The invention relates to an electric vehicle produced by movements of his
Driver or passenger is driven, the movement through
supports an electric motor
Such vehicles are known as "pedelecs" or as "bicycles with pedaling assistance". So revealed the US 5,662,187
and the US 4,541,500
each such vehicle.
the bicycles known there
is disadvantageous that these by postman in the delivery company only
Therefore, the task is to provide an electric vehicle,
which avoids the disadvantages mentioned above.
The object is solved by the subject matter of the independent claim. Advantageous developments
result from the dependent claims.
According to one
The basic idea of the invention is the known regulation of these electric vehicles
that these starting from a standing or from a relatively low
Speed alone by the electric motor to a predetermined
Limit speed can be accelerated. Starting from the limit speed
can then additional
Driving energy through pedals or other mechanical units in
be initiated the powertrain of the vehicle, as of the
Operation of the so-called pedelec is known. If no extra
Energy is introduced, then drives
the vehicle continues to travel at border speed. Of course you can
in the start-up phase of the vehicle according to the invention, the acceleration
of the vehicle by the electric motor also in addition to a movement of the
For example, drivers are supported by pedaling, resulting in a
even faster acceleration results. The inventive training
of the electric vehicle ensures
that this is gladly used by postmen. Even older people come
with such an electric vehicle cope better than with the in the
State of the art known electric vehicles.
and top speed
are programmed into the controller in such a way that these are provided by a user
not in a simple way - like
for example, by a switch or a potentiometer - by
changed the driver
The invention also includes a method for operating an electric vehicle
as well as a controller for
such an electric vehicle. This is attributed to that
just in the first moments of accelerating an electric vehicle,
especially an electric bicycle, with his legs around a
Take care of stabilization of the vehicle
can, as long as you do not have to step. In the so-called pedelec
At least one leg is needed
or even both legs to get the vehicle from a standstill to a speed
To accelerate, starting from the moments of the rotating wheels for a stabilization
to care. Especially in this speed range, namely when the electric motor
Alone used for acceleration, in the invention
dedicated the attention of the driver undivided to his vehicle
become. In a special development, the wheels of the
Vehicle designed so
that these just when reaching the Grenzge speed for additional
Stabilization by a gyro effect, as he from the
Research into the driving dynamics of a two-wheeler is known.
Invention is based on the realization that the dissatisfaction
the user of the bicycles known from the prior art
Heavy loaded pedelecs like those of postmen are straight
unstable when starting, which can lead to shaky situations.
A sole traction help up to a limit speed, at
the a certain driving stability
given, fixes this problem. After that, the postman can through
drive as fast as he wishes.
Yet another embodiment of the invention is provided,
is shut off by the electric motor when a certain maximum speed
is reached. On the basis of this further education two are particularly suitable
Variants on. First, an extra excess generated by the driver
Drive power can be used to drive the vehicle to even higher speeds
to accelerate. Deviating from it can also - for example by a
Selector switch or an inclinometer operated - the excess energy to charge
the battery can be used. This can also be fixed,
not changeable by the user,
be specified in the controller. Straight through a selector switch
Thus, the driver of the vehicle has a choice, for example
Downhill operation when the vehicle exceeds a certain speed,
thereby generated by the electric motor in the generator mode
To inject energy into the battery, which improves its durability.
When the driver is driving on a straight line at a higher speed
would like to,
then he switches off generator mode with the selector switch,
so the whole additional
Energy generated by it is translated into the speed of the vehicle
Use fitness purposes well, so it is conceivable, the electric motor
operate in a fitness position in which the driver generates
Energy above reaching the limit speed in loading power
for the electric motor
is converted in the generator motor. Then it would be conceivable that the driver
in limited space such as on small islands
all his energy over
can feed the generator into the battery. After the end of the training
the driver can then use the energy stored in the battery
drive home, in a way
as a reward.
The invention is described below with reference to the accompanying drawings
1 shows a schematic representation of an electric bicycle according to the invention and
2 shows a time-speed diagram of the electric bicycle 1 operational.
shows a schematic representation of an electric bicycle according to the invention 1
, The electric bicycle 1
has parts of a conventional bicycle, for example those in the US 5,662,187
and in the US 4,541,500
shown parts and components. Here is just a handlebar 2
with a throttle grip 3
, a pedaling device 4
and a gear 5
a rear wheel, not shown here visible. The pedaling device 4
and the gear 5
are about a chain 6
connected with each other. In operation, a driver, not shown, actuates the pedaling device 4
and drives over the chain 6
the gear 5
and thus the rear wheel of the electric bicycle 1
at. With the handlebar 2
the direction of travel of the bicycle is determined.
According to the invention, the electric bicycle 1 with an electronic control 7 fitted. The control 7 can through the throttle grip 3 be operated with the controller 7 via a control cable 8th communicates. The throttle grip 3 can be designed as a potentiometer. Furthermore, an actuation sensor 9 in the field of pedaling 4 intended. This actuation sensor 9 can be a Hall sensor or coil / magnetic sensor, with which one on the frame of the electric bicycle 1 passing stroking crank of the treadmill 4 is detected. The actuation sensor 9 is via another control cable 10 with the controller 7 connected.
It is still an electric drive motor 11 provided by a drive cable 12 with the controller 7 communicates. A drive wheel 13 of the drive motor 11 stands over a toothed belt 14 with one on the gear 5 attached toothed belt pulley 15 so in connection that the drive power of the drive motor 11 on the gear 5 and thus can be impressed on the rear wheel.
Finally, there is an electric battery 16 provided, which is designed as an accumulator. The battery 16 stands over a battery cable 17 with the controller 7 in connection.
The achieved driving speed is measured by means not shown here and the controller 7 fed.
In operation, the electric bicycle 1 essentially moved by the fact that the driver pedaling movements of the treadmill 4 performs and thus the rear wheel of the electric bicycle 1 drives.
In addition, the driver can by turning the throttle grip 3 the control 7 So influence that electrical energy from the battery 16 to the drive motor 11 forwards. This will cause the drive wheel 13 of the drive motor 11 driven and drive energy is transmitted through the timing belt 14 and the timing belt pulley 15 to the gear 5 forwarded, which contributes to an additional drive of the rear wheel.
The various operating states of the invention will now be described with reference to FIG 2 explained.
In a first operating state I it is assumed that the driver of the electric bicycle 1 the treadmill 4 not operated, but rather the electric bicycle 1 solely due to the operation on the throttle grip in motion. How to get in 2 clearly sees, the speed of the electric bicycle decreases 1 within 5 seconds from 0 km / h to 6 km / h. In this time, the controller performs 7 the drive motor 11 electrical energy too. If the limit speed of 6 km / h is reached (point 17 ), keeps the control 7 the on the drive motor 11 supplied energy at such a level that the instantaneous speed of the electric bicycle 1 remains equal to the limit speed of 6 km / h. In this state, the controller takes over 7 the function of a speed control (cruise control).
If the user of the electric bicycle 1 the throttle grip 3 turning back to its original position, then the speed of the electric bicycle decreases 1 usually if he does not start kicking at the same time. This condition is not shown here.
In operating mode II it is assumed that the user of the electric bicycle 1 starting from rest the bike not only by turning the throttle but also by pedaling conditions at the treadmill 4 accelerated. Accordingly, the limit speed of 6 km / h is also reached faster than in operating state I. When the limit speed of 6 km / h (point 18 ) switches the controller 7 to another program, according to which the driver's support by the electric motor 11 is progressively reduced with increasing vehicle speed. When reaching a speed of 20 km / h, there is a balance between the travel resistance of the electric bicycle 1 and the running through the electric motor 11 and through the pedal device in the electric bicycle 1 supplied energy (point 19 ). The electric bicycle 1 stops the speed of 20 km / h. At time t = 15 seconds, the driver of the electric bicycle hears 1 to perform pedaling movements (point 20 ). The control 7 detects this via the actuation sensor 9 and interrupts the supply of additional energy to the electric motor 11 , Optionally, the electric motor 11 be electrically switched to a freewheeling state, if this is not guaranteed mechanically anyway.
As you can see in the further course of the speed curve to the operating state II, the speed of the electric bicycle is reduced 1 up to the limit speed of 6 km / h. The driver, who may still have turned the throttle grip, does not step into the treadmill anymore 4 and thereby causes the controller 7 to switch back to the above-described cruise control state in which this is the electric bicycle 1 stops at the limit speed of 6 km / h. Finally, the throttle grip 3 turned back, then reduces the speed of the electric bicycle 1 until it stops.
In operating condition III, we have to do with a continuous kicking driver, the electric bicycle 1 by kicking and turning the throttle grip 3 accelerated to a final speed of 25 km / h (point 21 ), wherein the bicycle is supplied with increasing speed less drive power, as in the state 2 is described in more detail. If the driver accelerates further by pedaling and over a speed of 25 km / h, then the control switches 7 in a final speed state in which the supply of energy to the electric motor 11 completely interrupted. The driver adjusts to this and then occurs, ie at the time t = 15 seconds, just so fast that the controller 7 the electric motor 11 so energized that maximum support of his pedaling by the electric motor 11 is reached.
In operating state IV, finally, it is assumed that a violent kicking driver, the bike within 5 seconds by turning the throttle grip 3 and accelerated by pedaling further. From a speed of 6 km / h (point 22 ) the assistance with energy is progressively reduced until reaching the top speed of 25 km / h (point 23 ) the control 7 the energy supply to the electric motor 11 completely off. The driver must from this time t = 5 seconds, the travel resistance of the electric bicycle 1 overcome by pedaling alone. He succeeds here until reaching a top speed of 30 km / h.
Limit and maximum speed are so in the controller ( 7 ) programmed so that they can not be changed by a user in a simple manner - such as by a switch or a potentiometer - by the driver. This facilitates the legal registration of the vehicle.
The invention can also be used with an internal combustion engine instead of the electric motor ( 11 ) are implemented. In addition, instead of the bicycle, a three-wheel rickshaw be used, it is advantageous that the acceleration is greatly facilitated, especially in the lower speed range. The same applies to a pedal car designed according to the invention.
an embodiment not shown here
the support is provided
by the electric motor so that the support does not take place so that
for a service provided by the user, an additional amount depending thereon
Power of the electric motor is provided. Rather, the controller can
then provide the entire propulsion power of the electric vehicle,
if only a pedaling movement is performed on the treadmill.
Viewer then sees such a vehicle as if it were from
the user is driven, although the drive power is almost
or even completely
is provided by the electric motor. The rest of the behavior regarding speed limit
and top speed
but remains the same, d. H. without pedaling the vehicle drives only 6 km / h.
above speeds are only examples. So can
the limit speed also be 3 km / h or 5 km / h and the maximum speed
can be 40 km / h or even different.