symbol patterns and discriminates relative phase position of encoder and detector
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102515034A (en) * 2011-12-27 2012-06-27 北京佰能电气技术有限公司 Dry coke quenching lifter and lifter positioning method
US9354070B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2016-05-31 Crown Equipment Corporation Systems, methods, and industrial vehicles for determining the visibility of features
DE202014000374U1 (en) 2014-01-14 2014-03-28 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Device for orientation for automatically in factory halls run, electrically operated, transport vehicles
DE102014000375A1 (en) 2014-01-14 2015-07-16 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Device for orientation for automatically in factory halls run, electrically operated, transport vehicles
WO2015106755A1 (en) 2014-01-14 2015-07-23 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Orientation device for electrically driven transport vehicles automatically guided in factory buildings
US9971351B2 (en) 2014-01-14 2018-05-15 Grenzebach Maschinenbau Gmbh Orientation device for electrically operated transportation vehicles, automatically guided in factory building
WO2017045704A1 (en) * 2015-09-15 2017-03-23 Pepperl+Fuchs Gmbh Apparatus and method for reliably determining the position of an object

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