DE202007002897U1 - Photovoltaic solar module - Google Patents

Photovoltaic solar module

Info

Publication number
DE202007002897U1
DE202007002897U1 DE200720002897 DE202007002897U DE202007002897U1 DE 202007002897 U1 DE202007002897 U1 DE 202007002897U1 DE 200720002897 DE200720002897 DE 200720002897 DE 202007002897 U DE202007002897 U DE 202007002897U DE 202007002897 U1 DE202007002897 U1 DE 202007002897U1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
solar cells
solar module
light
solar
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
DE200720002897
Other languages
German (de)
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Schueco International KG
Original Assignee
Schueco International KG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Schueco International KG filed Critical Schueco International KG
Priority to DE200720002897 priority Critical patent/DE202007002897U1/en
Publication of DE202007002897U1 publication Critical patent/DE202007002897U1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/054Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means
    • H01L31/0547Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means comprising light concentrating means of the reflecting type, e.g. parabolic mirrors, concentrators using total internal reflection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/054Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means
    • H01L31/055Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means where light is absorbed and re-emitted at a different wavelength by the optical element directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. by using luminescent material, fluorescent concentrators or up-conversion arrangements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/52PV systems with concentrators

Abstract

Photovoltaic solar module (1) with
a. at least one or more solar cells (2), in particular bifacial solar cells, arranged at a distance from one another on the surface of the solar module,
b. and at least one or more radiation-deflecting surface elements (8) which direct light incident on these surface elements (8) to the solar cells (2),
characterized in that
c. the radiation-deflecting surface elements (8) are designed as light-conducting surface elements (8) which consist of a light-conducting plastic and have a light-collecting surface (10) facing the sun and at least one or more active surfaces (11) arranged in such a way the collected light from the active surface (s) (11) is directed to one or more of the solar cells (2) of the solar module (1).

Description

  • The The invention relates to a photovoltaic solar module according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • solar cells are electrical components, which sunlight through the photoelectric Convert effect into electrical energy. They are in different ways embodiments known.
  • Next Solar cells, which incident only on one of its two main external surfaces Converting light into electrical energy are also called bifacial solar cells known in itself. Bifacial solar cells are planar solar cells denotes the light from above and below, d. H. from both sides can absorb so that not only with them on their front - d. H. on the side facing the sun - directly incident light but For example, light is absorbable, which on a bright Wall is falling and from this to the back Bifacial solar cells is reflected.
  • solar Panels contain one or preferably several solar cells that are in the solar module to a against environmental influences protected, as good as possible manageable and provided with electrical connections unit which are usually one the solar cells on their turned to the sun Have side covering transparent disc, a frame, a Support material which holds the solar cells and a back cover, z. B. a lamination. In addition, the solar module has the electrical connections and preferably mounting means, for example, the Allow installation of the solar module on a building.
  • Also Solar modules with bifacial cells are known per se. With you the bifacial solar cells are spaced apart on transparent surface elements arranged like glass panes. Direct sunlight will be on the Sun-facing side of the solar cells converted into electrical energy. In addition, sunlight shines through the spaces between the solar cells by. This light is, for example, from rear surfaces, such. B. white house walls or Snow surfaces u. Like. Reflected, so that it is the bifacial solar cells of the back shines. As a result, in the solar cells quasi double-sided Electricity generated.
  • There the reflection of house walls or snow surfaces relative is low, are used to improve the efficiency in the bifacial photovoltaic modules reflective surfaces such as B. Mirror in arched or angled arrangement, which the reflected light preferably bundle and on the back the bifacial solar cells redirect.
  • to Simplification of handling it is also known, the transparent surfaces with the bifacial solar cells and the reflective mirror assembly for radiation deflection in a common frame, preferably in an aluminum frame, to arrange.
  • The radiation-deflecting surface elements Although they improve the efficiency of solar modules with bifacial solar cells further. Nevertheless, there is a need for further optimization the well-known solar modules.
  • So is still the efficiency of the known bifacial solar modules problematic, since the deflected sunbeams are not exclusively under the solar cells get out but also out of the modules be blasted.
  • hereby In particular, there are also unpleasant reflections or reflections.
  • So called tracking systems, which track the modules of the sun, can indeed help. But they are very expensive and relatively expensive and increase that Total weight so much that the modules no longer everywhere can be used.
  • tracking systems are also due to the associated noise and energy consumption disadvantageous.
  • Problematic In addition, that is usually the look through the tracking system is impaired.
  • It The object of the invention is an improved solar module, in particular with bifacial solar cells, to create that at least a part the above problems and the advantage of a good Efficiency offers.
  • The Invention solves this object by the subject matter of claim 1.
  • advantageous Embodiments of the invention are the dependent claims remove.
  • Of the inventive solar module has as the radiation-deflecting surface elements photoconductive surface elements (Light guide plates), which consists of a light-conducting plastic exist and have at least one active surface arranged in such a way and is designed that from her the collected light on one or several solar cells of the solar module is passed.
  • Preferably this arrangement is kept in a frame.
  • Photoconductive Plastics or light-wave conducting plastics in particular in Fiber form have been known for a long time. Also known are light conductive plastics in one embodiment as surface elements.
  • So become light-conducting surface elements Plastic, for example, as information signs or as design elements used by lighting.
  • When Plastics of this kind are, for example, polycarbonates (PC) or polymethylmetachrylates (PMMA) for use, possibly with fillers are provided (for example nanoscale ceramics). In newer Time such light-conducting plastics have been significantly developed. improves In particular, the area indices of the Boundary layers, the total reflections, the refraction behavior, the interference behavior and the acceptance angle. It was also the inclusion of color pigments possible.
  • such photoconductive surface elements made of plastic "collect" the light over the to the sun or light source (outward) surfaces in the Inside and divert the rays by reflection in the plastic side continue, with the radiation density increases greatly. The Light emission from the light-conducting surface elements takes place on narrow outer surfaces, the as active surfaces be designated.
  • Photoconductive surface elements Of a photoconductive plastic are generally in total too transparent to a degree.
  • Especially advantageous is the use of the light-conducting surface elements made of a light-conducting plastic to solar modules, the whole or Partially provided with bifacial solar cells, since here are the backs Bifacial solar cells can be irradiated by the active surfaces. so be disturbing Reflections emanating from the solar modules, in a simple manner avoided. In addition, a compact design is achieved because the active surfaces are not be arranged on the sun-facing side of the solar cells have to.
  • in the Contrary to the prior art is also high-intensity light on the back led the bifacial solar cells, so that the efficiency of the Solar module is significantly increased with simple, relatively inexpensive means.
  • It is also advantageous if, according to a preferred embodiment the active surfaces spaced from the solar cells is arranged. This allows the Solar cells have a larger area as the certifying active surface (s), which is advantageous affects the efficiency of the arrangement.
  • By the spacing of the active surfaces It is also conceivable that the solar cells in a surface area each of the active surfaces are illuminated by two or more light-conducting surface elements. As a result, the thus irradiated solar cell is at least in the corresponding surface area quasi "double" or multiply by Illuminated light.
  • following The invention is based on an embodiment with reference closer to the name described. It shows:
  • 1 a plan view of a schematically illustrated solar module;
  • 2 a side view of the solar module 1 and
  • 3 an enlarged detail 2 ,
  • 1 shows a plan view of a solar module 1 at its top - that is, at its sun-facing side - with a variety of bifacial solar cells 2 is occupied.
  • The bifacial solar cells 2 are on the surface of the solar module, by a lateral, preferably circumferential frame 6 is limited, arranged in a plurality of parallel rows spaced from each other, so that not the entire surface of the solar module with the solar cells 2 is covered.
  • It offers, for example, so about 30% to 70%, in particular about half, the surface of the solar module to be provided with solar cells and not the remaining area.
  • The spaced arrangement of the solar cells 2 has the effect that on the one hand a part of the solar module 1 incident solar radiation 3 on the top of the solar cells 2 meets and on the other hand - see 2 - also a part 4 the radiation passes laterally past the solar cells.
  • The solar module 1 with the bifacial solar cells 2 offers the advantage that it requires significantly fewer solar cells than a corresponding solar module with single or single-acting solar cells, so that it can be produced more cost-effectively than a solar module whose entire solar facing surface is covered with solar cells.
  • The solar cells 2 are at the top of the module in or on a transparent surface element 5 arranged, which may for example consist of glass or plastic.
  • The surface element 5 is preferably from the frame 6 surrounded, which consists of profiles and serves among other things to facilitate assembly.
  • Out 2 it can be seen that at the bottom of the frame 6 preferably a final floor element 7 how a floor panel can be arranged. The floor element 7 but is not mandatory.
  • To 2 are the solar cells 2 arranged in several rows parallel to each other and spaced from each other. They are electrically connected to each other. Connections "+" and "-" allow the connection of electrical lines (not shown).
  • In the space between the solar cells are - preferably in a plane below the solar cells and preferably above the bottom elements 7 - Radiation-redirecting surface elements 8th arranged of light-conducting plastic.
  • The surface elements 8th are designed to emit radiation on their sun-facing surface 4 absorb and within the surface element 8th forward. The incident radiation is reflected back to the outside only to a very small extent.
  • The in the surface elements 8th incident light rays become up to one or more edge active surfaces 11 directed, from which the forwarded radiation again from the photoconductive surface element 8th emerges from plastic, namely with a multiplication of the radiation density of the incident radiation.
  • The active surfaces 11 are designed and aligned so that the forwarded radiation as closely as possible to the back of the Bifocal solar cells 2 where the incoming light is converted into electrical energy. Such a high efficiency can be achieved without having to occupy the entire surface of the solar module with solar cells.
  • In 3 is an enlarged partial view of the area module 8th shown with its radiation profile.
  • The light-conducting plastic surface element 8th Absorbs on its sun-facing quilt 10 the sunlight 4 , which at the photovoltaic modules 2 it shines and guides it inside (radiation 9 ) up to the one or more active surfaces 11 from which it emerges bundled again. The at least one active surface 11 may be a vertical or otherwise angled or curved cut through the surface element 8th be educated.
  • In the present case, the surface element 8th as a whole, it has a slightly convex curvature and extends from an active area which lies below a first row of bifacial solar cells to a further active area under a parallel row of bifacial solar cells.
  • It are other configurations, such. As oblique surfaces, square or structured surfaces possible.
  • With the slightly arched execution but is going according to the arrangement of the sun in the sky in the course one day always achieved an optimal surface orientation.
  • In this case, the curved structure does not serve as a concave mirror surface of the direct reflection of light on the bifacial solar cells, but it is within the fabric a forwarding to the active surfaces 11 instead of.
  • It is also conceivable, the lower floor element 7 to omit or even interpret transparently.
  • As well as the light-conducting plastic of the surface element 8th has a certain transparency, this module can also be used as a light-permeable surface element in front of a building opening z. B. a window or a facade.
  • The transparency of the surface elements or structures 8th leaves a residual amount of light that is sufficient to achieve a lightening of the building's back rooms.
  • It is also possible, the surface element 8th colored, so that the use of the solar modules according to the invention also offers architectural design options. The invention also proposes to provide facade or window elements with solar modules of the type according to the invention.
  • 1
    solar module
    2
    solar cells
    3
    direct radiation
    4
    indirect radiation
    5
    surface element
    6
    frame
    7
    floor element
    8th
    surface element
    9
    forwarded radiation
    10
    quilt
    11
    active area

Claims (13)

  1. Photovoltaic solar module ( 1 ) with a. at least one or more solar cells arranged at a distance from one another on the surface of the solar module ( 2 ), in particular bifacial solar cells, b. and at least one or more radiation-deflecting surface elements ( 8th ), which on these surface elements ( 8th ) falling light on the solar cells ( 2 ), characterized in that c. the radiation-deflecting surface elements ( 8th ) as light-conducting surface elements ( 8th ) are formed, which consist of a light-conducting plastic and a sun-facing light-collecting surface ( 10 ) and at least one or more active surfaces) ( 11 ), which is arranged such that the collected light from the active surface (s) (s) ( 11 ) to one or more of the solar cells ( 2 ) of the solar module ( 1 ).
  2. Solar module according to claim 1, characterized in that the solar cells as bifacial solar cells ( 2 ) are designed.
  3. Solar module according to claim 1, characterized in that 30% to 70% of the sun-facing surface of the solar module ( 1 ) with the solar cells ( 2 ) is occupied.
  4. Solar module according to claim 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the light-conducting surface elements ( 8th ) on the solar module next to, in particular between, the solar cells ( 2 ) are arranged such that from the active surfaces ( 11 ) radiated light on the backside of the bifacial solar cells facing away from the sun ( 2 ) is radiated.
  5. Solar module according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the solar cells ( 2 ) are arranged side by side in several rows and that the light-guiding surface elements ( 8th ) on two opposite side in each case one of the active surfaces ( 11 ) which are oriented to direct their light to the backsides of the bifacial solar cells ( 2 ) radiate.
  6. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the light-conducting surface elements ( 7 ) are configured convexly convex and that the active surfaces ( 11 ) are formed on the sides of the grooves and under mutually adjacent rows of bifacial solar cells ( 2 ) lie.
  7. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the solar cells and the light-conducting surface elements ( 7 ) of a common framework ( 6 ) are surrounded and held.
  8. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the active surfaces ( 11 ) is arranged at a distance from the solar cells.
  9. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one or more of the solar cells in each case by the active surfaces of two or more photoconductive surface elements ( 7 ) are illuminated.
  10. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the solar module, a bottom element ( 7 ), which closes the solar module on the side facing away from the sun.
  11. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the bottom element ( 7 ) is transparent.
  12. Solar module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the bottom element ( 7 ) is colored.
  13. Façade or window element with a solar module according to any one of the preceding claims.
DE200720002897 2007-02-28 2007-02-28 Photovoltaic solar module Expired - Lifetime DE202007002897U1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200720002897 DE202007002897U1 (en) 2007-02-28 2007-02-28 Photovoltaic solar module

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200720002897 DE202007002897U1 (en) 2007-02-28 2007-02-28 Photovoltaic solar module

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE202007002897U1 true DE202007002897U1 (en) 2008-07-10

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Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2820683A4 (en) * 2012-02-29 2015-10-07 Bakersun Bifacial crystalline silicon solar panel with reflector
WO2016126416A1 (en) * 2015-02-02 2016-08-11 Solarcity Corporation Bifacial photovoltaic module using heterojunction solar cells
US9496427B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2016-11-15 Solarcity Corporation Module fabrication of solar cells with low resistivity electrodes
US9496429B1 (en) 2015-12-30 2016-11-15 Solarcity Corporation System and method for tin plating metal electrodes
US9624595B2 (en) 2013-05-24 2017-04-18 Solarcity Corporation Electroplating apparatus with improved throughput
US9761744B2 (en) 2015-10-22 2017-09-12 Tesla, Inc. System and method for manufacturing photovoltaic structures with a metal seed layer
US9773928B2 (en) 2010-09-10 2017-09-26 Tesla, Inc. Solar cell with electroplated metal grid
US9800053B2 (en) 2010-10-08 2017-10-24 Tesla, Inc. Solar panels with integrated cell-level MPPT devices
US9842956B2 (en) 2015-12-21 2017-12-12 Tesla, Inc. System and method for mass-production of high-efficiency photovoltaic structures
US9865754B2 (en) 2012-10-10 2018-01-09 Tesla, Inc. Hole collectors for silicon photovoltaic cells
US9887306B2 (en) 2011-06-02 2018-02-06 Tesla, Inc. Tunneling-junction solar cell with copper grid for concentrated photovoltaic application
US9899546B2 (en) 2014-12-05 2018-02-20 Tesla, Inc. Photovoltaic cells with electrodes adapted to house conductive paste
DE102016012491A1 (en) * 2016-10-19 2018-04-19 Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur PV Shutter
US10074755B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2018-09-11 Tesla, Inc. High efficiency solar panel
US10084107B2 (en) 2010-06-09 2018-09-25 Tesla, Inc. Transparent conducting oxide for photovoltaic devices
US10084099B2 (en) 2009-11-12 2018-09-25 Tesla, Inc. Aluminum grid as backside conductor on epitaxial silicon thin film solar cells
US10115839B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2018-10-30 Tesla, Inc. Module fabrication of solar cells with low resistivity electrodes
US10115838B2 (en) 2016-04-19 2018-10-30 Tesla, Inc. Photovoltaic structures with interlocking busbars
US10309012B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2019-06-04 Tesla, Inc. Wafer carrier for reducing contamination from carbon particles and outgassing

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DE4225133A1 (en) * 1992-07-30 1994-02-03 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Electrical or thermal power solar energy conversion system - uses surface covering arrangement of flat solar collectors and concentrates collector designed with single or double axis arranged over flat collectors.
US5646397A (en) * 1991-10-08 1997-07-08 Unisearch Limited Optical design for photo-cell
JPH1146008A (en) * 1997-07-25 1999-02-16 Toyota Motor Corp Sunlight collector
JP2000022194A (en) * 1998-07-06 2000-01-21 Nippon Signal Co Ltd:The Solar cell power supply
US6087579A (en) * 1997-03-26 2000-07-11 Muskatevc; Mark S. Method and apparatus for directing solar energy to solar energy collecting cells
US6294723B2 (en) * 1998-02-26 2001-09-25 Hitachi, Ltd. Photovoltaic device, photovoltaic module and establishing method of photovoltaic system
DE10106309A1 (en) * 2001-02-12 2002-08-22 Ibc Solartechnik Ag Photovoltaic device used for integrating into buildings, especially into the roof consists of individual photovoltaic modules with the intermediate chambers between the cells of the modules and between the modules formed to scatter light
JP2004221213A (en) * 2003-01-14 2004-08-05 Kyocera Corp Solar-cell module
WO2005091378A2 (en) * 2004-03-19 2005-09-29 Sunways Ag Solar cell modules
DE202006011132U1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2006-10-19 Zemann, Herbert Solar cell module for production of electric energy has row accumulating lenses attached on surface, which bundles impinging light and guides into fiber glass tape attached at accumulating lens
US20060272698A1 (en) * 2005-06-06 2006-12-07 Durvasula Ravi S Photovoltaic concentrator for solar energy system

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3107888A1 (en) * 1981-03-02 1982-09-16 Imchemie Kunststoff Gmbh solar concentrator
US5646397A (en) * 1991-10-08 1997-07-08 Unisearch Limited Optical design for photo-cell
DE4225133A1 (en) * 1992-07-30 1994-02-03 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Electrical or thermal power solar energy conversion system - uses surface covering arrangement of flat solar collectors and concentrates collector designed with single or double axis arranged over flat collectors.
US6087579A (en) * 1997-03-26 2000-07-11 Muskatevc; Mark S. Method and apparatus for directing solar energy to solar energy collecting cells
JPH1146008A (en) * 1997-07-25 1999-02-16 Toyota Motor Corp Sunlight collector
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JP2000022194A (en) * 1998-07-06 2000-01-21 Nippon Signal Co Ltd:The Solar cell power supply
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DE202006011132U1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2006-10-19 Zemann, Herbert Solar cell module for production of electric energy has row accumulating lenses attached on surface, which bundles impinging light and guides into fiber glass tape attached at accumulating lens

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10084099B2 (en) 2009-11-12 2018-09-25 Tesla, Inc. Aluminum grid as backside conductor on epitaxial silicon thin film solar cells
US10084107B2 (en) 2010-06-09 2018-09-25 Tesla, Inc. Transparent conducting oxide for photovoltaic devices
US9773928B2 (en) 2010-09-10 2017-09-26 Tesla, Inc. Solar cell with electroplated metal grid
US9800053B2 (en) 2010-10-08 2017-10-24 Tesla, Inc. Solar panels with integrated cell-level MPPT devices
US9887306B2 (en) 2011-06-02 2018-02-06 Tesla, Inc. Tunneling-junction solar cell with copper grid for concentrated photovoltaic application
EP2820683A4 (en) * 2012-02-29 2015-10-07 Bakersun Bifacial crystalline silicon solar panel with reflector
US9865754B2 (en) 2012-10-10 2018-01-09 Tesla, Inc. Hole collectors for silicon photovoltaic cells
US10074755B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2018-09-11 Tesla, Inc. High efficiency solar panel
US10164127B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2018-12-25 Tesla, Inc. Module fabrication of solar cells with low resistivity electrodes
US10115839B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2018-10-30 Tesla, Inc. Module fabrication of solar cells with low resistivity electrodes
US9496427B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2016-11-15 Solarcity Corporation Module fabrication of solar cells with low resistivity electrodes
US9624595B2 (en) 2013-05-24 2017-04-18 Solarcity Corporation Electroplating apparatus with improved throughput
US10309012B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2019-06-04 Tesla, Inc. Wafer carrier for reducing contamination from carbon particles and outgassing
US9899546B2 (en) 2014-12-05 2018-02-20 Tesla, Inc. Photovoltaic cells with electrodes adapted to house conductive paste
WO2016126416A1 (en) * 2015-02-02 2016-08-11 Solarcity Corporation Bifacial photovoltaic module using heterojunction solar cells
US10181536B2 (en) 2015-10-22 2019-01-15 Tesla, Inc. System and method for manufacturing photovoltaic structures with a metal seed layer
US9761744B2 (en) 2015-10-22 2017-09-12 Tesla, Inc. System and method for manufacturing photovoltaic structures with a metal seed layer
US9842956B2 (en) 2015-12-21 2017-12-12 Tesla, Inc. System and method for mass-production of high-efficiency photovoltaic structures
US9496429B1 (en) 2015-12-30 2016-11-15 Solarcity Corporation System and method for tin plating metal electrodes
US10115838B2 (en) 2016-04-19 2018-10-30 Tesla, Inc. Photovoltaic structures with interlocking busbars
DE102016012491A1 (en) * 2016-10-19 2018-04-19 Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur PV Shutter

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