Object of the present invention
is therefore to provide a device for generating biogas
make, which does not have the aforementioned disadvantages.
This task is solved by
a device for generating biogas, in particular from the
Agricultural products, with a container, comprising
a fermenter, with an inlet for the supply of fermentation
Products, whereby at least biogas, sediments through the fermentation
and / or substrate is formed, with at least one at the bottom of the fermenter
being the over
the feed supplied
products to be fermented in a filling agent arranged in the fermenter
reach. This filler
is preferably designed as a cylinder, in particular as a settling cylinder.
In the filler
put in the fed
sediments to be fermented at the bottom of the same
from. Is the filler
that's how it goes
product to be fermented in the fermenter and mixes with it
the content contained in this. The filler itself is preferred
no fermentation takes place. The filler has the big advantage
on that here
the feed to be fed
fermenting product the temperatures in the fermenter
can be adjusted. As a result, local temperature differences in particular
in the fermenter
avoided, which slow down the fermentation process and thereby
would reduce the yield of biogas. Furthermore, is known to
Biogas plants save energy because they are used to heat the fermentation
Product does not have to
additional energy source
Advantageously, at least one collecting means, in particular a recess for receiving the sediments, is provided in the bottom of the fermenter. The depression is particularly advantageously connected to the filler. The sediments contained in the product to be fermented and those resulting from the fermentation process are collected in the well. The sediments are largely conveyed into the well by targeted control of the nozzles arranged at the bottom of the fermenter. Because the depression is connected to the filler, the sediments of the product to be fermented which settle in the filler can be removed directly from the latter and into the depression are carried out so that sediments of the product to be fermented only reach the fermenter in a very small amount. This sediment pre-separation and direct removal of the sediments make the contents of the fermenter more homogeneous, which in turn ensures increased biogas production.
The fermenter itself preferably has
and is preferably substantially cylindrical.
There is advantageously a heating device inside the fermenter
arranged. This can be done with a cylindrical configuration of the fermenter
be designed as a heating wall, which is then preferably mounted on
the bottom of the fermenter is arranged. By the elevation
the transport of the sediments settling on the bottom of the fermenter,
which are transported in particular through the controllable nozzles
In a particularly preferred embodiment
the device according to the invention
Mixture comprising biogas and / or at least partially fermented substrate
into the fermenter. If several nozzles are provided in the fermenter
e.g. a nozzle
only biogas, another only partially fermented substrate, or else
one and the same nozzle
can alternately inject biogas or partially fermented substrate.
This is particularly advantageous
that by means of
a mixture of biogas and / or at least partially fermented
Substrate both horizontal and vertical mixing
the content of the fermenter is ensured. This allows the
Yield of biogas increased significantly
become. That injected
Biogas in particular ensures
vertical mixing of the mass contained in the fermenter,
whereas by the injected
at least partially fermented substrate, especially a horizontal one
Mixing of the contents of the fermenter takes place, as at least due to the inhomogeneity of the injected
partially fermented substrate, i.e. especially the different ones
Density of the substances or parts contained in it, a horizontal
Mixing of the fermenter content takes place. This horizontal mixing
can still be done by a special control of the bottom of the fermenter
arranged nozzles are supported,
the control not only the injection angle, but also the switching sequence
with multiple nozzles
The container of the device according to the invention
can also include a gas dome. The gas dome can preferably
consist of an air dome. However, the gas can also have a
Gas discharge line can be taken directly from the fermenter. The
Arrangement of the nozzle
at the bottom can be done in such a way that the nozzle itself directly into the
Bottom of the fermenter is embedded. However, it is for example
Nozzles mounted in
a distance of 20 cm to about 1 m, preferably 30 cm to 70
cm, to be placed away from the bottom in the fermenter. This has the advantage
such an elevated one
Existing fermenters can also be upgraded without nozzles in the ground
The nozzles are
then in the figured
Version preferred oblique
aligned to the floor.
So-called two-substance nozzles are preferably used as nozzles,
which are preferably designed as slot radiators. With such
either only biogas or only partially fermented substrate,
or alternately, as well as biogas and partially fermented 4s
Substrate injected at the same time
be, the mixing with the biogas then preferably in the
Nozzle itself or
but already takes place in the pump unit. In addition, in particular
other agents and / or gases are also injected, such as methane gas, inoculants
etc. Here, the kinetic energy of a liquid jet (here:
Substrate propellant jet) advantageously used to the entrained
or split biogas into very fine gas bubbles. Through such
Slot-ray binary jets
is therefore with the device according to the invention
the yield of biogas achieved. In addition, the mixture can
The vaccine, i.e.
those needed for fermentation
Microorganisms (bacteria) can be added.
By injecting a mixture of biogas
and / or at least partially fermented substrate, it is advantageous
that targeted heat then
is introduced into the fermenter content when the mixture on the
appropriate temperature preheated
becomes. This can be done particularly simply when the pump required for the injection
with the appropriate exhaust and suction lines outside
of the fermenter is arranged so that in this pump and line unit
possibly also cooling,
can be made. In addition can
especially vaccine are injected.
The injected biogas and / or is advantageously
The substrate is at least partially removed from the container in the circuit.
Through a circuit
the device according to the invention
the yield of the same is further increased and the fermentation process
simplified. Here, only a small part of the fermenter content
present substrate withdrawn from the fermenter and via a pump
The biogas is also directly in a small amount
Gasdom or a separate gas storage tank in which the resulting
Biogas is derived.
The nozzles are preferably arranged in rows on the bottom of the fermenter, for example radially. An arrangement in rows allows a lot Number of different controls of the controllable nozzles, whereby a transport of the sediments settling on the bottom of the fermenter can take place depending on the arrangement and design of the well. Preferably, about one nozzle is arranged per 3 to 7 m 2 base area, preferably 5 m 2 base area, of the fermenter. However, the nozzles can also be arranged in any other arrangement, such as circular or irregular.
Furthermore, the present concerns
Invention a method for producing biogas, in particular with
a device as described above, one of one
an inlet and a filler arranged in the fermenter
products to be fermented
and the contents of the fermenter have at least one on the bottom
the same nozzle arranged
becomes. Preferably over
Mixture comprising biogas and / or substrate under a pressure in
a range of about 2 to 7 bar, preferably 5 to 6.5 bar, in
injected the fermenter.
By the method according to the invention
becomes both horizontal and vertical mixing
of the fermenter content causes, which results in a higher yield of biogas.
from a mixture of biogas and / or at least partially fermented
Substrate, which preferably contains the fermenter content in a recycle process
or are taken from the gas dome or the gas storage container
at the injection
horizontal and vertical mixing of the fermenter contents
The nozzles are preferred in this way
controlled that the
sediment deposited on the ground is transported into a depression
become. For example, the depression is annular on the inside of the
arranged of the fermenter, they are preferably in rows or
Circles arranged at the bottom of the fermenter are controlled in such a way that during training
of the fermenter in cylindrical form starting from the center of the same
can be controlled, i.e. first
the nozzles located in the center of the fermenter
Mixture comprising biogas and / or substrate and optionally
also inject other agents such as inoculants and / or gases such as methane gas
Control step the next row from the center of the fermenter
is controlled. This continues accordingly until the last one
which is located directly on the depression.
This will remove the sediments on the bottom from the center of the fermenter
to the one on the inside of the outer wall of the fermenter
Well transported. The same control procedure can also
run in reverse, namely when the recess for receiving
the sediments obtained, for example in a cylindrical fermenter
is arranged in the center of the same, so that here the one immediately on the inside
on the outer wall
of the fermenter arranged nozzles
be controlled first, then the next row
to the center of the fermenter, etc.
However, it is preferably provided
that the nozzles like that
can be controlled that this
in principle understand a blade movement similar to an agitator.
If one again assumes a cylindrical fermenter, then
a series of nozzles,
which on an imaginary line from the center of the fermenter to
the same, i.e. lie on a radius line, and at most from the
Depression are arranged, controlled, then be
the one on the next one
Radius line lying nozzles
driven. This process is repeated until the sediments
through this clockwise or counterclockwise nozzle control
and the resulting transport of the sediments into the
Deepening are transported. The deepening is about
last eighth circle in a fermenter with a circular base on the bottom
arranged the same. The sediments are removed using known extraction devices
removed from the well, for example, the removal can be done via
take place, which can also be laid in the floor. Beyond that
but also simple removal devices, for example with the
Well connected drain pipes
and valves arranged in this, possible.
A mixture of products to be fermented and 20 to 75% by weight of beet silage, based on the total amount, is advantageously fed to the fermenter via the feed. Rübensila ge advantageously increases the yield of biogas, since this results in a high energy input into the fermenter content. The energy yield for fodder beet is around 15,000 m 3 of gas per hectare of cultivated area, which corresponds to an electrical energy of around 33,000 kW / h. In addition, beet cultivation and beet harvesting can be largely automated, so that beets are available at a correspondingly low cost. After the harvest, the beets intended for the beet silage are tasted, ensiled and introduced into the fermenter from the beet storage container, for example by means of a metering pump. The mixing of the beet silage with the other products to be fermented, in particular liquid manure, can be provided in the pump or only afterwards. Due to the relatively low proportion of dry matter in the beet silage, the beet silage is pumpable and thus the process of adding beet silage can be highly automated. It is particularly advantageous here that the freezing point of beet silage is lower than water, which considerably simplifies storage on the one hand and the supply of the beet silage to the fermenter content on the other. The proportion of the beet silage, based on the total amount, is preferably in a range from about 20 to 50% by weight, more preferably in a range from 25 to 40% by weight.
The fermentation temperature is preferred
in the fermenter in a range of about 15 to 60 ° C, preferably 20 to 50 ° C, further
preferably 20 to 40 ° C, kept.
This area corresponds to the so-called mesophilic area, which
the fermentation needed
Bacterial cultures need for optimal growth. By leading the
Processes at mesophilic temperatures are advantageously larger temperature fluctuations
possible in the aforementioned area,
furthermore, the energy expenditure is considerably less than that of one
Working in the thermophilic field. Furthermore, the temperature difference
between the heating device and the fermenter content less
when working in the mesophilic range than when carrying out a process in the thermophilic range
This causes process disruptions
which adversely affects the biogas yield, advantageously
These and other advantages of the present invention
are explained using the following figures:
1 : Cross section of a device according to the invention for generating biogas; and
2 : Top view of the device according to the invention 1 ,
1 shows a device for the production of biogas, the one with the reference numeral 1 designated container which has a fermenter 2 with a gas dome directly connected to it 9 includes. In addition, the container 1 for example still include the control and / or pump system. The fermenter is made of V2a steel in the lower part, whereas in the transition area between fermenter 2 and gas dome 9 , ie in the transition area between the liquid and the gas phase V4a steel is used. The container 1 is particularly in the area of the fermenter 2 insulated against heat loss.
The container 1 including fermenter 2 is cylindrical and accordingly has a circular base. A settling cylinder is used as a filler on an imaginary axis cross placed through the circular base 6 arranged on one of the two axes near the outer wall of the fermenter. In the settling cylinder 6 an inflow ends 3 , about which products to be fermented from outside the container 1 are fed. These products to be fermented are fed from storage containers into the container via a metering pump 1 pumped. For example, a mixture of 25% by weight beet silage and liquid manure is fed into the feed 3 in the settling cylinder 6 promoted. The inflow 3 is ausgebil det that the same opening in the settling cylinder 6 about a third to a quarter of the height of the settling cylinder 6 is arranged. The supplied products to be fermented settle in the settling cylinder 6 from, the sediments contained in it, which can in particular also consist of impurities such as stones, earth, etc., at the bottom of the settling cylinder 6 stop yourself. Here is the settling cylinder 6 with a collection, namely a deepening 7 , directly connected. So the sediment that settles out of the settling cylinder 6 immediately into the recess 7 get out of this by means of a discharge device (screw conveyor) 10 be removed. Here, the discharge device 10 in the recess 7 be supported at one end by a correspondingly shaped component 7.1 ,
In the settling cylinder 6 there is no fermentation reaction yet. In the settling cylinder 6 there is a temperature adjustment of the supplied products to be fermented with the fermenter content. This ensures that when the products to be fermented are transferred from the settling cylinder 6 to that in the fermenter 2 existing fermenter content is increased by the no longer existing temperature differences, the biogas yield. Is the settling cylinder 6 filled with products to be fermented, they run as if by the arrow 6.1 indicated in the actual fermenter and mix with the fermenter content, whereby convection of the fermenter content takes place. The supply of the products to be fermented via the inlet 3 and ultimately the settling cylinder 6 in the fermenter contents via a controllable pump, which ensures that the temperature of the content of the settling cylinder 6 has adjusted to that of the fermenter content.
In the ground 4 of the fermenter 2 or the container 1 are nozzles 5 evenly arranged in rows. About these nozzles 5 a mixture of biogas and / or at least partially fermented substrate, which is taken from the fermenter content in the circuit, is injected under a pressure of 6 bar into the fermenter in a controlled manner. The control takes place pneumatically and can be fully automated by switching on a data processing system. The nozzles are designed as dual-substance slot nozzles and either only or alternately inject biogas and partially fermented substrate, optionally mixed with further agents and / or gases, or a mixture.
Furthermore, the container has a drain 11 on which the fermenter contents can be partially or completely drained. This can be particularly the case during routine general cleaning of the container 1 to be necessary. Usually, the at least partially fermented substrate from the fermenter 2 about a substrate removal 12 taken. Additionally is due to an overflow 14 ensured that the content of the liquid phase in the fermenter does not exceed a maximum level. That is in the gas dome 9 Any biogas that is present and generated by the fermentation is extracted by gas 13 taken from the gas dome. The gas dome consists of an air dome designed as a dome and is equipped with an overpressure safety device. The gas removed can be cleaned in a further step, for example desulfurization can be carried out, this being generated with the supply of air. The size of the gas dome cools the biogas so that the water vapor contained in the biogas condenses, settles on the inside of the gas dome and into the fermenter 2 running back.
On the settling cylinder 6 is still a heater 8th attached. This is raised on the floor 4 of the container 1 so that the transportation of the bottom of the fermenter 2 sedimentation through the controllable nozzles 5 is not prevented.
2 illustrates in particular the arrangement of the in the floor 4 of the fermenter 2 arranged nozzles 5 , These are arranged in rows in the fermenter base at regular intervals. Here, approximately one nozzle per 5 m 2 of floor area is provided. It is clear in 2 the arrangement of the recess 7 in the ground 4 of the container 1 to recognize. The deepening 7 itself is designed in such a way that its walls have a slight incline, which can also be of different steepness. At the deepest point of the depression 7 is then the screw conveyor 10 arranged to remove the sediment accumulating in this. Via a pump 15 , which works in particular on the Venturi principle, is via a gas intake pipe 17 and a substrate suction pipe 18 a subset of the ones in the container 1 removed biogas and substrate and via feed lines 16 the individual nozzles 5 controlled fed. In this case, it can be provided that in particular seed substrate is fed via a further supply line to the pump. Furthermore, the injected mixture can be heated in a targeted manner, so that targeted heating of a local area of the fermenter content is achieved by injecting the mixture. Hence the pump 15 outside the container 1 arranged.
The control of the nozzles 5 takes place in such a way that those nozzles which lie on this radius line and furthest from the recess are first activated on an imaginary radius line 7 are removed. In the in 2 Accordingly, the embodiment shown will first be to the right of the settling cylinder 6 and the heater 8th located nozzles, in the next step clockwise the next on an imaginary radius line in approximately lying nozzles 5 driven. These controls clockwise the nozzles 5 , which lie on an imaginary radius line, is continued until finally the sediments, which are on the ground 4 of the fermenter 2 have dropped into the recess 7 are transported. The nozzles 5 have injection angles which are approximately in a range from 10 ° to 60 °, based on the floor 4 , are, preferably the injection angle is in a range from about 20 ° to 50 °, more preferably 35 ° to 45 °. The nozzles 5 can be designed to be controllable with regard to their injection angle. In addition, the nozzles 5 can also be designed to be closable, which advantageously ensures that non-active nozzles do not become clogged with sediments.
By the present invention
an apparatus and a method for generating biogas for
provided, which on the one hand with those already present in the substrate to be fed
Sediments / objects
Does not show any problems because there are disturbing sediments / objects in the filler
and simply remove it, and by preheating the
Substrate in the filler
Energy saved and an extremely high yield of biogas
becomes. On the other hand, however, cleaning is extremely easy
with regard to the sediment settling. The special advantage
the device according to the invention
is that hereby standardized
Plants can be made which
for example, with a power of 500 kW approximately a diameter
of 18 m. A complete
takes about 25 days.