DE102017124682B4 - A wafer carrier, method of removing material from an upper surface of a wafer, and method of adding material to a wafer - Google Patents

A wafer carrier, method of removing material from an upper surface of a wafer, and method of adding material to a wafer

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DE102017124682B4
DE102017124682B4 DE102017124682.7A DE102017124682A DE102017124682B4 DE 102017124682 B4 DE102017124682 B4 DE 102017124682B4 DE 102017124682 A DE102017124682 A DE 102017124682A DE 102017124682 B4 DE102017124682 B4 DE 102017124682B4
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wafer
material
shield
sh
top
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DE102017124682A1 (en
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Johannes Körber
Mikhail Pasko
Stefan Balas
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RF360 Europe GmbH
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RF360 Europe GmbH
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/6831Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using electrostatic chucks
    • H01L21/6833Details of electrostatic chucks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67005Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67011Apparatus for manufacture or treatment
    • H01L21/67017Apparatus for fluid treatment
    • H01L21/67063Apparatus for fluid treatment for etching
    • H01L21/67069Apparatus for fluid treatment for etching for drying etching
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67005Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67011Apparatus for manufacture or treatment
    • H01L21/67126Apparatus for sealing, encapsulating, glassing, decapsulating or the like
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/6831Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using electrostatic chucks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68714Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support
    • H01L21/68721Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support characterised by edge clamping, e.g. clamping ring
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68714Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support
    • H01L21/68735Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support characterised by edge profile or support profile
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68714Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support
    • H01L21/68742Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support characterised by a lifting arrangement, e.g. lift pins

Abstract

There is provided a carrier wafer and a method of removing material from an upper surface of a carrier that allow for improved trim accuracy. The wafer carrier has a shield which at least partially surrounds a receiving area of the wafer and allows to maintain a homogeneous material density at the edge location, even in the edge region, of the wafer.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a wafer carrier and a method of removing material from an upper surface of a wafer and a method of adding material to a wafer.
  • Modern manufacturing methods allow the fabrication of multiple electrical or electronic components by simultaneously applying manufacturing steps to many components. For this purpose, a wafer is used, which comprises several segments, which are intended specifically for the later components. Processing steps, such as layer deposition or the removal of material, for example a sacrificial material, are applied to the wafer rather than individually to each individual component.
  • There are electrical components that require a layer of material with a certain property, for example, a certain thickness. For example, electroacoustic resonators may have a layer whose thickness determines, among other parameters, an operating frequency, for example, a resonant frequency or an overall resonant frequency.
  • In order to provide each resonator with a proper layer thickness, it is possible to use a trim layer. The material of the trim layer can be deposited in the same steps for the entire wafer. However, each component may require a certain layer thickness, for example, depending on the location on the wafer.
  • For this purpose, material of the trim layer can be removed in a removal process. The extent of abrasion may vary for different locations on the wafer.
  • From the US 2015/0340209 A1 wafer carriers are known with a focus ring FR.
  • From the US 2012/0247678 A1 are wafer carriers with a focus ring around a wafer W known.
  • From the US 2016/0032445 A1 are also wafer carriers with a focus ring around a chuck, on which a wafer W lies, known.
  • From the US 2013/0186858 A1 It is known to be a wafer W to arrange a focus ring.
  • From the US 2004/0 129 218 A1 are wafer processing chambers with a ring around a wafer W known.
  • From the US 6,887,340 B2 Wafer processing plants are also known which have focus rings, a shield and "confinement rings".
  • From the US 9 203 134 B1 For example, methods for tuning MEMS resonators by means of a trimming layer are known.
  • From the WO 2017/065857 A1 and from the US 2006/0032445 A1 The use of shields in wafer processing methods is known.
  • To obtain the proper layer thickness desired for each site, high accuracy of the removal rate is desired.
  • Thus, manufacturing tools and manufacturing methods are needed that allow for greater accuracy in removing material from a wafer.
  • For this purpose, a wafer carrier, a method for removing material from an upper side of the wafer and a method for adding material to a wafer according to the independent claims are provided. Dependent claims provide preferred embodiments.
  • The wafer carrier comprises a receiving area. The receiving area is provided for receiving a wafer to be processed. Furthermore, the wafer carrier has a shield at least partially surrounding the receiving area. The shield is intended to maintain a homogeneous density distribution across an edge location when the receiving area receives a wafer and when an etching beam impinges on the edge location of the wafer.
  • In this connection, the receiving area of the wafer carrier is the area of the wafer carrier which is specifically intended for the placement of a wafer to be processed with a higher material removal accuracy. Accordingly, the receiving area is defined as the area on the top of the wafer carrier on which the wafer is to be positioned. The shield at least partially surrounding the receiving area allows the material removal accuracy to be increased and in particular avoids a large increase in material removal at the edge of the wafer.
  • Material removal of the wafer can be brought about by an etching jet. The etch beam may emanate from above the top of a wafer, as viewed from the location and orientation of the wafer. It is also possible that the beam is directed from a corresponding location on the wafer and emanating from elsewhere. The etching beam can accelerated atoms, ions, molecules or clusters thereof. The etch beam carries material from the top of the wafer by the action of the pulse of the particles of the beam impinging on ions, atoms, molecules or clusters thereof of the top of the wafer. Other effects, such as chemical effects, may also be used. For example, the addition of a fluorochemical agent, for example NF 3 , may help to increase the rate of ablation.
  • When the etch jet impinges on the top of the wafer and as the beam particles ablate particles of the wafer from the bond located at the top of the wafer, a local atmosphere is created over the location on the wafer where the beam impinges on the wafer. The abraded material particles generate a cloud of material above the point of impact of the etching jet. The presence of the cloud of material results in reduced effectiveness of the etch jet for ablating material from the top of the wafer. The cloud of material has a specific density corresponding to a certain mean free path. The probability that a particle of the etching beam impinges with its initial momentum on the surface of the wafer depends on the density and on the mean free path.
  • It has been observed that in conventional manufacturing processes, the edge rate in the peripheral region of the wafer is greatly increased. The shield provided in the present wafer carrier protects the volume behind the shield from being hit by particles of the etching beam by stopping the etching beam. Thus, the etch beam in the edge region of the wafer strikes the shield, and particles from the etch beam may ablate particles from the surface of the shield corresponding to the particles of the wafer surface. Thus, in the vicinity of the wafer edge, an atom is generated from the wafer and atoms from the material cloud comprising the shield. Thus, unlike etching the wafer edge without the presence of a shield, the conditions over the wafer, especially the material density and the mean free path, are similar at the edge of the wafer and in the middle of the wafer, and there is a greatly increased removal rate , as known in known systems prevented.
  • Thus, the present wafer carrier allows to prevent or at least reduce too much trimming at the wafer edge and to improve the trim accuracy. Further, the wafer carrier improves the protection of components behind the wafer, which are located in the "shadow" of the shield. Thus, a constant trimming or a more constant etching rate over the entire area of the wafer is obtained.
  • It is possible that the shield has a lateral width selected to keep the material density or the mean free path homogeneous, even when the etching beam moves to the edge of the wafer.
  • The etch beam may strike the entire wafer with a homogeneous density at a particular time that is constant over the entire wafer. However, it is possible that the etching beam has a width which is smaller than the width of the wafer. Then it is possible to obtain a homogeneous material removal by guiding the etching beam in a predetermined pattern. The etch beam may have a density distribution that is equal to or similar to a Gaussian distribution, with a higher density in the center of the beam and a corresponding lower density in the edge regions of the beam. The width of the beam may be defined as the width of the area of a cross-section of the beam in which the beam intensity is greater than or equal to a critical intensity. For example, it is possible to define the width of the etching beams as the width of the area in the middle of the beam traversed by 50% of the beam particles.
  • Depending on the width of the etching beam, the lateral width of the shield may thus be in a range of 2 mm to 10 cm. A preferred width of the shield may be about 2 cm. However, the width of the shield may be less than 2 mm or wider than 10 cm.
  • It is possible that the shield has an upper side and that the receiving area has an upper side. Further, it is possible that the top of the shield and the top of the receiving area are arranged in parallel.
  • Parallel aligned tops of the shield and receiving area (which, with a homogeneous wafer thickness, results in an upper surface of the wafer being parallel to the shield) results in homogeneous target symmetry of the wafer and shielding with respect to the etch beam, which helps to reduce the Density of the cloud of material to make homogeneous.
  • It is possible that the top of the shield is positioned at the vertical position of the top of the pick-up area or above the top of the pick-up area.
  • In particular, it is possible that the top of the shield is positioned at a distance h, higher than the location of the top of the receiving area, while the distance d so chosen the top of the shield and the wafer are vertically aligned.
  • Thus, it is possible for the top of the shield to be positioned higher than the receiving area by d, where d is the thickness of the wafer to be positioned in the receiving area. With such vertical alignment, a nearly flat surface of the shield and wafer is provided, thereby improving the homogeneity of the cloud of material at the location where the etch beam impinges on the wafer, even in the edge region of the wafer.
  • It is possible that the wafer carrier further comprises two fixed end stops.
  • The end stops can be used to constrain the wafer in a horizontal direction. This helps to line the wafer with respect to the location of the shield.
  • It is possible that the wafer carrier comprises two fixed end stops and a movable end stop for restricting the wafer in a predetermined horizontal position. Two fixed end stops may be disposed on one side of the wafer carrier, and the third end stop, the movable end stop, may be disposed on the opposite side. The movable end stop may be spring-driven and push the wafer toward the two fixed end stops to clamp the wafer in its pick-up position.
  • The end stops are preferably arranged and provided so that the material cloud density and the mean free path, even at the location of the end stops, are homogeneous. For this purpose, the geometric shapes, for example the heights of the end stops and their material, can be selected accordingly.
  • It is possible for the shield to comprise a material which, when the etching beam impinges thereon, produces a material density or mean free path equal to or similar to that of the material of the wafer. The same applies to the material of the end stops.
  • In particular, the material of the shield may comprise a silicon dioxide (for example SiO 2 ) or a silicon nitride (for example SiO 3 N 4 ) or similar materials. These materials are preferred when the wafer comprises the corresponding materials at its top. A silicon oxide or a silicon nitride are preferred materials for trimming layers of electroacoustic devices.
  • The etching beam may include nitrogen atoms and fluorine atoms. The etch stream may comprise nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3 ) or clusters comprising nitrogen trifluoride molecules.
  • Suitable materials for the shield are aluminum or other metals or alloys thereof (in general: materials that can be ablated with a particle beam or that are etchable by an etchant).
  • Suitable materials which may be included in the jet are NF 3 (nitrogen trifluoride), CF 4 (tetrafluoromethane) and / or argon.
  • It is possible that a movable end stop is connected to a movable arm attached to the wafer carrier. The movable arm may be spring loaded. Then, when the movable arm is released, the spring pushes the movable end stop to the wafer and the wafer to the corresponding opposite end stops.
  • It is possible that the shield has a recess which is provided for receiving the movable end stop and / or the movable arm when the movable end stop is in contact with the wafer.
  • Furthermore, it is possible for the wafer carrier to have a recess with a depth T which is equal to the thickness t of the wafer or similar to it.
  • A method of removing material from the top of a wafer may include the following steps:
    • Positioning the wafer in a receiving area on a wafer carrier,
    • Generating a gas material cloud over the wafer by an etching jet,
    • Maintaining a constant etch rate even when the beam impinges on the edge of the wafer.
  • Thus, a sudden decrease in the material density is prevented at the edge of the wafer, and also a greatly increased etch rate and excessive trimming at the etching of the wafer are prevented.
  • It is possible that the etch rate is kept constant by maintaining a homogeneous mean free path of the material cloud, even at the edge of the wafer.
  • For this, it is possible that the mean free path length is kept homogeneous by removing material of the wafer and the shield surrounding the wafer in a horizontal direction.
  • It is possible that the material of the shield may be selected such that when the etch jet is incident thereon, it provides a cloud of material having the same mean free path as the material of the wafer.
  • It is possible that the method for removing material as described below is a method of trimming a characteristic frequency of an electroacoustic resonator.
  • The wafer may be a six-inch wafer or an eight-inch wafer or a wafer of a different size.
  • The etching beam may have a diameter of 3 mm, that is, 50% of the beam particles are within a circular cross-section with a diameter of 3 mm.
  • The above principles also apply to the situation in which material is to be deposited on a wafer or implanted in a wafer by means of a material jet.
  • Thus, a method of adding material to a wafer may include the following steps:
    • Positioning the wafer in a receiving area on a wafer carrier,
    • Generating a gas material cloud over the wafer through a material jet,
    • Maintaining a constant rate of addition even when the beam hits the edge of the wafer.
  • It is possible that the rate of addition is kept constant by maintaining a homogeneous mean free path of the cloud of material, even at the edge of the wafer.
  • It is possible that the mean free path length is kept equally homogeneous by treating material of the wafer and a shield surrounding the wafer in a horizontal direction.
  • It is possible that the material of the shield may be selected when the beam is incident to provide a cloud of material having the same mean free path as the material of the wafer.
  • It is possible that the method is a method of depositing material on top of the wafer or implanting material into the material of the wafer.
  • Through the accompanying drawings, details of basic operating principles and technical details of preferred embodiments are shown and further explained.
  • In the drawings show:
    • 1 a possible arrangement of a wafer with respect to the shielding;
    • 2 the use of end stops to constrain the wafer;
    • 3 the possibility of a movable end stop;
    • 4 the possibility of a recess in the shield;
    • 5 a cross-sectional view of the wafer carrier;
    • 6 End stops with projections;
    • 7 a cross-sectional view of a wafer carrier with a movable end connected to a movable arm;
    • 8th the possibility of providing a recess in the wafer carrier;
    • 9 the possibility of arranging tops of the wafer and the shield;
    • 10 the effect of the presence of the shield on the cloud of material;
    • 11 possible details of a wafer carrier;
    • 12 a preferred material density;
    • 13 a comparison between a trim rate with and without shielding.
  • 1 shows a possible basic arrangement of the wafer carrier WC holding a wafer carrier arm A comprising a receiving area located primarily at a distal end of the arm A arranged and from a wafer W is covered. A shield SH surrounds of the wafer W cover reception area. One on the middle of the wafer W incident etching beam generates a particle cloud above the impact point, which determines the etch rate at this point among other parameters. The shield surrounding the receiving area SH leads to a similar cloud of material at the edge e of the wafer W , so the etching rate, even at the edge e of the wafer W , can be kept constant.
  • 2 shows a wafer carrier WC , the three stops TS which can be used to restrict the wafer in its specific position and prevent the wafer from moving in a horizontal direction. It is also possible that the end stops TS are arranged and shaped so that an alignment of the Wafers, for example by the use of a wafer flattening, is supported.
  • 3 shows a wafer carrier WC who has a movable arm MA comprising at which a movable end stop TS is arranged. The movable end stop TS can along a pathway TJ be rotated from a first position to an end position. In the final position touches the end stop TS the wafer and pushes the wafer against at least two other end stops.
  • It is possible that the movable arm and the end stops are part of the environment of the wafer. In order to avoid local inhomogeneities at a removal rate of the site, the geometric shape and material of the movable arm, the end stops and other components, for example a port structure where the movable arm is connected to the carrier, are selected such that a homogeneous etching rate is obtained.
  • 4 provides the possibility of providing a recess R in the shield SH which is the clamping of the wafer via a cord-operated movable end stop TS can support to its particular recording area.
  • 5 shows the wafer carrier WC and the corresponding wafer W in a cross-sectional view. The wafer W gets through two end stops TS , which prevent movement in a horizontal direction, restricted. Material of the shield SH is disposed under the wafer and extends in a horizontal direction over the edge of the wafer W out.
  • 6 shows the possibility of protrusions as part of the final structures TS to prevent the wafer W drops from the wafer carrier when the wafer carrier is tilted.
  • 7 shows a cross-sectional view of the wafer carrier, where an end structure TS with a movable arm MA connected to the wafer W to restrict to its reception area
  • 8th shows the possibility of arranging a recess R in the recording area, around the top of the wafer W and the top of the shield SH that is, to improve the geometrical similarity and homogeneity of the top surface exposed to the etching beam.
  • The depth of the recess R is not limited. The depth of the recess R is chosen so that - depending on the materials of the wafer top and the material of the shield SH the etch rate in the edge region and in the middle region of the wafer W is similar or the same.
  • 9 shows the possibility of shaping the shield SH with respect to the wafer W such that a flat common surface is obtained for maximum homogeneity.
  • Furthermore, the end stops TS have a height such that the top is flush with the top of the wafer W is aligned.
  • If a recess is used to form the shape of the receiving area, then material of the shield per se may act as an end stop member. Thus, the end stop elements can be integrated in the shield, or the material of the shield replaces the end stops. Then, a segment connected to the movable arm forms a movable segment of the shield, and there is a high degree of homogeneity in the edge region of the wafer W receive.
  • 10 represents the effects of the shielding SH on the thermodynamics of the etching process. In a central part of the wafer causes the etching beam B a cloud of material CLC from the surface of the wafer. The cloud of material CLE in the middle has a big influence on the effect of the etching beam B , For a homogeneous material removal even on the edge e to get the wafer, the shield will SH so provided that the etching beam B also particles from the shield SH wears off to a cloud CLC at the edge portion of the wafer having a similar or equal composition, density and mean free path so that the thermodynamic properties determine a removal rate that is similar to or equal to the removal rate at the middle location.
  • 11 provides a view of a possible embodiment of a wafer carrier WC dar. A distal end of an arm A of the wafer carrier WC represents a pick-up area of the shield SH is surrounded. The shield SH has a width w which is selected such that the removal rate is predominantly constant over the entire area of the wafer.
  • An end structure TS is to a moving arm MA arranged to press the wafer against two other end stops and so to limit the wafer in a receiving position.
  • 12 represents the desired effect obtained by providing the shield: 12 represents the density D a cloud of particles over the corresponding location where the etching beam impinges on the surface for a varying distance d from the center of the wafer to a location on the edge of the wafer where the wafer has a radius of 60 mm. The material density D is predominantly constant over the entire area of the wafer. The material density decreases sharply at a distance from the center of the wafer where the shield ends - in a radial direction.
  • 13 shows the equivalent of a normalized trim rate T depending on the distance to the center of the wafer. The dashed curve shows the trim rate for a wafer carrier without a shield. At the edge portion of the wafer, the trim rate is greatly increased. The solid line, however, provides a corresponding trim rate T for a trimming process in which the wafer is placed in its receiving position and surrounded by a shield that maintains a homogeneous cloud of material. One consequence of the presence of the shield is a trim rate that is well below the increased trim rate according to the conventional trim process, especially near the edge of the wafer, which has a radius of about 60 mm.
  • The wafer carrier and method of removing material from the top of a wafer is not limited by the embodiments described above and shown in the drawings. Wafer carriers comprising further elements, for example for monitoring the etch rate or for restricting a wafer in its receiving area, or methods comprising further steps are also included.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • A
    poor
    B
    Ätzstrahl
    CLC
    Cloud of material in the middle of the wafer
    CLE
    Cloud of material in the edge region of the wafer
    CR
    middle region
    D
    Density of the material cloud
    d
    Distance to the center of the wafer
    e
    Edge of the wafer
    HE
    etch
    MA
    movable arm
    R
    recess
    SH
    shielding
    T
    normalized trim rate
    TJ
    train
    TS
    end stop
    W
    wafer
    w
    Width of the shield
    WC
    Wafer carrier

Claims (17)

  1. Wafer carrier (WC), comprising: a receiving area suitable for receiving a wafer (W), - A shield (SH), which surrounds the receiving area at least partially, wherein - The shield (SH) is adapted to maintain a homogeneous density distribution over an edge location when the receiving area receives a wafer (W) and when an etching beam (B) impinges on an edge location of the wafer (W), further comprising two fixed end stops ( TS) and a movable end stop (TS) for restricting the wafer (W) in a predetermined horizontal position.
  2. Wafer carrier according to the preceding claim, wherein the shield (SH) has a lateral width w ≥ 2 mm.
  3. Wafer carrier according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the shield (SH) has an upper side, - The receiving area has an upper side and - The top of the shield (SH) and the top of the receiving area are arranged in parallel.
  4. Wafer carrier according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the shield (SH) has an upper side, - The receiving area has an upper side and - The top of the shield (SH) is positioned at the vertical position of the top of the receiving area or over the top of the receiving area.
  5. Wafer carrier according to the preceding claim, wherein - The top of the shield (SH) is positioned at a distance h, which is higher than the location of the top of the receiving area, and - The distance d is chosen so that the top of the shield (SH) and the wafer (W) are aligned vertically.
  6. Wafer carrier according to the preceding claims, wherein the movable end stop (TS) is connected to a movable arm (MA) fixed to the wafer carrier (WC).
  7. Wafer carrier according to the preceding claim, wherein the shield (SH) has a recess (R) suitable for receiving the movable end stop (TS) and / or the movable arm (MA) when the movable end stop (TS) is in contact with the wafer (W) is suitable.
  8. A method of removing material from the top of a wafer (W), the method comprising the steps of: Positioning the wafer (W) in a receiving area on a wafer carrier (WC), Generating a gas material cloud (CLC, CLE) over the wafer (W) by an etching jet (B), Maintaining a constant etch rate when ablating material from the top of the wafer (W), even if the beam strikes the edge (E) of the wafer (W).
  9. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the marginal rate can be maintained by maintaining a homogeneous mean free path of the cloud of material (CLC, CLE) even at the edge of the wafer (W).
  10. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the mean free path length is kept homogeneous by removing material of the wafer (W) and a shield (SH) surrounding the wafer (W) in a horizontal direction.
  11. Method according to the previous claim, wherein the material of the shield (SH) is chosen so that when the etching beam (B) is incident thereon, a material cloud (CLC, CLE) having the same mean free path as the material of the wafer (W ).
  12. Method according to one of Claims 8 to 11 , which is a method of trimming a characteristic frequency of an electroacoustic resonator.
  13. A method of adding material to a wafer (W), the method comprising the steps of: Positioning the wafer (W) in a receiving area on a wafer carrier (WC), Generating a gas material cloud (CLC, CLE) above the wafer (W) by a stream of material, Maintaining a constant addition rate when adding material to the wafer (W), even if the beam strikes the edge of the wafer (W).
  14. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the addition rate is kept constant by maintaining a homogeneous mean free path of the material cloud (CLC, CLE) even at the edge of the wafer (W).
  15. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the mean free path length is kept equally homogeneous by treating material of the wafer (W) and a shield (SH) surrounding the wafer (W) in a horizontal direction.
  16. A method according to the preceding claim, wherein the material of the shield (SH) is selected when the beam is incident to provide a cloud of material (CLC, CLE) having the same mean free path as the material of the wafer (W).
  17. Method according to one of Claims 13 to 16 , which is a method for depositing material on top of the wafer (W) or for implanting material into the material of the wafer (W).
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PCT/EP2018/072996 WO2019081094A1 (en) 2017-10-23 2018-08-27 Wafer carrier, method of removing material from a top side of a wafer and method of adding material to a wafer

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