DE112007001029B4 - Lötformteil, its production and electronic component - Google Patents

Lötformteil, its production and electronic component

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Publication number
DE112007001029B4
DE112007001029B4 DE200711001029 DE112007001029T DE112007001029B4 DE 112007001029 B4 DE112007001029 B4 DE 112007001029B4 DE 200711001029 DE200711001029 DE 200711001029 DE 112007001029 T DE112007001029 T DE 112007001029T DE 112007001029 B4 DE112007001029 B4 DE 112007001029B4
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Germany
Prior art keywords
solder
metal particles
alloy
melting point
preform
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
DE200711001029
Other languages
German (de)
Other versions
DE112007001029T5 (en
Inventor
Naohiko Hirano
Yoshitsugu Sakamoto
Tomomi Okumura
Kaichi Tsuruta
Minoru Ueshima
Takashi Ishii
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Denso Corp
Senju Metal Industry Co Ltd
Original Assignee
Denso Corp
Senju Metal Industry Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP2006124891 priority Critical
Priority to JP2006-124891 priority
Application filed by Denso Corp, Senju Metal Industry Co Ltd filed Critical Denso Corp
Priority to PCT/JP2007/059052 priority patent/WO2007125991A1/en
Publication of DE112007001029T5 publication Critical patent/DE112007001029T5/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE112007001029B4 publication Critical patent/DE112007001029B4/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/30Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor
    • H05K3/32Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor electrically connecting electric components or wires to printed circuits
    • H05K3/34Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor electrically connecting electric components or wires to printed circuits by soldering
    • H05K3/3457Solder materials or compositions; Methods of application thereof
    • H05K3/3478Applying solder preforms; Transferring prefabricated solder patterns
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/26Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 400 degrees C
    • B23K35/262Sn as the principal constituent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/40Making wire or rods for soldering or welding
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Abstract

An electronic component having a semiconductor element connected to a solder with a substrate has a reduced bonding strength when there is no suitable gap between the semiconductor element and the substrate. Therefore, a solder preform having metal particles with a high melting point dissolved in the solder has been used in the manufacture of electronic components. However, when an electronic component was manufactured using a conventional solder preform, there were cases in which the semiconductor element was tilted or the contacting strength was not adequate.
A solder preform according to the present invention has a change in dimension of metal particles having a high melting point, which is at most 20 microns when the metal particle diameter is 50 microns, and an alloy layer of the metal particles having a high melting point and the main component of a solder is around the metal particles formed with a high melting point. Furthermore, there are no voids in the solder at all. An electronic component according to the present invention has a semiconductor element bonded to the above-described solder preform with a substrate and having excellent heat cycle resistance.

Description

  • Technical area
  • This invention relates to a solder preform for use in die bonding to connect a semiconductor element and a substrate. This invention also relates to an electronic component having a semiconductor element and a substrate bonded together using such a solder preform, and a method of manufacturing the solder preform.
  • State of the art
  • In high power electronic devices such as ball grid array packages (BGAs) and chip size packages (CSPs), a semiconductor device and a substrate are interconnected by die bumps using a bonding material. Die bonding refers to a method in which a semiconductor element obtained by cutting a silicon wafer is attached to a supporting substrate therefor. A die bonding of a semiconductor element and a substrate is performed such that, when the semiconductor element generates heat during use of the electronic component, the semiconductor itself is prevented from being lowered in performance or thermal damage under the influence of heat. That is, as a result of die bonding a semiconductor element and a substrate, the semiconductor element and the substrate are in close contact with each other, and heat generated from the semiconductor element is dissipated through the substrate. A die bonding is also carried out to electrically ground a semiconductor element.
  • Adhesive resins and solder are generally used as die-bonding materials. When the task of die-bonding is to dissipate heat from a semiconductor element, an adhesive resin is sufficient, but if dissipation of heat and electrical grounding are the objects, it is preferable to use solder having good thermal conductivity and good thermal conductivity has good electrical conductivity.
  • In die bonding of a semiconductor element and a substrate, when a solder preform is placed on a substrate and heated so that the solder preform melts, the resulting molten solder is pressed out from between portions to be soldered under the weight of the semiconductor element, and the amount of solder becomes between portions to be soldered sometimes small. Solder bonding requires a suitable amount of solder between sections to be soldered to produce the inherent bonding strength of solder. However, as described above, when solder between portions to be soldered is squeezed out by the weight of a semiconductor element disposed above the solder, the gap between the semiconductor element and the substrate becomes too small and a sufficient amount of solder can not be present leads to a reduction in a contacting strength. That is, a maximum bonding strength can be exhibited in soldering when the gap is appropriate, but the bonding strength of the joint as a whole becomes weak when portions having a small gap are locally formed.
  • To perform soldering such that portions to be soldered are properly separated and a proper amount of solder is maintained between the portions to be soldered, a plurality of high melting point metal particles having a higher melting point than the solder (hereinafter simply referred to as metal particles) , such as metal particles of Ni, Cu, Ag, Fe, Mo or W have been brought between sections to be soldered. However, arranging metal particles between portions to be soldered at any time when soldering is performed is extremely cumbersome and results in poor manufacturing efficiency, and therefore solder preforms having metal particles previously mixed therein have been used.
  • Patent Document 1 discloses a roll embedding method in which metal particles are scattered over a solder sheet using a feed box and the metal particles are embedded in the solder sheet using a single bed roll. As the metal particles, round, triangular, cylindrical or flat-shaped particles, minute particles or the like are used.
  • Patent Document 2 also discloses a roll embedding method. The resulting solder preform has metal particles with a particle diameter of 30 to 70 microns embedded in solder.
  • Patent Document 3 discloses a method for producing a composite solder bar having metal particles dissolved therein. In this method, a mixture of metal particles and a flux, which have been kneaded together, is filled into molten solder and stirred, cooled and solidified. The particle diameter of the metal particles used in this case is 20 microns, 50 microns or 100 microns.
  • Patent Document 4 discloses a method of manufacturing a solder preform wherein superimposed layers therein are formed by a solder preform Feed container scattered metal particles between two solder layers, are subjected to a rolling, that the two layers are glued together. The method uses metal particles having a mean particle diameter of 30 to 300 microns, the standard deviation of the particle diameter being at most 2.0 microns.
    • Patent Document 1: JP H03-281088 A
    • Patent Document 2: JP H06-685 A
    • Patent Document 3: JP H06-31486 A
    • Patent Document 4: JP 2005-161338 A
  • In addition, in the JP 2005-161338 A describes a solder preform in which spherical particles of nickel of small size deviation are dispersed in the solder by rolling between two solder layers and using a flux.
  • The JP H06-31486 A discloses coating particles with a metal layer (Cu, Ni, Ag, Au) that provides good wettability with solder, treating the coated particles with flux to remove an oxide layer, and then mixing them with molten solder.
  • The WO 2005/120765 A1 relates to a method of manufacturing solder preforms in which high melting point particles are dispersed in a solder. In order to reduce the dissolution of the particles to be dispersed during the long periods of time necessary for dispersing, a masterbatch with a higher proportion of high-melting particles is prepared and the premix is then added to further molten solder.
  • In the JP H06-685 A For example, a solder alloy having metal particles dispersed therein is described that has good thermal conductivity and provides a uniform spacing between a semiconductor element and a heat dissipating substrate. The dispersed metal particles have a good thermal conductivity, a higher melting point than the solder, a spherical shape and a diameter of approximately the desired distance between the semiconductor element and the substrate.
  • Disclosure of the invention
  • In an electronic component having a semiconductor element and a substrate soldered using a conventional solder preform, the semiconductor element was sometimes attached in a tilted state or to the substrate such that the soldered portion could easily rub off if there was a slight impact the soldered section was exercised.
  • In the solder preform disclosed in Patent Document 1, metal particles which are round, triangular, flat, cylindrical and the like are scattered over a solder sheet, and an embedding roller is applied from above to embed the metal particles in the solder sheet.
  • 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a Lötformteils the patent document 1 and 4 FIG. 10 is an enlarged schematic view of a portion of an electronic component including a semiconductor element and a substrate which have been die-bonded using this solder preform.
  • As it is in 3 is shown, the dimension of the metal particles in the Lötformteil 30 of Patent Document 1 not specified. Therefore, when the solder preform is used, it becomes a semiconductor element 31 and a substrate 32 to connect to an electronic component 33 to train ( 4 ), the connected semiconductor element 31 low where there are small metal particles (the triangular particles in the figure) and high where there are large metal particles (the large round or rectangular particles in the figure). Further, when the solder preform of Patent Document 1 is examined at a microscopic level, the metal particles are 34 and the soldering layer 35 to each other in bare contact, that is, air 36 is in the environment of metal particles 34 available.
  • When a semiconductor element and a substrate are soldered using a solder preform in which air is present around metal particles as mentioned above, the volume of the air present around the metal particles expands as their temperature increases, and sometimes form large spaces 37 from how it is in 4 is shown and causes the semiconductor element to tilt. Furthermore, the bonding strength becomes weak when the metal particles are not metallically bonded to solder.
  • The solder preforms of Patent Documents 2 and 4 are prepared by interposing metal particles between two solder layers and adhering the two solder layers to each other by pressing with a roller. Accordingly, touch as well as in 5 shown is metal particles 41 and a lot 42 only in the Lötformteilen 40 Patent Documents 2 and 4, and when the moldings are viewed microscopically, is air 43 in the environment of the metal particles 41 available. When such a solder preform between a semiconductor element 44 and a substrate 45 is arranged and heated to melt the solder preform and an electronic component 46 train as it is in 6 is shown, the volume of the small amount of air that is present around the metal particles expands as their temperature rises, causing large void spaces 47 , These big spaces can do that Semiconductor element 47 take off and cause it to tilt.
  • Therefore, in the case of Patent Documents 2 and 4, as in the case of Patent Document 1, metal particles and solder are not metallically bonded together, so that the bonding strength is low.
  • In the solder preform obtained by the method of Patent Document 3, a mixture of metal particles and flux is filled in a molten solder, and therefore the metal particles are metallically bonded to the molten metal, and there are fewer voids than in a solder preform that passes through a process is produced using rollers. However, even in the solder preform produced by the method of Patent Document 3, voids are sometimes developed to thereby cause a semiconductor element to incline or to reduce the bonding strength. The reason for this phenomenon is considered to be the presence of a flux sticking to the environment of metal particles.
  • 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a Lötformteils the patent document 3 and 8th FIG. 10 is an enlarged schematic view of a portion of an electronic component including the semiconductor element and a substrate subjected to die bonding using this solder preform. FIG.
  • As it is in 7 is shown, remain with the solder preform 50 Patent Document 3 shows minute masses of solid or liquid flux 52 on metal particles 51 glue. When this solder preform is between a semiconductor element 53 and a substrate 54 is brought and heated and melted to an electronic component 55 The tiny masses of a flux evaporate and expand in volume as the temperature rises to form large voids 56 from how it is in 8th is shown. The large voids may be the semiconductor element 53 Lift: The molten section is then cooled to solidify the solder. Since the solder is hardened quickly, the voids maintain a large volume without becoming smaller. Accordingly, the height of the semiconductor element increases in a portion where a large void is formed, thereby causing the semiconductor element to incline.
  • Therefore, in the solder preform of Patent Document 3, although metal particles and solder are metallically bonded to each other, the bonding area is reduced due to the formation of voids, resulting in weakening of the bonding strength.
  • When a semiconductor element and a substrate are soldered using a conventional solder preform, the reasons why stripping easily occurs when only a small impact is applied to the soldered portions is that the metal particles contained in the solder preform do not metallically connected to the solder in the molding, and forming voids around the metal particles. The fact that the metal particles and the solder are not metallically bonded weakens the bonding strength around the metal particles. The presence of even a small amount of air or flux around the metal particles causes the formation of large voids at the time of heating, thereby reducing the contacting area. In recent years, semiconductor elements have also become smaller in size and the soldered area thereof has also become smaller. Therefore, when voids are developed, the ratio occupied by voids increases with respect to the small soldered area, and therefore the soldered area and the bonding strength decrease.
  • The present inventors have found that, when the change of the particle diameter of metal particles is within a certain range, tilting decreases, and that when the circumference of the metal particles has a solder alloy layer, the bonding strength between the metal particles and the solder increases to thereby provide a solder preform which can produce an excellent property in a die bond. As a result, they have created the present invention.
  • The present invention is a solder preform having high melting point metal particles dispersed in a solder alloy plating, characterized in that the metal particles have a melting point of at least 300 ° C higher than the melting point of the plating alloy, and a particle diameter of 20 to 300 microns, wherein the dimensional deviation of the particle diameter of the metal particles having a high melting point is at most 40% of the particle diameter, wherein the metal particles having a high melting point on its periphery have an alloy layer (intermetallic compound) formed of the main component of the solder alloy and the Metal particles with a high melting point, wherein the solder preform is obtainable by a process comprising the steps:
    Adding a mixture of the metal particles and a thermally decomposable flux to molten solder alloy to obtain a main alloy, wherein the proportion of the metal particles in the Main alloy is higher than the proportion of the metal particles in the solder alloy of the solder preform; and
    Adding a predetermined amount of the master alloy to molten solder alloy to obtain the solder alloy of the solder preform in which the metal particles having a high melting point are dispersed and from which the thermally decomposable flux is completely evaporated.
  • The present invention further includes an electronic component, characterized in that a semiconductor element and a substrate are soldered using the solder preform according to the invention, wherein the solder joint is free of voids formed therein, and the difference between the maximum thickness and the minimum thickness of Solder connection is not more than 40% of the diameter of the metal particle.
  • In addition, the present invention includes a method for producing a solder preform having metal particles having a high melting point dispersed in a solder layer of a solder alloy, characterized in that the metal particles having a high melting point have an alloy layer (intermetallic compound) on its periphery, formed from the main component of the solder alloy and the metal particles having a high melting point, the method comprising the steps of:
    Adding a mixture of the metal particles and a thermally decomposable flux to molten solder alloy to obtain a main alloy, the metal particles having a melting point of at least 300 ° C higher than the melting point of the solder alloy, a particle diameter of 20 to 300 microns, wherein the dimensional deviation the particle diameter of the metal particles having a high melting point is at most 40% of the particle diameter, and the proportion of the metal particles in the main alloy is higher than the proportion of metal particles in the solder alloy of the solder preform; and
    Adding a predetermined amount of the master alloy to molten solder alloy to obtain the solder alloy of the solder preform in which the metal particles having a high melting point are dispersed and from which the thermally decomposable flux is completely evaporated.
  • In the present invention, high melting point metal particles having a mean particle diameter of 20 to 300 micrometers are used since a gap of about 20 to 300 micrometers is required between a semiconductor element and a substrate. The average particle diameter can be selected in this range taking into account the required gap.
  • In the case where the mean particle diameter of the metal particles is 50 microns, if the change of the metal particles is larger than 40% of this particle diameter, that is, if the change is larger than 20 microns, even if voids are not developed , tilting of the semiconductor element with respect to the substrate after soldering such that the bonding strength becomes weak at portions where the gap becomes narrow. By forming an alloy layer around the metal particles, the metal particles and the solder are completely metallically bonded together. As a result, not only does the bonding strength between the metal particles and the solder increase, but also the formation of voids decreases.
  • The range for changing the particle diameter is up to 40% and preferably up to 20% of the particle diameter of the metal particles.
  • In a solder preform according to the present invention, there is no wrapping or retention of air or flux in the bonded interface between metal particles having a high melting point and solder, so that there are no voids at all in the interface after brazing is performed.
  • In a solder preform according to the present invention, metal particles dissolved in a solder must have an alloy layer of an alloy with the solder formed around the metal particles. The solder may be any type used in manufacturing typical electronic components, but a Sn-based unleaded solder is suitable from the standpoint of current regulations regarding the use of Pb.
  • Metal particles dissolved in solder are preferably any of Ni, Ag, Cu and Fe, which easily form an alloy with Sn, which is the main component of a lead-free solder. An alloy layer formed around metal particles is an intermetallic compound of Sn and the metal forming the metal particles. For example, when the metal particles are Ni and the solder is a Sn-based lead-free solder, intermetallic compounds of Ni and Sn such as Ni 3 Sn, Ni 3 Sn 2 and Ni 3 Sn 4 are formed on the surface of the metal particles , When the metal particles are Cu and the solder is a Sn-based lead-free solder, intermetallic compounds such as Cu 3 Sn or Cu 6 Sn 5 are formed on the surface of the metal particles.
  • Each of these metals has a high melting point of at least 1000 ° C and does not melt at normal soldering temperatures. In other words, a metal (which is an alloy which forms metal particles used in the present invention, a metal in the form of particles, which forms an alloy layer (an intermetallic compound) with the main component of the solder alloy used in the solder preform, and a melting temperature of has at least 300 ° C higher than the melting point of the solder alloy.
  • When a semiconductor element and a substrate are soldered using a solder preform according to the present invention, an excellent soldered portion can be achieved because bonding takes place without inclining the semiconductor element with respect to the substrate, thereby reducing a bonding strength due to insufficient Solder effect, and since the contact strength between metal particles and solder is increased due to an alloy layer which is formed around metal particles of an alloy with the solder.
  • An electronic component according to the present invention has no voids in soldered portions between a semiconductor element and a substrate, and the bonding strength between the semiconductor element and the substrate is strong. Therefore, the electronic component has a reliability that is lacking in a conventional electronic component in that no stripping easily takes place when an external impact is applied thereto.
  • An electronic component according to the present invention is an electronic component obtained by Diebonden. More specifically, it relates to a semiconductor device having a semiconductor element which has been die-bumped over a substrate, for example, a so-called die pad, and may be exemplified by an electronic component which is in the form of a BGA, a CSP or the like is used.
  • Brief description of the drawings
  • 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a solder preform according to the present invention.
  • 2 is a schematic cross-sectional partial view of an electronic component according to the present invention.
  • 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a conventional Lötformteils.
  • 4 is a schematic cross-sectional partial view of a conventional electronic component.
  • 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a conventional Lötformteils.
  • 6 is a schematic cross-sectional partial view of a conventional electronic component.
  • 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a conventional Lötformteils.
  • 8th is a schematic cross-sectional partial view of a conventional electronic component.
  • 9 Fig. 10 is a graph showing the results of a heat cycle test of an example and a comparative example.
  • Best way to carry out the invention
  • A solder preform according to the present invention will be explained based on the drawings.
  • 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a solder preform according to the present invention and 2 FIG. 12 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a portion of an electronic component including a semiconductor element and a substrate soldered using a solder preform according to the present invention. FIG.
  • As it is in 1 is shown has a solder preform 10 according to the present invention metal particles 1 on that in a lot 2 are dissolved in the form of a layer. The metal particles 1 are metallic with the solder 2 connected and an alloy layer 8th is on the perimeter of each metal particle 1 educated. A flux or air is not around the metal particles 1 available.
  • As it is in 2 is shown in an electronic component 12 , in which the placing of the solder preform 10 between a semiconductor element and a substrate 5 is prepared, followed by heating to melt the solder preform, the semiconductor element 4 parallel to it with the substrate 5 connected and there are no voids of whatever the metal particles 1 present in the lot 2 are dissolved.
  • A method for producing a solder preform according to the present invention will be explained next by using the method with a mixed main alloy as an example.
  • First, metal particles in a ratio higher than the ratio that is actually to be dissolved in a solder, with a thermally decomposable liquid flux mixed to achieve a mixture. The resulting mixture is filled into molten solder, and after stirring, the melt is rapidly cooled to form a mixed master alloy. A predetermined amount of the main mixed alloy which is measured is filled in the molten solder, and after stirring, the melt is poured into a mold and rapidly cooled to obtain a billet. The billet is then extruded through an extruder to obtain a strip, and the resulting strip is rolled in a mill to obtain a strip. The tape is then punched into a predetermined shape to obtain a solder preform having a large number of metal particles dissolved in a solder layer.
  • In a solder preform obtained by the above-described mixed master alloy method, metal particles are mixed with a thermally decomposable flux and then filled into a molten solder. Therefore, the flux evaporates in the molten solder and does not easily remain in the solder. Even if a small amount of flux remains in the main mixed alloy, the mixed main alloy is filled in the molten solder in which the flux is completely evaporated and disappears. Further, in the method described above, metal particles and a solder are metallically bonded together at the time of preparing the mixed master alloy, and the surface of the metal particles is completely wetted by molten solder at that time. When the mixed master alloy is filled in the molten solder, an alloy layer formed in the portions of the metal particles wetted by molten solder grows to form an intermetallic compound.
  • A flux used in the above-described mixed master alloy method comprises a resin, an activator and a solvent. Examples of a resin include hydrogenated resin, phenol-modified rosin ester and polymerized resin. Examples of an activator include adipic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, benzoic acid and diethylaniline-HBr. Examples of a solvent include ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and 2-propanol.
  • The resin and activator of the above-described flux decompose or float on the surface of the solder bath and separate from solder at 285 ° C, which is the temperature at which metal particles in a lead-free Sn-Cu-Ni-P solder (melting temperature of about 230 ° C) containing 99 mass% of Sn, to which minute amounts of Cu, Ni and P are added. Therefore, none of the resin or the activator remains in the solder. The solvent has a boiling point of at most 230 ° C, so that it is completely evaporated at the melting temperature of this lead-free solder and does not remain in the solder. An example of a suitable composition of the flux is as follows.
    • 60.0 mass% of a resin (hydrogenated resin);
    • 10.0 mass percent of an activator (diethylaniline-HBr); and
    • 30.0 mass percent of a solvent (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether).
  • When the mixed main alloy is filled in a large amount of molten solder, due to the metal particles in the main alloy, which are already metallically bonded to the solder in the alloy, the main main mass alloy filled in the large amount of molten solder in a short period of time dissolved. At this time, even if it remains in the main mixed alloy, the flux is completely removed by the second melting and stirring. The molten solder having uniformly dissolved metal particles therein is then poured into a mold for a billet, and a billet having uniformly dissolved metal particles therein is obtained by rapidly cooling the mold.
  • The mixture used when preparing a mixed master alloy contains a thermally decomposable flux, so that when the mixture is filled into the molten solder, substantially all of the flux is decomposed and vaporized. Therefore, even if a minute amount of a flux remains in the main mixed alloy, when the mixed main alloy is filled in the molten solder in a subsequent step, the flux is completely decomposed and nothing of it remains in the solder. If it is desired to safely completely remove the flux from the solder, the molten solder may be subjected to a vacuum treatment in a vacuum device when the mixed master alloy is prepared or when the billet is prepared.
  • High melting point metal particles dissolved in a solder preform according to the present invention must have a higher melting point than the solder used in the solder preform, and they must be simply wetted by the molten solder. Metal particles which can be used in the present invention include particles of Ni, Cu, Ag, Fe, Mo, and W, but Ni particles are for use preferred in the present invention. Ni particles are not easily eroded by molten solder, they are inexpensive, and they are generally available in the market in the form of tiny spheres and are thus easy to obtain. Of course, alloys of these metals can be used.
  • When the gap between a semiconductor element and a substrate becomes smaller than 20 microns, the amount of solder between them becomes small and the inherent bonding strength of solder can no longer be produced. Therefore, the diameter of metal particles is at least 20 microns. Preferably, it is 40 to 300 microns.
  • In general, the thickness of a solder preform is close to the desired gap. Accordingly, metal particles used in the solder preform have a diameter close to this gap. However, when the diameter of the metal particles is the same as the thickness of the solder preform, the metal particles on the surface of the solder preform are exposed at the time of forming the solder preform, and a solder does not adhere to the exposed portions. As a result, at the time of soldering to manufacture an electronic component, the portions where the metal particles are exposed are not metallically bonded to the component. In the case of a thick solder preform, the diameter of the metal particles is at most 90% of the thickness of the solder preform to leave a space to cover the upper and lower portions of the metal particles with solder.
  • A solder preform according to the present invention may have any alloy composition, but a lead-free solder is preferable in view of current regulations regarding the use of Pb. Lead-free solders have Sn as the main component to which metals selected from Ag, Cu, Sb, Bi, In, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ge, Ga, P and the like are added properly. Since Sn tends to easily erode metal particles, Ni is preferably previously added to the lead-free solder when Ni particles are used.
  • That is, in the case of using Ni particles as the high melting point metal particles, when Ni is contained in the lead-free solder, the Ni particles are easily eroded by the molten lead-free solder when they come in contact with the molten lead-free solder Lot brought.
  • Examples of Ni-containing lead-free solders include Sn-Cu-Ni-P alloys, Sn-Ag-Ni alloys, Sn-Cu-Ni alloys, Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni alloys, Sn-Sb-Ni alloys , Sn-Bi-Ni alloys, Sn-In-Ni alloys and the like.
  • For example, a strip may be processed by stamping with a press to produce so-called solder preforms of various shapes, such as pellets or discs.
  • Next, examples of the present invention and comparative examples will be explained.
  • example 1
    • Solder molding: 10 × 10 × 0.1 (mm);
    • Method for producing a solder preform: Method with a mixed main alloy;
    • Metal particles: Ni (diameter 50 microns, change of at most 10 microns);
    • Lot: Sn-0.7Cu-0.06Ni-0.005P;
    • Intermetallic compounds formed on the perimeter of metal particles: Ni 3 Sn, Ni 3 Si 2 , Ni 3 Sn 4 ;
    • Soldering Method: A semiconductor element measuring 10 × 10 × 0.3 (mm) was die-bonded to a substrate (nickel-plated copper substrate) measuring 30 × 30 × 0.3 (mm) using the solder preform. That is, the solder preform has been placed between the semiconductor element and the substrate, and reflow is in a nitrogen / hydrogen mixed gas atmosphere having an oxygen concentration of 10 ppm for three minutes at a temperature of at least 235 ° C with a peak temperature of 280 ° C and a total reflow time of 15 minutes.
  • Example 2
    • Solder molding: 10 × 10 × 0.1 (mm);
    • Method for producing a solder preform: Method with a mixed main alloy;
    • Metal particles: Cu (diameter 50 microns, change of at most 10 microns);
    • Lot: Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu;
    • Intermetallic compounds formed on the circumference of metal particles: Cu 3 Sn, Cu 6 Sn 5 ;
    • Soldering process: the same as in Example 1.
  • Comparative Example 1
    • Solder molding: 10 × 10 × 0.1 (mm);
    • Method for producing a solder preform: roll embedding method;
    • Metal particles: Ni (diameter 50 microns, change of at least 30 microns);
    • Lot: Sn-0.7Cu-0.06Ni-0.05P;
    • Intermetallic compounds formed on the perimeter of metal particles: none;
    • Soldering process: the same as in Example 1
  • When the bonded portions of electronic components prepared using the solder preforms of Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1 have been inspected for the presence of voids with an X-ray candling apparatus, no voids have been left in the electronic components made of the Solder moldings of Examples 1 and 2 have been prepared, however, voids have been developed in the electronic components, which have been prepared from the solder preform of Comparative Example 1. From this result, it can be seen that enveloping air or a presence of flux residue in a solder preform according to the present invention has not been observed.
  • When the thickness of the circumference of each of the electronic components prepared using the solder preforms of Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1 was measured by a micrometer, the difference between the maximum thickness and the minimum thickness for Examples 1 and 2 was 2 at most 20 microns while the difference between the maximum thickness and the minimum thickness for Comparative Example 1 was 60 microns.
  • Electronic components prepared using the solder preforms of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 have been subjected to a heat cycle test of -30 ° C to + 120 ° C according to the JASO D001-87 standard issued by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan is specified.
  • 9 is a graph showing the results of this test. Also, with the example test, cracks do not develop after 500 cycles, but cracks develop for 500 cycles in the comparative example. With respect to the target at 3000 cycles in the standard (a crack rate of at most 20%), the crack rate was at most 10% for the example and its deviation was small. In contrast, for the comparative example, the crack rate was 12 to 28%, so that the deviation was large and the target was not achieved.

Claims (4)

  1. A solder preform comprising metal particles having a high melting point dispersed in a solder layer of a solder alloy, characterized in that the metal particles have a melting point of at least 300 ° C higher than the melting point of the solder alloy and have a particle diameter of 20 to 300 microns, wherein the dimensional deviation of the particle diameter of the metal particles having a high melting point is at most 40% of the particle diameter, the metal particles having a high melting point on its periphery having an alloy layer (intermetallic compound) formed of the main component of the solder alloy and the metal particles having a high Melting point, wherein the solder preform is obtainable by a method comprising the steps of: adding a mixture of the metal particles and a thermally decomposable flux to molten solder alloy to obtain a main alloy, wherein the proportion of the metal lpartikel in the main alloy is higher than the proportion of metal particles in the solder alloy of the solder preform; and adding a predetermined amount of the master alloy to molten solder alloy to obtain the solder alloy of the solder preform in which the metal particles having a high melting point are dispersed and from which the thermally decomposable flux is completely evaporated.
  2. The solder preform according to claim 1, characterized in that the high melting point metal particles are composed of at least one selected from Ni, Ag, Cu, Fe and alloys thereof, the solder being a lead-free solder having Sn as a main component, and the alloy layer formed on the circumference of the high melting point metal particles is an Sn-intermetallic compound and the metal of the high melting point metal particles.
  3. An electronic component characterized by comprising a semiconductor element and a substrate and having a solder joint formed by soldering using the solder preform of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the solder joint is free from voids formed therein and the difference between the maximum thickness and the minimum thickness of the solder joint is at most 40% of the diameter of the metal particle.
  4. A method of producing a solder preform comprising metal particles having a high melting point dispersed in a solder layer of a solder alloy, characterized in that the metal particles having a high melting point have on its periphery an alloy layer (intermetallic compound) formed of the main component the solder alloy and the metal particles having a high melting point, the method comprising the steps of: adding a mixture of the metal particles and a thermally decomposable flux to molten solder alloy to obtain a main alloy, wherein the metal particles have a melting point of at least 300 ° C higher than the melting point of the solder alloy, have a particle diameter of 20 to 300 microns, wherein the dimensional deviation of the particle diameter of the metal particles with a high melting point is at most 40% of the particle diameter and the proportion of metal particles in the main alloy is higher than the proportion of metal particles in the solder alloy of the solder preform; and adding a predetermined amount of the master alloy to molten solder alloy to obtain the solder alloy of the solder preform in which the metal particles having a high melting point are dispersed and from which the thermally decomposable flux is completely evaporated.
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US20090236725A1 (en) 2009-09-24
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DE112007001029T5 (en) 2009-05-14

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