DE19856983A1 - Implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, particularly a coronary stent - Google Patents

Implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, particularly a coronary stent

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Publication number
DE19856983A1
DE19856983A1 DE1998156983 DE19856983A DE19856983A1 DE 19856983 A1 DE19856983 A1 DE 19856983A1 DE 1998156983 DE1998156983 DE 1998156983 DE 19856983 A DE19856983 A DE 19856983A DE 19856983 A1 DE19856983 A1 DE 19856983A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
vascular stent
characterized
stent according
alloy
metal
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DE1998156983
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German (de)
Inventor
Armin Bolz
Thomas Popp
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BIOTRONIK AG, BüLACH, CH
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Biotronik Mess- und Therapiegeraete GmbH and Co
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Priority to DE19828245 priority Critical
Application filed by Biotronik Mess- und Therapiegeraete GmbH and Co filed Critical Biotronik Mess- und Therapiegeraete GmbH and Co
Priority to DE1998156983 priority patent/DE19856983A1/en
Priority claimed from EP99111383A external-priority patent/EP0966979B1/en
Publication of DE19856983A1 publication Critical patent/DE19856983A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/02Inorganic materials
    • A61L31/022Metals or alloys
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/08Materials for coatings
    • A61L31/082Inorganic materials
    • A61L31/088Other specific inorganic materials not covered by A61L31/084 or A61L31/086
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/14Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L31/148Materials at least partially resorbable by the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2210/00Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2210/0004Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof bioabsorbable

Abstract

Eine implantierte bioresorbierbare Gefäßwandstütze, insbesondere Koronarstent, bestehend aus einer sich im Körper ohne schädliche Auswirkungen auf den Implantat-Träger zersetzenden Metall-Materialkombination. An implanted bioresorbable vessel wall support, in particular a coronary stent, consisting of a in the body without any harmful effects on the implant carrier decomposing metal material combination. Letztere kann als Legierung oder galvanisches Lokalelement ausgebildet sein. The latter may be formed as an alloy or galvanic local element.

Description

Die Erfindung betrifft eine implantierbare, bioresorbierbare Gefäßwand stütze, insbesondere einen Koronarstent. The invention relates to an implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, in particular a coronary stent.

Zum Hintergrund der Erfindung ist festzuhalten, daß sogenannte "Gefäß wandstützen" oder - wie sie im Fachjargon genannt werden - "Stents" zur Therapie von Stenosen, also krankhaft verengten Passagen eines Koronar gefäßes eingesetzt werden. The background of the invention is to be noted that so-called "vessel wall supports" or - as they are called in technical jargon - "stents," for the treatment of stenoses, so morbidly narrowed passages of a coronary vessel may be used. Dazu wird ein solcher Koronarstent mittels ei nes Katheters transvenös in den Körper eingeführt und durch das Gefäßsy stem an die Problemstelle im Herzen vorgeschoben. To such a coronary stent is introduced by ei nes catheter transvenous into the body and through the stem Gefäßsy advanced to the problem location in the heart. In diesem Zustand des Einführens und Vorschiebens darf der Stent für eine ausreichende Beweg lichkeit einen Außendurchmesser von lediglich etwa 1 mm aufweisen. In this state, the insertion and advancement of the stent for a sufficient Beweg friendliness may have an outer diameter of only about 1 mm. Ist die stenotische Koronargefäß-Passage erreicht, wird der Stent dauerhaft aufgeweitet, um die Stenose zu beheben. If the stenotic coronary vessel passage is reached, the stent is expanded permanently to resolve the stenosis. Dazu wird der Stent mittels des Katheters, auf dem er eingeführt wurde, unter plastischer Verformung bis auf einen Durchmesser von etwa 4 mm radial aufgeweitet. For this purpose, the stent by means of the catheter on which it has been introduced radially expanded by plastic deformation to a diameter of about 4 mm. Zu diesem Zweck ist der Katheter als Ballonkatheter ausgeführt, bei dem der den Stent tragende Längsabschnitt durch Anlegen eines Überdrucks mittels Koch salzlösung ähnlich einem Luftballon dilatiert wird. For this purpose the catheter is designed as a balloon catheter, wherein the stent-carrying longitudinal section by applying a positive pressure by means of saline solution similar to a balloon is dilated.

Herkömmliche implantierte Stents bestehen aus einem für den medizini schen Einsatz geeigneten Metallmaterial, das gegebenenfalls zur Vermei dung thrombotischer Probleme mit einer antikoagulative wirkenden Be schichtung versehen sein kann. Conventional implanted stent made of a suitable rule for the Medical Intern insert metal material, which may be optionally provided coating safe- guard against thrombotic problems with an anticoagulant acting Be. Nachteil bei solchen dauerhaft implantier ten Stents ist die nachweislich auftretende permanente Reizung des den Stent umgebenden Gewebes, da er die durch den Herzschlag verursachten Biegebewegungen des von ihm gestützten Koronargefäßes aufgrund seiner Steifigkeit nicht nachvollzieht. Disadvantage with such permanent implantier th stent is demonstrably occurring permanent irritation of the surrounding tissue the stent because it does not traces the bending movements of the supported him coronary vessel caused by the heart beat because of its rigidity.

Ferner ist darauf hinzuweisen, daß zur Aufweitung einer Stenose die Unter stützung durch den Stent in der Regel nur über einen Zeitraum von einigen Monaten erforderlich ist. Furthermore, it should be noted that required only over a period of several months for widening a stenosis lower support through the stent generally. Danach bliebe die von der Stenose betreffende Gefäßpartie auch ohne Unterstützung offen. Thereafter, the vessel consignments of the stenosis would remain open even without support.

Zur Behebung der vorgenannten Probleme wurde bereits vorgeschlagen, Stents aus bioresorbierbaren Materialien herzustellen, die im Körper im Verlauf weniger Monate zersetzt werden. To resolve the above problems, it has been proposed to manufacture stents from bioresorbable materials that are decomposed in the body in the course of a few months. Ein Herstellungsverfahren für solche bioresorbierbaren Koronarstents ist z. A manufacturing method of such bioresorbable coronary stent is z. B. aus der DE 195 39 449 A1 bekannt. Example, from DE 195 39 449 A1. Dort wird aus einer viskosen Lösung von Poly-Beta-Hydroxy- Buttersäure als bioresorbierbaren Polymermaterial in einem Lösungsmittel durch sukzessives, schichtweises Aufbringen der Polymerlösung auf einen Positiv-Formkern in mehreren Schritten durch Abscheiden des Polymer materials unter Abdampfen des Lösungsmittels und unter zumindest teil weiser Anlösung der vorher abgeschiedenen Schicht ein in seiner Polymer struktur homogener Stenterrohling aufgebaut. There butyric acid is from a viscous solution of poly-beta-hydroxy and bioresorbable polymeric material in a solvent by successively, applying layers of the polymer solution to a male mold core in several steps by depositing the polymer material by evaporation of the solvent and under at least partial partial dissolution the previously deposited layer constructed a structure in its polymer Stenterrohling homogeneous. Dieser wird vom Positiv- Formkern abgezogen und zur Endformgebung des Stents nachbearbeitet. This is subtracted from the positive mold core and reworked for the final shaping of the stent.

Bioresorbierbare Koronarstents aus Polymermaterialien weisen zwar die gewünschte biologische Resorbierbarkeit und Körperverträglichkeit auf. Although bioresorbable coronary stent made of polymer materials exhibit the desired biological absorbability and biocompatibility.

Probleme bereiten jedoch die oft unzureichenden mechanischen Eigen schaften, wie beispielsweise eine mangelnde plastische Verformbarkeit dieses Stents. However, problems are preparing companies often inadequate mechanical properties, such as a lack of plastic deformability of this stent. Dies führt bei der Dilatation auf immerhin den 4fachen Durchmesser zu einer Rißbildung mit der Folge einer herab gesetzten me chanischen Stabilität und zu einer hohen Rückverformung. This results in the dilation of at least 4 times the diameter to cracking, resulting in a reduced me chanical stability and high recovery. Letzteres be deutet, daß für einen Enddurchmesser von 4 mm die maximale Aufweitung deutlich darüber liegen muß. The latter be indicated that, for a final diameter of 4 mm, the maximum expansion must be significantly higher. Dies wiederum führt zu einer weiter erhöhten Rißbildung mit entsprechender Destabilisierung des Stents. This in turn leads to a further increased cracking with corresponding destabilization of the stent.

Zur Lösung der vorstehenden Problematik sieht die Erfindung laut Patent anspruch 1 vor, die Gefäßwandstütze aus einer sich im Körper ohne schäd liche Auswirkungen auf den Implantat-Träger zersetzenden Metall- Materialkombination herzustellen. To solve the above problem, the invention provides according to claim 1 before, to manufacture the vascular stent from a body without the skull ston Liche effects on the implant carrier decomposing metal material combination. Die Metall-Materialkombination ist da bei so auszulegen, daß sich das Material der Gefäßwandstütze mit einer bestimmten Zersetzungsrate und ohne die Produktion von körperschädli chen Zersetzungsprodukten auflöst. The metal-material combination is here to be interpreted in such a way that the material of the vascular stent dissolves at a certain decomposition rate and without the production of körperschädli chen decomposition products. Eine derartige Gefäßwandstütze vereint also die vorteilhaften mechanischen Eigenschaften von Metall-Stents mit der Bioresorbierbarkeit von Stents auf Polymer-Basis. Thus, such a vascular stent combines the advantageous mechanical properties of metal stents with the bioresorbability of stents polymer-based.

In einer ersten grundsätzlichen Ausführungsform der Erfindung ist die Metall-Materialkombination als Metall-Legierung ausgelegt, wobei durch die Auswahl der Legierungspartner - wie im folgenden noch näher erläutert wird - die Voraussetzung der körperverträglichen Zersetzung erreicht wird. In a first fundamental embodiment of the invention, the metal-material combination is configured as a metal alloy, by the selection of alloying partners - as explained in more detail in the following yet - the requirement of biocompatible decomposition is achieved. Die Metall-Legierung hat also mithin aus einer Materialkombination zu bestehen, die sich im Körper verhältnismäßig schnell - also in einer Zeit spanne von einigen Monaten - in unschädliche Bestandteile zersetzt, was mit dem anschaulichen Begriff der "körperverträglichen Korrosion" zu um schreiben ist. The metal alloy has consequently thus to consist of a combination of materials that are in the body relatively quickly - ie in a time span of a few months - decomposes into harmless components, leading to is write with the simple term "biocompatible corrosion" around.

Um eine entsprechend gleichmäßige Korrosion zu erreichen, besteht eine solche Legierung aus einer Komponente A, die sich mit einer schützenden Oxidschicht überzieht. In order to achieve a correspondingly uniform corrosion, there is such an alloy of a component A, which becomes covered with a protective oxide layer. Diese Komponente A ist aus einem oder mehreren Metallen der Gruppe Magnesium, Titan, Zirkon, Niob, Tantal, Zink oder Silizium ausgewählt. This component A is selected from one or more metals of the group magnesium, titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum, zinc or silicon. Um eine gleichmäßige Auflösung der genannten Oxidschicht zu erreichen, wird der Legierung ferner eine Komponente B zugesetzt, die eine ausreichende Löslichkeit in Blut oder interstitieller Flüs sigkeit besitzt, wie Lithium, Natrium, Kalium, Calcium, Eisen oder Man gan. In order to achieve uniform dissolution of said oxide layer, a component B is added to the alloy further having a sufficient solubility in blood or interstitial sigkeit flues, such as lithium, gan sodium, potassium, calcium, iron or Man.

Die vorstehenden Elemente eigenen sich deswegen, weil sie entweder oh nehin im menschlichen Körper vertreten sind - wie Magnesium, Zink, Na trium, Kalium, Calcium, Eisen und Mangan - oder als nichttoxisch bekannt sind - wie Titan, Zirkon, Niob, Tantal, Silizium und Lithium. The above elements are suitable because they either oh Nehin are represented in the human body - such as magnesium, zinc, Na trium, potassium, calcium, iron and manganese - or are known to be non-toxic - such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum, silicon and lithium. Die Kombi nation einer passivierenden und einer löslichen Komponente ermöglicht dabei eine zeitgerechte, gleichmäßige Zersetzung in körperverträgliche Ab bauprodukte. The combi nation of a passivating and a soluble component allows this construction a timely and uniform decomposition into biocompatible Ab. Die Korrosionsgeschwindigkeit kann über das Verhältnis der beiden Komponenten eingestellt werden. The corrosion rate can be adjusted by the ratio of the two components.

Die Legierung ist in besonders bevorzugter Weise so zusammenzusetzen, daß die Korrosionsprodukte lösliche Salze, wie Natrium-, Kalium-, Calci um-, Eisen- oder Zinksalze sind oder nichtlösliche Korrosionsprodukte, wie Titan-, Tantal- oder Nioboxid als kolloide Partikel entstehen. The alloy is to be assembled in a particularly preferred manner such that the corrosion products soluble salts such as sodium, potassium, Calci environmentally, ferric or zinc salts are soluble or insoluble corrosion products, such as titanium, tantalum or niobium oxide originate as colloidal particles. Die Korrosi onsgeschwindigkeit wird dabei über die Zusammensetzung so eingestellt, daß Gase, wie Wasserstoff, der bei der Korrosion von Lithium, Natrium, Kalium, Magnesium, Calcium oder Zink entsteht, sich physikalisch lösen und keine makroskopischen Gasblasen bilden. The corrosion- onsgeschwindigkeit is adjusted via the composition so that gases, such as hydrogen, arising during the corrosion of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium or zinc, dissolve physically and do not form macroscopic gas bubbles.

Als mögliche Legierung kann ferner beispielsweise eine aus der Luftfahrt bekannte, sogenannte Superleicht-Legierung aus Lithium und Magnesium eingesetzt werden, die bei dem vorstehend genannten Einsatzgebiet aller dings hinsichtlich großer Dauerhaltbarkeit und geringer Reaktionsfreudig keit optimiert ist. Possible alloy may further example, a known from the aviation industry, are so-called super-light alloy of lithium and magnesium used which is optimized ness in the aforementioned application areas of all recently respect large durability and is less reactive. Das Magnesium-Lithium-Verhältnis liegt in der Größen ordnung von 60 : 40, wobei die Dauerhaltbarkeit über die Zugabe weiterer Komponenten, wie Zink, oder die Begasung durch Wasserstoff erhöht wird. The magnesium-lithium ratio is of the order of sizes of 60: 40, wherein the fatigue life through the addition of other components such as zinc, or the gassing is increased by hydrogen. Auch werden spezielle Schmelz- und Schmiedeverfahren zur Erhöhung der Dauerhaltbarkeit angewendet. Special melting and forging processes to increase the durability to be applied.

Für die Umsetzung der vorliegenden Erfindung können Lithium. For the implementation of the present invention, lithium. Magnesium-Legierungen eingesetzt werden, die bei herkömmlicher Be handlung und in der Körpersphäre eine geringere Dauerhaltbarkeit besit zen. Magnesium alloys are used, which have a lower durability zen besit with conventional treatment and Be in the body sphere. Als Zersetzungsprodukte sind Lithium- und Magnesium-Hydroxid zu erwarten, die beide als nicht-toxisch und körperverträglich zu betrachten sind. As decomposition products lithium and magnesium hydroxide are expected, both of which are considered to be non-toxic and biocompatible.

Eine Problematik bei der geschilderten Lithium-Magnesium-Legierung liegt darin, daß die Zersetzungsprodukte Lithium-Hydroxid und Magnesi um-Hydroxid schwer löslich sind und sich unter Kohlendioxidaufnahme zu den ebenfalls schwer löslichen Karbonaten umsetzen. A problem with the described lithium-magnesium alloy is that the decomposition products of lithium hydroxide and Magnesi are to hydroxide poorly soluble and be reacted with carbon dioxide uptake to the likewise sparingly soluble carbonates. Insbesondere Lithi um-Hydroxid ist dabei sehr voluminös. In particular Lithi is very bulky to hydroxide. Die Korrosionsprodukte schlagen sich folglich als Krusten auf dem Stent nieder, die ein vielfaches des Stent volumens einnehmen können. The corrosion products are reflected therefore as crusts on the stent down, which can take a multiple of the stent volume.

Insoweit sind andere Legierungskombinationen besser geeignet, beispiels weise ein Natrium-Magnesium-Legierung. So far as other alloy combinations are more appropriate example, a sodium-magnesium alloy. Da Natrium-Hydroxid als Kor rosionsprodukt eine hohe Löslichkeit besitzt, zersetzt sich diese Legierung ohne voluminöse Krusten. Since sodium hydroxide rosionsprodukt as Cor a high solubility possesses, this alloy decomposed without bulky crusts. Natrium geht in Lösung und Magnesium- Hydroxid bildet einen feinen Niederschlag, der gefahrlos in die sich bil dende Gefäßhaut, die sogenannte Intima, eingelagert werden kann. Sodium goes into solution and magnesium hydroxide forms a fine precipitate in the bil Dende vascular skin, called the intima can be stored safely.

Neben der Realisierung der Metall-Materialkombination in Form einer Metallegierung kann in einer weiteren grundsätzlichen Ausführungsform die Metall-Materialkombination als elektrochemisches Lokal-Element aus gelegt sein. In addition to the realization of the metal-material combination in the form of a metal alloy, the metal-material combination in a further basic embodiment may be defined as an electrochemical local element made. Dieses besteht einerseits aus einem den Körper der Ge fäßwandstütze bildenden, im wesentlichen reinen ersten Metall und ande rerseits aus einer damit in Kontakt stehenden Lokalelektrode aus einem zweiten Metall. This consists in part of a the body of the Ge fäßwandstütze forming substantially pure first metal and at the other hand, from a local electrode in contact therewith of a second metal. Letztere bildet mit dem Stützenkörper ein Lokal-Element, bei dem das Potential des Stützenkörpers entsprechend der elektrochemi schen Spannungsreihe verschoben ist. The latter forms the supporting body is a local element in which the potential of the support body is moved in accordance with the rule elektrochemi voltage range. Die entstehende Kontaktspannung verursacht den Korrosionsprozeß des Stentkörpers. The resulting contact voltage causes the corrosion process of the stent body. Die Korrosionsrate und damit die Zersetzungszeit des Stents kann über die Größe der Kontaktflä che zwischen dem korrodierbaren Stentkörper und der damit verbundenen Lokalelektrode bzw. über die Auswahl des Partnerelementes selbst gesteu ert werden. The corrosion rate and thus the degradation time of the stent can about the size of Kontaktflä che itself gesteu ert between the corrodible stent body and the associated local electrode or on the selection of the partner element.

Gemäß zweier alternativer Ausführungsformen kann das Partnerelement als Beschichtung auf dem Stützenkörper oder als eigenständiges, an dem Stüt zenkörper angebrachtes, beispielsweise daran angeschweißtes Metallteil ausgebildet sein. According to two alternative embodiments, the partner member may be formed as a coating on the support body or as a separate, zenkörper attached to the support alarm, for example, it welded metal part. Im letzteren Fall können die Lokalelektroden in einer ty pischen Doppelfunktion auch als Röntgenmarker dienen. In the latter case, the local electrodes can serve as X-ray markers in a ty european dual function.

Im folgenden wird die Erfindung in zwei bevorzugten Ausführungsbei spielen näher erläutert: The invention is explained in two preferred Ausführungsbei play closer:

Beispiel 1 example 1

Es wird ein bioresorbierbarer Metallstent aus einer Legierung hergestellt, bei der die Komponente A aus Zink und die Komponente B aus Calcium besteht. It is produced a bioresorbable metal stent from an alloy in which the component A consisting of zinc, and component B consists of calcium. Das Gewichtsverhältnis von Zink zu Calcium beträgt dabei minde stens 21 : 1. Bei dieser Zn-Ca-Legierung handelt es sich um eine Legierung, bei der die Korrosionsprodukte beider Komponenten als lösliche Salze an fallen, was besonders vorteilhaft für die vorliegende Anwendung ist. The weight ratio of zinc to calcium is in this case minde least 21: 1. In this Zn-Ca alloy is an alloy in which the corrosion products of both components fall as soluble salts to, which is particularly advantageous for the present application. Calci um-Hydroxid besitzt dabei eine so hohe Löslichkeit, daß bei langsamer Korrosion über mehrere Wochen oder Monate das Löslichkeitsprodukt nicht überschritten wird. Calci um hydroxide thereby has such a high solubility that in slower corrosion over several weeks or months, the solubility product is not exceeded. Das Calcium-Hydroxid wird also in gelöster Form vom Blut abtransportiert und verstoffwechselt. The calcium hydroxide is thus removed in dissolved form from the blood and metabolized. Die Korrosionsgeschwin digkeit wird im übrigen über das Verhältnis der beiden Komponenten ein gestellt, was über einfache Versuche ermittelbar ist. The Korrosionsgeschwin speed is one made in the rest of the relationship of the two components, which can be determined by simple tests.

Um die mechanischen Eigenschaften, wie Duktilität, Härte und Zugfestig keit, des Metallstents zu verbessern, können entsprechende Legierungsbe standteile in geringer Konzentration zugesetzt werden. To improve the mechanical properties such as ductility, hardness and tensile ness, the metal stent may Legierungsbe corresponding constituents are added in low concentrations. Beispielsweise könnte ist der Legierung das Nichtmetall Phosphor im Prozentbereich zu gegeben werden. For example, the alloy is the non-metal phosphorus is added in the percentage range to.

Beispiel 2 example 2

Bei einem bioresorbierbaren Metallstent besteht der Stützenkörper aus rei nem Zink, das sich - wie galvanische Versuche zeigen - bei externen Strö men von einigen mA ohne Gasentwicklung und ohne Oxidbildung auflöst, wie dies für korrodierbare Metallstents anzustreben ist. In a bioresorbable metal stent is made of the support body from rei nem zinc, which - as shown by galvanic experiments - with external Strö men of few mA without gas development and dissolves without oxide formation, as is desirable for corrodible metal stents.

Zur Erzeugung eines solchen "externen" Stromes ist nun ein Lokal- Element z. To produce such "external" current, a local member is now z. B. in Form einer Goldelektrode galvanisch oder durch Laser schweißen auf dem Stent angebracht und führt als Lokalelektrode zusam men mit dem Stützenkörper zu einer Kontaktspannung, da die Goldelektro de näherungsweise das Potential der Zinkelektrode annimmt und das Po tential der Zinkelektrode geringfügig positiver wird. B. in the form of a gold electrode by electroplating or by laser welding on the stent mounted and performs as a local electrode together men with the support body to a contact stress, since the gold electric de approximately the potential of the zinc electrode assumes and Po is tential the zinc electrode slightly positive. Es folgt ein entspre chender Strom, der zur aktiven Zinkauflösung führt. The following is an entspre chender current, leading to the zinc active resolution. An der Goldelektrode fließen entsprechende kathodische Ströme. flow corresponding cathodic currents to the gold electrode. Der Austauschstrom insgesamt wird wegen der geringen kathodischen Ströme der Goldelektrode von der Fläche der Goldelektrode bestimmt. The total exchange current is determined by the surface of the gold electrode because of the small cathodic currents of the gold electrode. Über diesen Mechanismus kann die Korrosionsrate also über die Fläche des Lokal-Elementes eingestellt wer den. Through this mechanism, the corrosion rate can therefore set who over the area of ​​the local element.

Wie Versuche gezeigt haben, stellt sich bei einem Gold-Lokal-Element auf Zink ein Austauschstrom nach wenigen Minuten ein, der über mehrere Ta ge konstant bleibt. As tests have shown, she is in a gold-local element zinc replacement power after a few minutes, which remains ge over several Ta constant. Insoweit ist eine konstante Korrosionsrate erzielbar, wobei beispielsweise ein 10 mg schwerer Stent bei 10 µA Korrosionsstrom sich in zirka 30 bis 40 Tagen auflösen wird. In that regard, a constant corrosion rate can be achieved, for example, a 10 mg severe stent at 10 uA corrosion current will dissolve in about 30 to 40 days.

Claims (16)

1. Implantierbare, bioresorbierbare Gefäßwandstütze, insbesondere Ko ronarstent, dadurch gekennzeichnet , daß die Gefäßwandstütze aus einer sich im Körper ohne schädliche Auswirkungen auf den Implan tat-Träger zersetzenden Metall-Materialkombination besteht. 1. An implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, in particular Ko ronarstent, characterized in that the vascular stent consists of a located in the body without any harmful effects on the Implan tat carrier decomposing metal material combination.
2. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Metall-Materialkombination als Metall-Legierung ausgelegt ist, die mindestens aus einer ersten Komponente, die eine schützende Pas sivierungsschicht bildet, und aus einer zweiten Komponente besteht, die eine ausreichende Korrosion der Legierung gewährleistet. 2. The vascular stent according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal-material combination is configured as a metal alloy which consists of at least a first component forming a protective Pas sivierungsschicht, and a second component which ensures a sufficient corrosion of the alloy ,
3. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die erste Komponente aus einem oder mehreren Metallen aus der Gruppe Magnesium, Titan, Zirkon, Niob, Tantal, Zink oder Silizium und die zweite Komponente aus einem oder mehreren Metallen aus der Gruppe Lithium, Natrium, Kalium, Calcium, Mangan oder Eisen ausgewählt sind. 3. The vascular stent according to claim 2, characterized in that the first component consists of one or more metals from the group of magnesium, titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum, zinc or silicon, and the second component consists of one or more metals from the group lithium, sodium , potassium, calcium, manganese or iron are selected.
4. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 2 oder 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Bestandteile der Metall-Legierung so ausgewählt sind, daß die Korrosionsprodukte als lösliche Salze oder sehr feine Partikel oder kolloide Partikel entstehen. 4. The vascular stent according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the components of the metal alloy are selected so that the corrosion products as soluble salts or very fine particles or colloidal particles are formed.
5. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 4, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß die Bestandteile der Metall-Legierung so ausge wählt sind, daß sie mit einer solchen Geschwindigkeit korrodieren, daß die bei der Korrosion entstehenden Gase sich physikalisch in der die Gefäßwandstütze beaufschlagenden Körperflüssigkeit lösen. 5. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the components of the metal alloy are positioned so selected that they corrode at a rate such that the gases arising during corrosion physically in the vascular stent acting body fluid to solve.
6. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß die Legierung als korrosionshemmende Kompo nente A Zink enthält. 6. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 2 to 5, characterized in that the alloy component as a corrosion-inhibiting Comp A contains zinc.
7. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Legierung eine Zink-Calcium-Legierung ist. 7. The vascular stent according to claim 6, characterized in that the alloy is a zinc-calcium alloy.
8. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Gewichtsverhältnis von Zink zu Calcium in der Legierung minde stens 21 : 1 beträgt. 8. The vascular stent according to claim 6, characterized in that the weight ratio of zinc to calcium in the alloy minde least 21: 1.
9. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 8, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß die Legierung zur Korrosionshemmung mit Was serstoff begast ist. 9. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 2 to 8, characterized in that the alloy for the corrosion inhibition with what is gassed serstoff.
10. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 9, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß der Legierung das Nichtmetall Phosphor zugesetzt ist. 10. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 2 to 9, characterized in that the non-metal alloy, the phosphorus is added.
11. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Metall-Materialkombination als elektrochemisches Lokal-Element ausgelegt ist, das einerseits durch den Körper der Gefäßwandstütze aus einem im wesentlichen reinen ersten Metall und andererseits durch eine damit in Kontakt stehende, zu einer Kontaktspannung füh renden Lokalelektrode aus einem zweiten Metall gebildet ist. 11. The vascular stent according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal-material combination is designed as an electrochemical local element which on the other hand füh one hand by the body of the vascular stent consists of a substantially pure first metal and through an in contact therewith, to a contact voltage Governing local electrode is formed of a second metal.
12. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Lokalelektrode als Beschichtung auf dem Stützenkörper ausgebil det ist. 12. The vascular stent according to claim 11, characterized in that the local electrode is ausgebil det as a coating on the support body.
13. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Lokalelektrode als an dem Stützenkörper angebrachtes, insbeson dere daran angeschweißtes Metallteil ausgebildet ist. is formed 13. The vascular stent according to claim 11, characterized in that the local electrode and attached to the support body, and in particular welded thereto metal part.
14. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 13, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß der Stützenkörper aus Zink besteht. 14. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 11 to 13, characterized in that the supporting body is made of zinc.
15. Gefäßwandstütze nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 14, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß die Lokalelektrode aus einem Edelmetall, insbe sondere Gold, Platin oder Iridium besteht. 15. The vascular stent according to any one of claims 11 to 14, characterized in that the local electrode comprises a noble metal, in particular sondere gold, platinum or iridium.
16. Gefäßwandstütze nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die die Lokalelektrode bildende Beschichtung durch Galvanisierung oder Sputtern aufgebracht ist. 16. The vascular stent according to claim 12, characterized in that the local electrode-forming coating is applied by electroplating or sputtering.
DE1998156983 1998-06-25 1998-12-10 Implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, particularly a coronary stent Withdrawn DE19856983A1 (en)

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DE1998156983 DE19856983A1 (en) 1998-06-25 1998-12-10 Implantable bioresorbable vascular stent, particularly a coronary stent
EP99111383A EP0966979B1 (en) 1998-06-25 1999-06-11 Implantable bioresorbable support for the vascular walls, in particular coronary stent
DE1999513189 DE59913189D1 (en) 1998-06-25 1999-06-11 Implantable bioresorbable vessel wall support, in particular coronary
US09/339,927 US6287332B1 (en) 1998-06-25 1999-06-25 Implantable, bioresorbable vessel wall support, in particular coronary stent

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