DE102017105414A1 - Electric motor - Google Patents

Electric motor Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102017105414A1
DE102017105414A1 DE102017105414.6A DE102017105414A DE102017105414A1 DE 102017105414 A1 DE102017105414 A1 DE 102017105414A1 DE 102017105414 A DE102017105414 A DE 102017105414A DE 102017105414 A1 DE102017105414 A1 DE 102017105414A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
stator
electric motor
rotor
laminations
axial
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102017105414.6A
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German (de)
Inventor
Andrey Pulnikov
Giovanni Biancuzzi
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MinebeaMitsumi Inc
Original Assignee
MinebeaMitsumi Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by MinebeaMitsumi Inc filed Critical MinebeaMitsumi Inc
Priority to DE102017105414.6A priority Critical patent/DE102017105414A1/en
Publication of DE102017105414A1 publication Critical patent/DE102017105414A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/12Stationary parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/14Stator cores with salient poles
    • H02K1/146Stator cores with salient poles consisting of a generally annular yoke with salient poles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/12Stationary parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/16Stator cores with slots for windings

Abstract

Proposed is an electric motor comprising a rotor and a stator with stator teeth. The rotor projects beyond the stator teeth in the axial direction on at least one axial end. The stator is formed of axially stacked stator laminations. At least one of the outermost stator laminations has a greater axial extent than the other stator laminations.

Description

  • The invention relates to an electric motor, in particular a brushless DC motor, with a stator body of stacked stator laminations.
  • It is customary to form the stator of an electric motor from a plurality of stator laminations stacked in the axial direction. The stator laminations typically have a uniform thickness, i. Expansion in the axial direction, on. Rotor magnets can be formed axially larger than the stator, including stator windings, so that magnetic flux, which emerges from a part of the rotor magnets projecting beyond the stator, penetrates through the respective axially outermost stator laminations into the oppositely arranged stator teeth. However, if the saturation magnetization is reached in the outermost stator laminations, the magnetic flux can only be partially propagated, thereby limiting the contribution to the magnetomotive force.
  • It is known to lengthen and bend the outermost stator laminations so as to increase the flux-receiving area of the stator teeth in the axial direction to obtain a larger magnetic flux-receiving area through the stator body. However, this increases the manufacturing cost and is particularly important for small electric motors, e.g. with a rotor outer diameter of less than 30 mm, not practical.
  • It is an object of the invention to improve the performance of an electric motor.
  • This object is achieved by an electric motor of claim 1. Embodiments of the electric motor are specified in the dependent claims.
  • The proposed electric motor comprises a rotor and a stator with stator teeth. The rotor projects beyond the stator teeth on at least one axial end in the axial direction. The stator is formed of axially stacked stator laminations. At least one of the outermost stator laminations has a greater sheet thickness (axial extent) than the remaining stator laminations.
  • The proposed electric motor has a rotor which projects beyond the stator teeth in the axial direction on one side or on both sides. At least part of the magnetic flux, which exits the rotor beyond the stator teeth, is deflected in the direction of the respective opposite stator tooth and penetrates through the respective axial surface into the opposite stator tooth.
  • Due to this phenomenon, the magnetic flux has a higher density in the axially outer stator laminations than in the stator laminations therebetween. As a result, the magnetic flux density is highest in the outermost stator laminations of the stator.
  • In the proposed electric motor, at least one of the outermost stator laminations is thicker than the stator laminations located therebetween. Here and below, the terms of thickness and sheet thickness refer to the respective axial extent, unless otherwise stated. One of the outermost stator laminations or both outermost stator laminations may be thicker than the stator teeth.
  • As the thickness of a stator lamination increases, an increase in the maximum possible magnetization, i. Saturation magnetization, achieved in this stator. The saturation magnetization indicates in particular a maximum value for the magnetization, which can not be exceeded even by increasing the external magnetic field strength. Thus, the maximum achievable magnetic flux density in the stator of the proposed electric motor exceeds that of conventional electric motors whose stator laminations are made uniformly thick.
  • Thanks to the increased saturation magnetization, for example, stronger rotor magnets can be used and / or a greater yield of the magnetic energy can be achieved. As a result, the performance of the electric motor can be increased.
  • When the stator is wound with stator windings, in one embodiment, the axial extent of the rotor magnets may be at least approximately the same length as the overall axial extent of the stator teeth and the stator windings. For example, the ratio VB = D12 / D16 of the axial extent D12 of the rotor magnets to the total axial extent D16 of the stator teeth and the stator windings may be between 0.5 and 2, in particular between 0.7 and 1.5, or between 0.9 and 1.1 be. Alternatively or additionally, the ratio R = D12 / D14 of the axial extent of the rotor magnets D12 to the axial extent D14 of the unwound stator, i. Stator without stator windings, between 1.1 and 5, in particular between 1.1 and 4 or between 1.25 and 3.0. These exemplary axial dimensions of the rotor and the stator can particularly favor the magnetic flux absorption by the stator teeth.
  • The ratio VS = D24 / D26 of the thickness D24 of the thicker outermost stator lamination to the thickness D26 of each of the remaining stator laminations is, for example, greater than 1 and less than 5. The ratio VS can be greater than 1 and less than 4, or greater than 1.5 and less than 3, be. The stator laminations may be selected in various configurations from stator laminations having conventional manufacturing dimensions. These are, for example, sheets having a thickness of 0.15 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.23 mm, 0.27 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1 , 5 mm. For example, the at least one outermost stator lamination may have a thickness D24 of 0.4 to 2.0 mm, in particular 0.5 mm or 1.0 mm, while the remaining stator laminations have a thickness D26 of 0.1 to 0.4 mm, in particular 0.15 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.23 mm, 0.27 mm, 0.3 mm or 0.35 mm.
  • These exemplary thickness ratios of the at least one outermost stator lamination to the usual stator lamination may in particular correspond to a compromise between the production outlay, the increased magnetic saturation in the at least one outermost stator lamination, and a suppression of eddy currents in the at least one outermost stator lamination.
  • The stator laminations may be formed of a magnetizable material. The magnetizable material is suitable for receiving and transmitting magnetic fluxes. The magnetizable material includes e.g. Steel, ferrites, iron or alloys thereof. In addition, the stator plates can be isolated from each other. For example, a dielectric intermediate layer is provided in each case between two stacked stator laminations, which prevents current flow between the stator laminations. In this way, eddy currents can be suppressed in the stator laminations.
  • Increasing the thickness D24 of the at least one axially outermost stator lamination may result in an increase in eddy currents therein. Eddy currents cause power loss through heating and are usually undesirable. Therefore, there may be an upper limit to the thickness D24 of the at least one axially outermost stator lamination, which is, for example, 0.5 mm or 1.0 mm.
  • The power loss due to eddy currents can also be proportional to the speed. If the electric motor operates at relatively high rotational speeds, for example at more than 10 3 or 10 4 revolutions per minute, the power loss can already outweigh the advantages of the increased thickness of the at least one axially outermost stator lamination even at a thickness of 1.0 mm. In some examples, the proposed electric motor is configured to run at an average speed of 0 to 104 revolutions per minute. In other examples, the electric motor is configured to run at an average speed of 0 to 5000, or 0 to 103, revolutions per minute. The respective lower limit of 0 revolutions per minute takes into account the idle operation of the electric motor. Consequently, the electric motor is arranged to operate at relatively low speeds, so that the power loss due to eddy currents in the at least one axially outermost stator plate is negligible.
  • The at least one outermost stator plate may also be planar and / or flat. In this case, a planar design of the stator lamination mean that it is not angled. Such a design of at least one of the outermost stator laminations can simplify the manufacture of the stator and thus of the electric motor compared to conventional electric motors with angled or bent outermost stator laminations.
  • The proposed electric motor may in particular be a brushless DC motor or stepper motor, which may be designed both as an internal rotor and external rotor. Furthermore, the proposed electric motor may be a relatively small electric motor, e.g. with an axial extent of the stator of 2 to 30 mm. The axial extent of the stator may further be 3 to 20 mm or 5 to 10 mm. Alternatively or additionally, the rotor may have an axial extent of 3 to 50 mm, or 5 to 30 mm, or 8 to 15 mm. The outer diameter of the rotor may be 10 to 500 mm, or 20 to 350 mm or 30 to 200 mm. In such smaller electric motors, the advantage of simplified manufacturing, as explained above, is increasingly evident.
  • Further features and details of the proposed electric motor are described below with reference to the drawings. Showing:
    • 1 a schematic sectional view of an example of an electric motor;
    • 2 a schematic sectional view of another example of an electric motor with magnetic field lines;
    • 3 a schematic sectional view of another example of an electric motor; and
    • 4 a diagram illustrating the relative increase of the magnetic flux as a function of the ratio of the axial extent of the rotor magnets to the axial extent of the stator.
  • Like reference numerals have been used to identify the same or similar structures or functions.
  • 1 shows a schematic sectional view of an electric motor 10. The electric motor is a brushless DC motor. The electric motor includes a rotor 12 and a stator 14 , The outer diameter of the rotor 12 is between 10 mm and 500 mm. The axial extent of the rotor 12 is 3 mm to 50 mm. The axial extent of the stator 14 is 2 mm to 30 mm.
  • The rotor 12 includes rotor magnets 16 and a magnetic inference 18 , where the inference 18 on a wave 20 is stored and the rotor magnets 16 wearing. The stator 14 includes a plurality of stator teeth 22 , of which in 1 two are shown. The stator teeth 22 are made of axially stacked stator laminations 24 . 26 educated. The stator laminations 24 . 26 are made of a magnetizable material, for example of a steel, a ferrite, iron or an alloy thereof. In the following, the examples are described with reference to a single stator tooth 22, and the description applies to all other stator teeth 22 analogous.
  • The stator laminations 24 . 26 are electrically insulated from each other by means of dielectric layers (not shown). The stator 14 may further comprise a stator yoke (not shown) from which the stator teeth 22 radially in the direction of the rotor 12 extend. The stator yoke can be integral with the stator teeth 22 formed and thus from the same axially stacked stator laminations 24 . 26 be formed.
  • The rotor 12 dominates the stator teeth 22 in the axial direction at its axially upper end 28. The rotor 12 can be at its axially lower end 30 flush with the stator teeth 22 be trained as in 1 shown, or this project in the axial direction (not shown).
  • The top stator plate 24 is thicker than the other stator laminations 26 , As a result, on the one hand, the cross-sectional area of the uppermost stator lamination 24 increased perpendicular to the radial direction. Here is the top stator 24 just, and not bent or bent, trained. Furthermore, the uppermost stator plate 24 due to the increased cross-sectional area, a larger flux-receiving surface and a larger volume for magnetic flux absorption. As a result, furthermore, the saturation magnetization in the uppermost stator plate 24 is greater than in the other stator laminations 26 , Thus, the maximum achievable magnetic flux density is in the uppermost stator lamination 24 increased compared to the other stator laminations 26.
  • It should be noted that the illustration in the figures is only schematic and therefore not to scale. The ratio of the axial extent D24 of the uppermost stator lamination 24 to the axial extent D26 the remaining stator plates 26 is for example between 1 and 5, or between 1 and 4, or between 1.5 and 3. Furthermore, the uppermost stator plate 24 a thickness of 0.4 mm to 2.0 mm, for example, 0.5 mm or 1.0 mm. The remaining stator plates 26 have a thickness of 0.1 mm to 0.4 mm, for example, 0.2 mm or 0.35 mm. In specific examples, the ratio of thickness D24 to thickness D26 0.35: 0.15; 0.35: 0.2; 0.5: 0.2; 0.5: 0.23; 0.5: 0.27; 0.5: 0.35; 1.0: 0.35; or 1.0: 0.5. These dimensions correspond to commercial thicknesses for sheets, from which the stator laminations 24 . 26 each can be punched out.
  • Parts of the magnetic flux (characterized in the figures by the corresponding magnetic field lines) which are above the stator teeth 22 from the rotor magnets 16 escape, penetrate through the top stator 24 into the stator teeth 22 one. The uppermost stator plate 24 has due to the increased thickness D24 a higher saturation magnetization than the usual stator laminations 26 on. This is the maximum absorbable magnetic flux density through the stator 14 increased compared to a conventional electric motor with uniformly thick stator laminations.
  • 2 shows a schematic sectional view of an electric motor 32 with magnetic field lines B. For a better overview are the wave 20 and the conclusion 18 not shown. Both outermost stator laminations 24 are thicker than the other intermediate stator laminations 26 formed. In 2 are the stator laminations 26 summarized in a block.
  • sections 34 . 36 of the rotor magnet 16 surmount the stator tooth 22 in the axial direction at the respective axial end. The relationship R = D12 / D14 of the axial extent D12 of the rotor magnet 16 to the axial extent D14 of the stator tooth 22 is between 1.1 and 5, or between 1.1 and 4, or between 1.25 and 3. Parts of magnetic field lines B, which from the sections 34 . 36 emerge, initially run in the air above or below the opposite stator tooth 22 and pass through the outermost stator laminations 20 in the stator tooth 22 ,
  • The axial extent D14 of the stator 14 is between 2 mm and 30 mm, or between 3 mm and 20 mm, or between 5 mm and 10 mm. The axial extent D12 of the rotor 12 is 3 mm to 50 mm, or 5 mm to 30 mm, or 8 mm to 15 mm.
  • 2 shows that the magnetic field lines in the axially outermost stator laminations 24 Run closer together than in the intermediate stator laminations 26 , Therefore, the magnetic flux density in the axially outermost stator laminations 24 increased in the other stator laminations 26. Because the thickness D24 the axially outermost stator laminations 24 larger than the other stator laminations 26 is more magnetic field lines can be absorbed by the axially outermost stator laminations 24. Furthermore, the saturation magnetization is in the axially outermost stator laminations 24 increased, whereby stronger rotor magnets can be used. Investigations have also shown that in each of the axially outer stator 24 entering field lines through this stator 24 through to the stator yoke and not into the intervening stator laminations 26 enter.
  • The increased saturation magnetization is determined by means of a diagram in 4 shown, clarified. 4 shows schematically the relative increase of the magnetic flux I plotted on the y-axis, depending on the ratio plotted on the x-axis R = D12 / D14 of the axial extent of the rotor magnets D12 to the axial extent of the stator D14 , The calculation is based on the fact that axially outermost stator laminations are thicker than the intermediate stator laminations. It was assumed that the sheet thickness D24 the outer stator laminations 0.5 mm and the sheet thickness D26 the intermediate stator plates is 0.35 mm.
  • The relative increase of the magnetic flux I is normalized with respect to a state in which the rotor magnets and the stator are the same length. Thus, the relative increase I equals 1 when the ratio R is equal to 1. The diagram shows that the magnetic flux increases steadily to 1.6 times when the ratio R is increased from 1 to 3. This makes it clear that the greater the axial extent of the rotor relative to the stator, the stronger the gain of the magnetic flux through the stator.
  • 3 shows a schematic sectional view of the electric motor 32 , The stator 14 is wound, ie stator windings 40 are around the stator teeth 22 wound. A slot insulation 42 Insulates the individual stator windings 40 against the respective stator tooth 22 , The stator 14 further comprises a stator yoke 44 concentric with the rotor 12 is and on the inside of the stator teeth 22 are formed. The Stator yoke 44 thus also serves as magnetic inference.
  • In particular, the stator windings 40 and the stator tooth 22 Overall, an axial extent D16 on, the axial extent D12 of the rotor 12 , or at least the rotor magnet 16 , at least approximately corresponds. The ratio of the dimensions D16 to D12 is therefore approximately 1, optionally between 0.5 and 2, or between 0.7 and 1.5 or between 0.9 and 1.1.
  • The outermost stator laminations 24 each have a greater thickness than the other stator laminations 26. The technical effects achieved thereby are as described above.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 12
    rotor
    14
    stator
    16
    rotor magnet
    18
    conclusion
    20
    wave
    22
    stator teeth
    24
    outer stator laminations
    26
    stator laminations
    28
    axial upper end of the rotor 12
    30
    axial lower end of the rotor 12
    32
    electric motor
    34, 36
    Sections of the rotor magnet 16
    40
    stator
    42
    slot insulation
    44
    stator yoke
    D12
    axial extent of the rotor 12
    D14
    axial extent of the stator 14
    D16
    axial extent of the wound stator tooth 22
    D24
    Sheet thickness of the outer stator laminations 24
    D26
    Sheet thickness of the stator laminations 26
    I
    relative increase of the magnetic flux
    R
    Ratio D12 / D14
    VS
    Ratio D24 / D26

Claims (18)

  1. An electric motor comprising a rotor (12) and a stator (14) with stator teeth (22), wherein stator windings (40) are wound around the stator teeth; the rotor (12) the stator teeth (22) projects beyond at least one axial end in the axial direction; the stator (14) is formed from axially stacked stator laminations (24, 26); and at least one of the outermost stator laminations (24) has a greater sheet thickness than the remaining stator laminations (26).
  2. Electric motor after Claim 1 wherein the rotor (12) comprises at least one rotor magnet (16) and the rotor magnet (16) projects beyond the stator teeth (22) at least one axial end in the axial direction.
  3. Electric motor after Claim 1 or 2 in which the ratio VB of the axial extent D12 of the rotor magnets (16) to the axial extent D16 of the stator teeth (22) including the stator windings (40), VB = D12 / D16, is between 0.7 and 1.5 or between 0 , 9 and 1.1.
  4. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the ratio R of the axial extent D12 of the rotor magnets (16) to the axial extent D14 of the unwound stator (14), R = D12 / D14, between 1.1 and 4 or between 1.25 and 3 amounts to.
  5. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the ratio VS of the sheet thickness D24 of the at least one of the outermost stator laminations (24) to the sheet thickness D26 of each of the remaining stator laminations (26), VS = D24 / D26, greater than 1 and less than 5, in particular greater than 1 and less than 4, or greater than 1 and less than 3, is.
  6. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one outermost stator plate (24) is flat, in particular not angled, is formed.
  7. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the axial extent (D14) of the stator is 2 to 30 mm, in particular 3 to 20 mm or 5 to 10 mm.
  8. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the axial extent (D12) of the rotor magnets is 3 to 50 mm, in particular 5 to 30 mm or 8 to 15 mm.
  9. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the stator laminations (24, 26) are electrically insulated from each other.
  10. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the two outermost stator laminations (24) each have a larger sheet thickness (D24) than the other stator laminations (26).
  11. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the rotor (12) projects beyond the stator teeth (22) at both axial ends in the axial direction.
  12. electric motor Claim 11 wherein the rotor (12) projects beyond the stator teeth (22) by the same amount in the axial direction at both axial ends.
  13. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one of the outermost stator laminations (24) has a sheet thickness (D24) of 0.4 to 2.0 mm; and the remaining stator laminations (26) each have a sheet thickness (D26) of 0.1 to less than 0.4 mm.
  14. Electric motor after Claim 13 wherein the at least one of the outermost stator laminations (24) has a sheet thickness (D24) of 0.5 mm or 1.0 mm; and the remaining stator laminations (26) each have a sheet thickness (D26) of 0.15 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.23 mm, 0.27 mm, 0.3 mm or 0.35 mm.
  15. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, set up for running at an average speed of 0 to 10,000 revolutions per minute.
  16. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the rotor (12) has an outer diameter of 10 to 500 mm, in particular 20 to 350 mm or 30 to 200 mm.
  17. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the stator laminations (24, 26) are formed from a ferromagnetic material.
  18. Electric motor according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the electric motor is a brushless DC motor.
DE102017105414.6A 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 Electric motor Pending DE102017105414A1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102017105414.6A DE102017105414A1 (en) 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 Electric motor

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102017105414.6A DE102017105414A1 (en) 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 Electric motor

Publications (1)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060279876A1 (en) 2005-06-09 2006-12-14 Albrecht David W Spindle motor winding for miniature hard disk drive
JP2007110863A (en) 2005-10-17 2007-04-26 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Stator core of motor and magnet structure
US20110096437A1 (en) 2009-10-22 2011-04-28 Alphana Technology Co., Ltd. Disk drive device having a laminated core
US20120050911A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-01 Nidec Corporation Spindle motor having magnetic circuit for stator and rotor magnet, and storage disk drive having the same
DE102012021209A1 (en) 2012-10-30 2014-04-30 Minebea Co., Ltd. Stator assembly for electric machine e.g. spindle motor having fluid dynamic bearing system, has a pole tooth having windings which are arranged with winding wires that are arranged in vibration-damped manner on the pole teeth
DE102014014040A1 (en) 2014-09-26 2016-03-31 Minebea Co., Ltd. Electric motor

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060279876A1 (en) 2005-06-09 2006-12-14 Albrecht David W Spindle motor winding for miniature hard disk drive
JP2007110863A (en) 2005-10-17 2007-04-26 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Stator core of motor and magnet structure
US20110096437A1 (en) 2009-10-22 2011-04-28 Alphana Technology Co., Ltd. Disk drive device having a laminated core
US20120050911A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-01 Nidec Corporation Spindle motor having magnetic circuit for stator and rotor magnet, and storage disk drive having the same
DE102012021209A1 (en) 2012-10-30 2014-04-30 Minebea Co., Ltd. Stator assembly for electric machine e.g. spindle motor having fluid dynamic bearing system, has a pole tooth having windings which are arranged with winding wires that are arranged in vibration-damped manner on the pole teeth
DE102014014040A1 (en) 2014-09-26 2016-03-31 Minebea Co., Ltd. Electric motor

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