DE102018112360B3 - Area-dependent collision detection for a robot manipulator - Google Patents

Area-dependent collision detection for a robot manipulator Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102018112360B3
DE102018112360B3 DE102018112360.4A DE102018112360A DE102018112360B3 DE 102018112360 B3 DE102018112360 B3 DE 102018112360B3 DE 102018112360 A DE102018112360 A DE 102018112360A DE 102018112360 B3 DE102018112360 B3 DE 102018112360B3
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ext
effector
task
movement
execution
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German (de)
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Sven Parusel
Saskia Golz
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Franka Emika GmbH
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Franka Emika GmbH
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1628Programme controls characterised by the control loop
    • B25J9/1633Programme controls characterised by the control loop compliant, force, torque control, e.g. combined with position control
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1674Programme controls characterised by safety, monitoring, diagnostic
    • B25J9/1676Avoiding collision or forbidden zones

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator (1) with an end effector (3), in which the end effector (3) executes a predetermined set movement and, during the execution of the set movement, a task within a predetermined geometric range B about a location P. performs, comprising the steps:
during the execution of the desired movement, determining an external force windlass K ext introduced into the robot manipulator (1), wherein K ext has a vector F ext of external forces and / or a vector M ext of external moments,
Detecting an unwanted collision of the robot manipulator (1) when K ext exceeds a predefined first limit while the end effector (3) is outside the predetermined geometric area B around the location P,
- detecting a defective execution of the task when K ext exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of is, in each case during the end-effector (3) is within the predetermined geometric area B around the location P, where K of an expected and / or desired force winder within the predetermined geometric range B, and
- driving the robot manipulator (1) in an error mode when an undesired collision of the robot manipulator (1) and / or a faulty execution of the task is detected.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator with an end effector, a device for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator with an end effector, and a robot with such an apparatus.
  • In the prior art, it is known from a detected force or from a detected moment to conclude a collision of a robot manipulator with an object from the environment of the robot manipulator. Furthermore, various methods for path planning for a robot manipulator are known in the prior art.
  • So concerns the DE 10 2008 010 983 A1 a method for optimized near-net shape milling by means of a rotationally symmetrical tool.
  • The DE 10 2007 060 680 A1 relates to a method for controlling a manipulator, in particular a robot.
  • The DE 10 2011 111 758 A1 relates to a control method for a robot having a plurality of movable robot axes, in particular for a painting robot or a handling robot, wherein the robot axes are each pivotable in a specific pivot plane.
  • The DE 10 2014 103 240 A1 relates to a method for establishing and / or monitoring operating parameters of a workpiece processing machine having a tool holder and means for moving a workpiece and the tool holder relative to each other at least along a first axis.
  • The EP 2 954 986 A1 relates to a device for controlling and regulating a movement of a system with a plurality of kinematically interacting individual bodies, of which at least one is movable with a drive.
  • The EP 1 403 746 B1 relates to a monitoring method for a drive system of a robot, in particular a painting robot, with a motor and a moving part driven by the motor.
  • The US 2011 0270443 A1 relates to a device for detecting a contact position at which the robot has contact with an object.
  • The object of the invention is to better detect collisions of a robot manipulator, in particular during the execution of a task by the robot manipulator, and thereby perform the task better.
  • The invention results from the features of the independent claims. Advantageous developments and refinements are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • A first aspect of the invention relates to a method for controlling an actuator-driven robotic manipulator having an end effector in which the end effector performs a predetermined target movement and executes a task within a predetermined geometric region B around a location P during execution of the target movement, comprising the steps of:
    • - During the execution of the desired movement determination of an introduced into the robot manipulator external power winders K ext , in which K ext a vector F ext at least one external force and / or vector M ext has at least one external moment,
    • Detecting an unwanted collision of the robot manipulator when K ext exceeds a predefined first limit value while the end effector is outside the predetermined geometric region B around the location P,
    • Detecting a faulty execution of the task when K ext is exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of, in each case while the end effector within the predetermined geometric area B around the place P is located, where K of the an expected and / or desired force winder within the given geometric range B is, where K of the a vector F of at least one expected and / or desired force and / or vector M of the at least one expected and / or desired torque, wherein the determined force winder K ext around the expected and / or desired force winder K of the compensated and the compensated force winder is compared with the second threshold, and
    • Driving the robot manipulator in an error mode when an undesired collision of the robot manipulator and / or an erroneous execution of the task is detected.
  • Under a desired movement is advantageously understood a kinematic data set for specifying the movement of the end effector of the robot manipulator. Advantageously, the desired movement is defined via a desired movement path, that is, by means of a sequence of desired positions of a specific reference point on the robot manipulator, in particular a reference point the end effector of the robot manipulator or on the distal end of the robot manipulator, and further advantageously by means of a speed associated with this desired sequence of positions and / or an acceleration of the reference point. Accordingly, the term of the desired movement also includes a desired standstill of this reference point considered. Then, in this case of the desired standstill, a setpoint position that is constant over time and a setpoint speed of zero and a setpoint acceleration of zero of the reference point apply.
  • The end effector is also referred to as such when it is not aktuiert itself, that is, even has no movable or otherwise controllable actuators. If one speaks of a position or a speed or an acceleration of the end effector, in particular the respective variable is defined at a reference point on the end effector.
  • The place P is in particular the place where an execution of the task is expected. In some practical applications, this is not exactly determinable, so that within the given geometric range, an execution of the task is expected. This is the case, for example, when gripping or stacking objects whose dimensions vary to an unknown extent. For this purpose, the execution of the task is advantageously triggered when a desired contact with an object of the environment to be processed or transported, etc. is detected. The location P therefore advantageously varies over time, especially when the expectation of performance of the task changes, that is, the location P is suspected elsewhere at a second time than at a first time. Such time variance is preferably derived from the information from environmental sensors, from one at the end effector or at the distal end of the robot manipulator, or further preferably from an acceleration and / or velocity measured or estimated at another reference point on the robot manipulator.
  • External forces and moments are preferably understood to mean those which do not arise through the drives which are connected to the robot manipulator. Preferably, the joints of the robot manipulator as drives on electric motors for generating moments between the robot members, which are each rotatably connected to each other by the joint. These moments, which can be equivalently converted into a force by dividing a corresponding radius to be considered, are internal forces and moments, in contrast to the external forces and moments mentioned above.
  • The comparison of K ext With K of the and from K ext with the first and second thresholds are preferably component by component of the generally vectorial K ext and generally vectorial K of the so scalars are compared to scalars. Alternatively, scalar vector norms || K ext || are preferred and || K of || formed and compared with each other and with the first and the second limit. The vector standard is preferably the 2-norm, that is to say || K ext || 2 and || K of || 2 , which as a time integral of the squared vector components forms an energy-equal standard, or alternatively preferably uses as vector standard the ∞-norm, that is || K ext || ∞ and || K of || ∞, which respectively have the highest value of all Indicates vector components over time.
  • Preferably, the determination of the external power winders takes place K ext by means of sensors, in particular by means of force sensors and / or moment sensors. In particular, the moment sensors are preferably already installed in the joint together with the motor located in the respective joint. Furthermore, force sensors are preferably arranged on a structural component of a robot member, wherein this type of force sensors determines a tension or a force in the respective robot member via the material expansion of the robot member and the known material constants, in particular of the modulus of elasticity. Furthermore, electrical current sensors are preferably used which measure the electric current through an electric motor of the robot manipulator in order to conclude from changes in the electric current to an abnormal change in the torque of the motor and thus to a collision which manifests itself in an external force or in an external moment.
  • Detecting an undesired collision of the robotic manipulator consists, in particular, in detecting an undesired collision of the robotic manipulator with an object of the environment, with an object picked up at the end effector, or by collision between two members of the robotic manipulator.
  • In particular, the external force winder K ext a vector representing the detected forces F ext as a column vector and the detected moments M ext combined as a column vector and recorded together in a preferably six-dimensional column vector, as both F ext as well as M ext In particular, in a Cartesian coordinate system, three entries each for three mutually orthogonal spatial directions detected. In particular, if only external forces are determined, the components of this vector contain a zero in all entries for the external moments. Preferably, and in the most general case, therefore applies for the external force Winder K ext = [F ext T , M ext T ] T , wherein the superscript "T" in shape of "(·) T " indicates the transposed operator by which a row vector becomes the column vector, and vice versa.
  • The expected and / or desired force winder K of the In particular, it is achieved by a desired contact with the environment of the robot manipulator with an object from the environment, for example when processing an object by the end effector, when gripping an object by the end effector, when processing a workpiece by the end effector, for example during welding, Drilling, milling, painting, or similar. By such activities arises according to the Newton's law "Actio is equal to Reactio" a force on in particular the end effector, which should not be regarded as an undesirable collision. Therefore, this is expected and / or desired force winder K of the as described above, in particular a desired force winder K of the preferably derived from a force control of the robot manipulator and an expected force winder K of the preferably arises from an estimate of a contact force of a manipulation task. Again applies to the expected and / or desired Force Winder K of the the vector characteristic analogous to the external force winder K ext , in which K of the the expected and / or desired forces F of as a column vector and the expected and / or desired moments M of the combined as a column vector and noted together in a six-dimensional column vector, as both F of as well as M of the In particular, in a Cartesian coordinate system, three entries each for three mutually orthogonal spatial directions detected. If, in particular, only expected and / or desired forces are determined, then the components of this vector contain a zero in all entries for the external moments. Preferably, and in the most general case, therefore applies to the expected and / or desired force Winder K of = [F of T , M of T ] T , wherein the superscript "T" in the form of "(·) T " the transposed operator indicates that a row vector becomes the column vector and vice versa.
  • The failure mode is preferably that the task is aborted first and then a new attempt to execute the task is repeated with changed parameters. Alternatively preferably, the error mode consists in a termination of the instantaneous movement until the robot manipulator is at a standstill, that is to say in a so-called "safe stop". As an alternative alternative, the execution of the error mode is a change in the parameters of a compliance control. Such a compliance control generates an artificial spring-mass-damper model of the robotic manipulator and defines this model as desired behavior which the controller of the robotic manipulator is to produce. Preferably, this change in the compliance control in the failure mode results in a lower spring force constant with correspondingly reduced damping of the spring-mass-damper model. Another alternatively preferred failure mode is an active avoidance in front of the external force winder K ext , In this case, a controller of the robot manipulator is actively controlled accordingly and subjected to corresponding setpoint values of position and / or speed and / or acceleration, so that the determined external force winder K ext actively dodged. Advantageously, a method for determining an acting location, that is localization, of external forces or external moments is used for this purpose. Alternatively, the execution of the failure mode is to issue a warning to a user or to another person. Generally formulated, three general options are to be observed for the failure mode, namely an active reaction, a passive reaction, or stopping the movement of the robot manipulator to the external force winder exceeding the respective limit value K ext ,
  • It is an advantageous effect of the invention that a collision of a robot manipulator can be more accurately detected. This advantageous effect occurs in particular in that a distinction between a given geometric range B around a place P the expected task execution and the environment outside the scope B and is used for movement of a reference point on the robot manipulator, in particular for movement of a reference point on the end effector, within the range other leg leg to detect unwanted collisions, than outside. This happens against the background that within the range B In the execution of a task, an expected and / or desired force winder appears, which, however, according to the invention at least partially and at least implicitly taken into account and thereby less or no influence on the detection of unwanted collisions, whereby misdetections of unwanted detections can be more easily prevented.
  • According to an advantageous embodiment, at least for the detection of a faulty execution of the task, the determined force winder K ext around the expected and / or desired force winder K of the and the compensated forcewinder is compared to the second threshold while the end effector or point of reference on the end effector is within range B. This embodiment is particularly with known or predetermined force winder K of the carried out. Accordingly, it will be advantageous only the difference between the force winder K of the and the forcewinder K ext compared with the second threshold. This advantageously makes it uncertain what proportion in the force winder K ext actually the force-winder K of the taken out, making comparison with the second threshold more reliable.
  • According to an advantageous embodiment, the predetermined geometric area B a to the place P subsequent section of a desired movement path resulting from the desired movement.
  • Advantageously, by means of this embodiment, a rear, that is to say temporally later, part of the target movement path resulting from the desired movement of the end effector or of a reference point on the end effector as a predetermined geometric region B Are defined. The range is preferred B is defined as the rear percentage of the desired movement path resulting from the desired movement, for example the last geometric 20% of the desired movement path are given as the predetermined geometric range B Are defined.
  • Alternatively preferred is the predefined area B spherical, with the place P in the center of the spherical area B is arranged.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the area B is time-variant and dependent on the desired movement and / or depending on the task.
  • The area can be advantageous here B be adapted to the current circumstances, in particular the current progress of the execution of the task and to a kinematic state of the robot manipulator or the end effector or a reference point on the robot manipulator or on the end effector.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the external force winder K ext determined by means of a pulse observer.
  • In particular, the pulse observer records the angular accelerations of the joints, estimated on the basis of the engine torques, between the robot members of the robot manipulator. These can be compared with the actual angular accelerations of the joints and thus advantageously closed in case of deviations to external forces and moments.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the first and / or the second limit value are predetermined by a user and are adaptable by the user.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the first and / or the second limit value are defined together with the task.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the first limit value and / or the second limit value are time-variant and dependent on the progress in the course of the execution of the task.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the first and / or the second limit value are determined and adapted by machine learning.
  • By "machine learning" is preferably understood a parametric adaptation of the first limit value and / or the second limit value. The parametric adaptation preferably takes place gradient-based or based on a general cost or energy function, wherein the respective parameter or limit itself enters the energy function or the cost function at least quadratically, so that when forming a time derivative of the cost or energy function the value of the respective function decreases over time and thus has a convergence of the respective limit value or parameter to lower values of the cost function. Alternatively, preferably one or more statistical functions are used for machine learning, in particular to form an expected value for the first or second limit value depending on the past first or second limit values. Furthermore, machine learning is preferably based on the use of neural networks or related trainable constructs which, in particular via superimposed and adapted sigmoid functions, map input / output behavior as input values depending on environmental parameters, and thus, in particular, environmental conditions and detects parameters of the respective task, determine a first and / or second threshold as the respective output value of the neural network. Further preferably, machine learning relies on linear regression to statistically adjust the respective linear factors of a linear equation system such that the result of the linear system of equations provides the first or second threshold.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the first limit value is smaller than the second limit value.
  • This advantageously makes an undesired collision outside the predetermined geometric range B through a more sensitive limit detected, as an erroneous execution of the task, which can also be caused by an unwanted collision, but only in consideration of the interior of the given geometric area B , Inside the given geometric area B For example, shocks and other disturbances are more likely to occur outside of the task and may be expected and / or desired force winds K of the be expressed.
  • Another aspect of the invention relates to an apparatus for controlling an actuator-driven robotic manipulator having an end effector, the end effector for performing a predetermined desired movement and performing a task within a predetermined geometric range B around a place P during the execution of the target movement is executed, comprising:
    • a force determination unit which is used to determine an external force winder introduced into the robot manipulator K ext executed during the execution of the desired movement, wherein K ext a vector F ext at least one external force and / or vector M ext has at least one external moment,
    • a computing unit configured to detect an undesired collision of the robotic manipulator when K ext exceeds a predefined first threshold while the end effector is outside the predetermined geometric range B around the place P is and is designed to detect an erroneous execution of the task, if K ext is exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of, in each case while the end effector within the predetermined geometric area B around the place P is located, where K of the an expected and / or desired force winder within the given geometric range B is, where K of the a vector F of at least one expected and / or desired force and / or vector M of the at least one expected and / or desired torque, wherein the determined force winder K ext around the expected and / or desired force winder K of the compensated and the compensated force winder is compared with the second threshold, and
    • a control unit adapted to control the robotic manipulator in an error mode when the arithmetic unit detects an undesired collision of the robotic manipulator and / or an erroneous execution of the task.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment, the device furthermore has a user interface for specifying the first limit value and / or the second limit value.
  • Advantages and preferred developments of the proposed device result from an analogous and analogous transmission of the statements made above in connection with the proposed method.
  • Another aspect of the invention relates to a robot with a device as described above and below.
  • Further advantages, features and details will become apparent from the following description in which - where appropriate, with reference to the drawings - at least one embodiment is described in detail. The same, similar and / or functionally identical parts are provided with the same reference numerals.
  • Show it:
    • 1 a method for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator with an end effector according to an embodiment of the invention,
    • 2 a robot with a device for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator according to a further embodiment of the invention,
    • 3 a desired movement path resulting from the desired movement of the end effector and a predetermined geometric region B according to a method according to a further embodiment of the invention, and
    • 4 a target movement path resulting from the desired movement of the end effector and a predetermined geometric region B according to a method according to another embodiment of the invention.
  • The illustrations in the figures are schematic and not to scale.
  • 1 shows a method for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator 1 with an end effector 3 in which the end effector 3 performs a predetermined desired movement and executes a task within a predetermined geometric range B about a location P during the execution of the desired movement. In a first step of the method, a determination is carried out during the execution of the desired movement S1 one in the robot manipulator 1 introduced external power winders K ext , in which K ext a vector F ext from external forces and / or a vector M ext from external moments. In the next step, a detection takes place S2 an undesired collision of the robot manipulator 1 , if K ext exceeds a predefined first limit while the end effector 3 outside the given geometric range B around the place P located. Furthermore, a detection takes place S3 an erroneous execution of the task, if K ext is exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of, in each case while the end effector 3 within the given geometric range B around the place P is located, where K of the an expected and / or desired force winder within the given geometric range B is. In the final step, the robot manipulator is actuated 1 in an error mode when an unwanted collision of the robot manipulator 1 and / or a faulty execution of the task is detected.
  • 2 shows a robot 200 with a device 100 for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator 1 with an end effector 3 , wherein the end effector 3 for performing a predetermined target movement and for executing a task within a predetermined geometric range B around a place P executed during the execution of the desired movement. The device 100 has a force determination unit 5 on getting one into the robot manipulator 1 introduced external power winders K ext executed during the execution of the desired movement, wherein K ext a vector F ext from external forces and / or a vector M ext from external moments. These come in the shown 2 from a drilling action by which a propulsive force on the drill and the opposite to the end effector 3 acting counterforce arise. Furthermore, the device 100 an arithmetic unit 7 an executed unwanted collision of the robot manipulator 1 to detect, if K ext exceeds a predefined first limit while the end effector 3 outside the given geometric range B around the place P is and is designed to detect an erroneous execution of the task, if K ext is exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of, in each case while the end effector 3 within the given geometric range B around the place P is located, where K of the an expected and / or desired force winder within the given geometric range B is. Will the external force winder K ext determined and is this as the desired driving force in K of the , it can be assumed that the task "drilling" is carried out incorrectly, for example if the workpiece to be drilled has slipped, and the drilling process despite the feed of the end effector 3 does not occur. Furthermore, the device 100 a control unit 9 on which is carried out, the robot manipulator 1 in a fault mode, if the arithmetic unit 7 an unwanted collision of the robot manipulator 1 and / or a faulty execution of the task detected. The given geometric area B is here spherical and the place P is located in the center of this virtual sphere. Alternatives for the given geometric range are here in 3 and 4 shown. The area B is also time-varying and depends on the task. The first and second limits have been defined along with the task, since the drilling force during drilling corresponds to a desired force that is the end effector 3 exerts on the component during drilling and is known. The first limit value is also chosen to be smaller than the second limit value, since disturbances are to be expected during drilling and these are not to be interpreted as an undesired collision at the same time.
  • 3 shows a resulting from the desired movement target movement path of the end effector 3 , The given geometric area B is a sphere with center P ,
  • 4 shows a resulting from the desired movement target movement path of the end effector 3 , The given geometric area B is a to the place P subsequent section of the target movement path resulting from the desired movement. The intersection of a virtual sphere around the point P defines the beginning of the area B on the resulting from the desired movement target movement path of the end effector 3 ,
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    robot manipulator
    3
    end effector
    5
    Force determining unit
    7
    computer unit
    9
    control unit
    100
    contraption
    200
    robot
    S1
    Determine
    S2
    detect
    S3
    detect
    S4
    head for

Claims (10)

  1. Method for controlling an actuator-driven robot manipulator (1) having an end effector (3), in which the end effector (3) executes a predetermined desired movement and performing a task within a predetermined geometric area B around a location P during the execution of the desired movement, comprising the steps of: during the execution of the desired movement, determining an external force windlass K ext introduced into the robot manipulator (1), where K ext is a vector F ext having at least one external force and / or vector M ext of at least one external moment, - detecting an unwanted collision of the robot manipulator (1) when K ext exceeds a predefined first limit while the end effector (3) is outside the predetermined geometric range B is the place P, - detecting a defective execution of the task when K ext exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of is, in each case while the end-effector (3) within the predetermined geometric area B is located to the location P, where K is the expected and / or desired force is within the predetermined geometric range B, wherein the determined force winder K ext is compensated for the expected and / or desired force winder K des and the compensated force winder is compared with the second limit value, and - driving the robot manipulator (1) in an error mode, if an undesired collision of the robot manipulator (1) and / or an erroneous execution of the task is detected.
  2. Method according to Claim 1 wherein the predetermined geometric area B is a portion of a desired movement path resulting from the desired movement, adjacent to the location P.
  3. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the predetermined geometric range B is time-variant and dependent on the desired movement and / or depending on the task.
  4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the external force Winder K ext is determined by means of a pulse observer.
  5. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 4 wherein the first and / or the second limit value are predetermined by a user and are user-adaptable.
  6. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 4 wherein the first and / or the second threshold are defined together with the task.
  7. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 4 wherein the first and / or second thresholds are determined and adjusted by machine learning.
  8. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the first threshold is less than the second threshold.
  9. An apparatus (100) for controlling an actuator driven robotic manipulator (1) having an end effector (3), the end effector (3) for performing a predetermined target movement and executing a task within a predetermined geometric region B around a location P during execution of the Target movement is carried out, comprising: - a force determination unit (5), which is designed for determining a in the Robotemanipulator (1) introduced external power windlass K ext during the execution of the desired movement, where K ext a vector F ext at least one external force and / or has a vector M ext of at least one external moment, - a computing unit (7) designed to detect an unwanted collision of the robotic manipulator (1) when K ext exceeds a predefined first threshold while the end effector (3) is outside the predetermined geometric area B is around the place P, and executed to detect a faulty execution of the task, if K ext is hrt, exceeds a predefined second threshold value or if K ext <K of is, in each case during the end-effector (3) is within the predetermined geometric area B around the location P, where K the expected and / or desired force winder is within the predetermined geometric range B, the determined force winder K ext being compensated for the expected and / or desired force winder K des and the compensated force winder being compared with the second limit value, and ) designed to drive the robot manipulator (1) in an error mode when the arithmetic unit (7) detects an undesired collision of the robot manipulator (1) and / or an erroneous execution of the task.
  10. Robot (200) with a device (100) according to Claim 9 ,
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