DE102017005087A1 - Providing a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle by means of a navigation device - Google Patents

Providing a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle by means of a navigation device

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Publication number
DE102017005087A1
DE102017005087A1 DE102017005087.2A DE102017005087A DE102017005087A1 DE 102017005087 A1 DE102017005087 A1 DE 102017005087A1 DE 102017005087 A DE102017005087 A DE 102017005087A DE 102017005087 A1 DE102017005087 A1 DE 102017005087A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
route
position
roads
destination
aircraft
Prior art date
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Pending
Application number
DE102017005087.2A
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German (de)
Inventor
Mathias Kottke
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Preh Car Connect GmbH
Original Assignee
Preh Car Connect GmbH
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Publication date
Application filed by Preh Car Connect GmbH filed Critical Preh Car Connect GmbH
Priority to DE102017005087.2A priority Critical patent/DE102017005087A1/en
Publication of DE102017005087A1 publication Critical patent/DE102017005087A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups G01C1/00-G01C19/00
    • G01C21/20Instruments for performing navigational calculations
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups G01C1/00-G01C19/00
    • G01C21/26Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups G01C1/00-G01C19/00 specially adapted for navigation in a road network
    • G01C21/34Route searching; Route guidance
    • G01C21/3407Route searching; Route guidance specially adapted for specific applications
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C2201/00Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor
    • B64C2201/14Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by flight control
    • B64C2201/141Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by flight control autonomous, i.e. by navigating independently from ground or air stations, e.g. by using inertial navigation systems [INS]

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for providing a route (330, 332) for an unmanned aerial vehicle (150) by means of a navigation device (110) having a computing unit (112), a position determination unit (113) and a destination input unit (115) Comprising: determining a current position (310) of the aircraft (150) by means of the position determination unit (113); Inputting a destination into the navigation device (110) by means of the destination input unit (115); Determining a target position (320) using the target by the computing unit (112); and calculating the route (330, 332) by means of the arithmetic unit (112), such that the route (330, 332) leads from the current position (310) to the destination position (320) and has a route section that runs along a road (301 , 302, 304, 305).

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for providing a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle by means of a navigation device and a navigation device for carrying out the method.
  • A navigation device is able to calculate a route that leads from a current position of the navigation device to a destination position. The position of the navigation device is most often determined using a global navigation satellite system, for example using NAVSTAR GPS, GLONASS, BEIDOU or GALILEO. The destination position is usually derived from a destination which a user of the navigation device specifies by means of a destination input unit of the navigation device. Alternatively, the target position may be determined based on historical data using an estimate, for example based on already traveled routes.
  • A route may be provided by calculating the route using a computing unit of the navigation device. For the route calculation, map data is used, which is usually stored in a non-volatile memory unit of the navigation device, for example on a CD-ROM, on a hard disk or in a flash memory. The map data represents geographic objects and associated information such as roads, paths, intersections, squares, railways, waterways, buildings, bridges, terrain, national boundaries, parking, rest areas, localities, traffic regulations, and speed limits.
  • An unmanned aerial vehicle can be used for various military, commercial and private purposes. The term "unmanned aerial vehicle" means an aircraft operated on board the aircraft without human crew. So even a model airplane like a multicopter is an unmanned aerial vehicle. In the following, the term "aircraft" always means an unmanned aerial vehicle.
  • In the commercial field, an unmanned aerial vehicle can be used for inspection and documentation purposes by populating it with a camera that records a particular overflown area. In addition, a sensor for control and monitoring tasks can be mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor a particular overflying area. In the private sector, aircraft models for recreational activities and for aerial sports activities are becoming increasingly popular, so that the range of use of unmanned aerial vehicles is steadily expanding.
  • In logistics, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles is advantageous for carrying cargo or other consignments. Thus, time-critical deliveries, such as medicines or parcels, can be made to hard-to-reach locations with unmanned aerial vehicles. In this case, unmanned aerial vehicles are remotely controlled by a person or by a control center, but also an autonomous operation is possible.
  • The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles poses several problems. In particular, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles over certain areas poses a safety risk or is not permitted. As a result, the local area of use of unmanned aerial vehicles is limited. Therefore, a person controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle should be aware of the areas over which unmanned aircraft operation is prohibited, so that it does not control the unmanned aerial vehicle over any of these areas. In the case of autonomous operation, on the other hand, the unmanned aerial vehicle must have data of the areas over which its use is not permitted.
  • The object of the invention is to provide a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle which avoids areas which are not allowed to be overflown by the unmanned aerial vehicle.
  • The object is achieved with the method according to the independent claim 1. Furthermore, the object is achieved with the navigation device according to the independent claim 10.
  • The method according to the invention serves to provide a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle by means of a navigation device, which has a computing unit, a position determination unit and a destination input unit.
  • The method according to the invention comprises the following steps:
    • Determining a current position of the aircraft by means of the position determination unit;
    • Inputting a destination into the navigation device by means of the destination input unit;
    • Determining a target position using the target by means of the arithmetic unit; and
    • - Calculating the route by means of the arithmetic unit so that the route leads from the current position to the destination position and has a route section that runs along a road.
  • Thus, a route is provided for a flight of the unmanned aerial vehicle having a route section running along a road. Accordingly, the aircraft following the route not only flies across roads and intervening surfaces, but at least partially travels along a roadway. This means that the aircraft is flying over a traffic area that is normally overflown, since the traffic area is located in public space and is intended for movement of vehicles, freight and / or persons. The invention thus enables the aircraft to avoid areas which may not be overflown by the aircraft.
  • In addition, the invention allows the aircraft to fly at least partially near a road. Thus, the aircraft is easily accessible in the event of a technical fault, for example for a repair.
  • The destination input unit is for entering a destination into the navigation device, for example in the form of an address or as the name of a person or a sight. For this purpose, the destination input unit can have an operating unit, by means of which a user can enter the destination in the navigation device. Alternatively or additionally, the destination input unit may comprise a receiving unit, by means of which the navigation device can receive the destination from another electronic device, for example from a server or from a mobile telephone assigned to a person.
  • For the purposes of this invention, a road is to be understood as any road on the earth's surface which is intended for the movement of people or goods. These include, in addition to a paved road for motor vehicles, a cycle path, an unpaved forest and forest path, a rail track and a waterway. Alternatively, the street may be any ground-level traffic route represented by the map data of a map database.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the route is calculated such that the road belongs to a predetermined road type. This can ensure that the route runs along a road that is permitted to fly over by an unmanned aerial vehicle.
  • By means of the road type certain roads can be specified for the route calculation. For example, it may be provided that the predetermined road type exclusively private roads or public roads such as municipal roads, county roads, highways, federal highways and / or roads of a particular street category has. For example, the road type has roads over or adjacent to which an unmanned aircraft operation is permitted. The road type may further include roads classified as suitable for the operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle, for example because the roads are free of obstacles of a certain height, have no crossing overhead lines and / or have a certain road cross section.
  • The road type can be stored in the form of M data in a memory unit or can be made available to the arithmetic unit by means of a data interface, the M data being formed as an attribute of a road stored in the map data or as an attribute having a linked in the map data stored in the map data. The M data can be adapted to region specific regulations by marking the road types where operation of an aircraft is allowed. A region-specific regulation may apply to a specific municipality, a specific region, a protected area, a federal state and / or a nation state. Furthermore, it is possible to update the M data, for example by means of a connection to the Internet, so that changed regulations can be taken into account. Thus, a route can be calculated which, using the M data, takes into account the roads available according to the current regime.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the road type may be automatically specified upon inputting a target position taking into account the M data, for example, depending on a property of the aircraft and / or a property of a cargo to be transported. Alternatively, the road type may be set manually, for example by determining a road type from a selection of available road types.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, a route is calculated such that all roads along which the route passes belong to the predetermined road type.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the predetermined road type comprises only private roads, public roads, municipal roads, county roads, provincial roads, highways, streets of a given street category ( or road class) or roads of several predetermined road categories (or road classes).
  • In another embodiment of the invention, an exit area is defined in which the current position of the aircraft is located, a destination area is defined in which the destination position is located, and it is checked whether the destination position can be reached from the current position via a route is that runs between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads that belong to the given road type. The exit area may be in the form of a geometric area around the current position of the aircraft, for example circular or rectangular, but may also correspond to a site on which the current location is located. Similarly, the target area may be formed in the form of a geometric area around the target position or correspond to a plot on which the target position is located. The target position may be centered in the target area, but also in a certain zone of the target area, for example a goods receipt of a building.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, when it is determined in the checking that the target position is accessible from the current position via a route that runs between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the predetermined road type, when calculating the route provided such a route. This ensures that the aircraft is controlled from leaving the exit area until reaching the destination area along a road in the area of which the aircraft is allowed to operate.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, if it is determined in the check that the target position from the current position can not be reached via a route passing between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the predetermined road type, the route is calculated provides a route whose route sections not running along roads of the given road type have a minimum total length. Thus, even in the absence of connection between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the given road type, it is ensured that the aircraft flies most of the route along roads of the given road type.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, when it is determined in the check that the target position is not accessible from the current position via any route that runs between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the predetermined road type, one closest to the destination position Determines position, which is accessible from the current position of the aircraft via a route that runs between the exit area and a defined surrounding area in which the nearest position is located, exclusively along roads that belong to the given road type, where the nearest position instead of the previous target position is used as a target position, the surrounding area is used instead of the previous target area as a target area and when calculating the route, a route is provided between the exit area and the Zielbereic h runs exclusively along roads that belong to the given road type. The surrounding area is formed, for example, in a circle starting from the potential closest positions until the target position is touched, the surrounding area with the smallest circle diameter being used instead of the previous target area. Thus, as an alternative to the above-described embodiment, the aircraft may be controlled as close as possible to the target position, the aircraft being controlled exclusively along roads that are of the given road type.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, if it is determined during the check that the target position is not accessible from the current position via a route which runs between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the given road type, the closest one to the destination position Determines position, which is accessible starting from the current position via a route that runs between the exit area and the nearest position only along roads that belong to the given road type, and used in calculating the route, the closest position instead of the previous target position as a target position becomes.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, a route to a new destination position is calculated only when a user of the navigation device accepts using the closest position as a destination position instead of the previous destination position by the user making a corresponding input to the navigation device. This ensures that the user is informed about the change of the target position. The user can thus make a decision as to whether the Route with the closest position to be calculated as a new target position. The input can be made directly by means of a destination input unit of the navigation device. Additionally or alternatively, such input is possible from a remote control center using wireless data transmission.
  • Also included in the invention is a navigation device for providing a route for an unmanned aerial vehicle, comprising:
    • a position determination unit configured to determine a current position of the aircraft;
    • a destination input unit configured to input a destination into the navigation device; and
    • a computing unit configured to determine a target position using the target and calculate the route such that the route leads from the current position to the target position and has a route section that runs along a road.
  • The invention enables a largely autonomous operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The navigation device can be permanently installed in the aircraft or can be arranged only temporarily in the aircraft. Additionally or alternatively, individual components of the navigation device may be arranged in a central control center. For example, the arithmetic unit of the navigation device can be arranged in a control center, so that a plurality of aircraft can be coordinated with the arithmetic unit. Furthermore, a storage unit can be formed centrally, for example in the control center or a cloud (Cloud Service), which provides data to the aircraft.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, a navigation device, which is arranged outside of an aircraft, can be temporarily assigned to it temporarily, in which, for example, a first navigation device controls the aircraft in a first area and a second navigation device controls the aircraft in a second area Transition of the aircraft from the first area in the second area is transferred control of the aircraft from the first navigation device to the second navigation device.
  • Further embodiments of the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to drawings. Showing:
    • 1 a block diagram of a navigation device according to an embodiment of the invention,
    • 2 a flow diagram of an embodiment of the method according to the invention,
    • 3A schematically a calculated route from a current position of an aircraft to a target position according to an embodiment of the invention, and
    • 3B 2 schematically illustrates a calculated route from a current position of an aircraft to a destination position between an exit area and a destination area according to another embodiment of the invention.
  • 1 shows a block diagram 100 one in an unmanned aerial vehicle 150 arranged navigation device 110 , The navigation device 110 has the following functional units that are available in the 1 Shown are: a memory unit 111 , a computing unit 112 , a position determination unit 113 , an interface unit 114 and a destination input unit 115 , The aircraft 150 has the following functional units: a sensor unit 151 , a control unit 152 and a drive (not shown) to which the aircraft 150 can be moved, wherein the movement preferably takes place in the air, in certain situations also on the ground. In addition to the functional units mentioned here, the navigation device 110 or the aircraft 150 more not in 1 illustrated functional units, for example, a communication unit, set up for data exchange with another device.
  • The storage unit 111 has a non-volatile memory, which is designed for example as EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). Alternatively, the storage unit 111 have a different type of memory, for example a flash EEPROM or a hard disk. In particular, the storage unit 111 have more than one of the mentioned memories. In this case, one of the memories of the memory unit 111 also be arranged in another device, for example in a computer cloud (English Cloud Computing).
  • In the storage unit 111 Among other things, a map database is stored, which contains a variety of map data. The map data represents objects that are located in a specific geographical area. The objects include, for example, roads, paths, squares, railway lines, rivers, buildings, bridges, overhead lines, terrain, national borders, rest areas, traffic regulations and localities. The map data also includes data Types of roads, region-specific regulations, charging stations and clearance maps.
  • The arithmetic unit 112 is the central control module of the navigation device 110 , In addition to a processor (CPU, Central Processing Unit) it has a random access memory (RAM), which is used for volatile storage of variables and intermediate results. The processor and the main memory are combined on an integrated circuit. Alternatively, the processor and the memory may be arranged separately from each other, for example, each on a different integrated circuit. In a further embodiment of the invention, the arithmetic unit is arranged in a computer cloud.
  • The arithmetic unit 112 is set up, inter alia, for determining a destination position using a destination. The destination may be from a user via the destination entry unit 115 in the navigation device 110 have been entered or by means of the destination input unit 115 received from an external electronic device. Furthermore, the arithmetic unit 112 for calculating a route that leads from a current position of the aircraft to a destination position and has a route section that runs along a road.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the arithmetic unit is able to extend a provided route, for example, an additional path. Such an additional path may allow for driving to a charging station that is not on the route. Additionally or alternatively, the driving of a charging station can be taken into account in the route calculation. For this purpose, the arithmetic unit takes into account a current parameter of the aircraft, for example a current fill level of the energy store, wherein the parameter can be determined using the control unit. Furthermore, the arithmetic unit can already take into account in the route calculation a parameter relating to a freight to be transported, for example a delivery date for a particularly urgent freight and / or a weight of a freight and, based on this, calculating the energy resources. This ensures that the route leads along a road that has a charging station for filling an energy store of the aircraft, wherein the charging station is reached after a certain movement time. Alternatively, it is possible to initiate a driving of a charging station before starting a route guidance.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the arithmetic unit is set up to extend a route by a distance in order to control a change station stored in the map data in the event of a defect in the aircraft. There, the defect can be remedied, whereby a request for repair and its duration can be sent in advance to the change station. Alternatively, the cargo to be carried at the change station may be taken over by another aircraft. Using the computing unit of the aircraft, another aircraft may be scheduled for further carriage of the cargo.
  • In yet another embodiment of the invention, the arithmetic unit is arranged to cause a further transport of a cargo at a destination position or at an intermediate position to a destination position, for example the transport of a cargo by means of another aircraft which, for example, from the intermediate position one with the Aircraft has common target position.
  • The position determination unit 113 is for determining a current position of the navigation device 110 and the aircraft 150 set up. The position determination unit 113 is configured as a GNSS receiver adapted to receive a satellite signal emitted by a global satellite navigation system. By means of the satellite signal, position coordinates representing a geographical position of the navigation device 110 represent, be located. The position determination unit 113 For example, a GPS receiver equipped with a satellite signal receiving antenna in the form of a GPS antenna (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, the position determination unit 113 a GLONASS receiver, a BEIDOU receiver, a GALILEO receiver and / or a similar receiver. Furthermore, the position determination unit 113 Use other methods of determining a geographic location, such as camera-based or sensor-based methods, to replace or assist the GNSS receiver, for example, in a location determination in a building.
  • The interface unit 114 is for coupling the arithmetic unit 112 equipped with further functional units that the arithmetic unit 112 Provide data and / or which the arithmetic unit 112 Provides data. The further functional units can be like the position determination unit 113 within the navigation device 110 be arranged as the sensor unit 151 outside the navigation device 110 but within the aircraft 150 or outside the aircraft 150 , At the interface unit 114 it can be a bus system for data processing.
  • The destination input unit 115 has an input interface and an output interface. The Input interface may be formed as a keyboard, a touch-sensitive screen, a rotary-push-button and / or as a reading device. Furthermore, the input interface may comprise a voice input device, by means of which an input by voice command is possible. Using the input interface, the user can send data to the navigation device 110 passed, for example, a control command and / or a destination. The output interface is set up to output and / or display information. The output interface may be formed as a screen and / or as a voice output device. In one embodiment of the invention, the destination input unit is designed as a data interface, by means of which data can be received or sent contactlessly from a remote device, for example a control center or appropriately equipped data glasses.
  • The sensor unit 151 is for monitoring a defined area around the aircraft 150 set up. The defined area may be in the form of a hemisphere, the radius of the hemisphere being from the aircraft 150 emanates. The sensor unit 151 has an environment camera. The environment camera is able to capture an environmental image with as large an angle of view as possible, which increases the likelihood of being in the vicinity of the aircraft 150 object, such as a tree, an overhead line, a building, a bird, a human, a cargo, a vehicle and / or another aircraft is recognizable. The environment camera can be designed as a 360-degree camera. Additionally or alternatively to an environment camera, the sensor unit 151 be designed as a radar device, Lidarvorrichtung and / or Sodar (Sound / Sonic Detecting And Ranging) device or coupled to such a device. Accordingly, the environmental image may comprise information from an imaging process and a distance measurement method, it being possible for depth information to be introduced into the environmental image by means of the distance measurement method. The environment image is therefore not limited to two-dimensional information, but may also have spatial information. If one is around the aircraft 150 located object of the sensor unit 151 is detected, the object characterizing data to the arithmetic unit 112 transmitted.
  • The control unit 152 In addition to a processor has a memory, which is used for volatile storage of variables and intermediate results. The control unit 152 is in consideration of the sensor unit 151 provided parameter for controlling the propulsion of the aircraft 150 set up. In addition, the control unit 152 further functional units of the aircraft 150 control, for example, a receiving device adapted to receive a freight or a drive of the aircraft 150 , The control unit 152 receives from the arithmetic unit 112 an instruction to control the drive to follow the route or to execute a maneuver. A maneuver may be a temporary exit from the route, for example an avoidance maneuver to bypass an obstacle, but also a maneuver to check a cargo, pick up a cargo or unload a cargo. The control unit 152 may alternatively be part of an aircraft 150 be embedded functional unit.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the arithmetic unit and the control unit are combined on an integrated circuit when the navigation device is fixedly mounted in the aircraft. The drive of the aircraft can be controlled by means of the interface unit.
  • The following is in addition to the 2 . 3A and 3B Referenced. 2 shows a flowchart 200 a method according to an embodiment of the invention. The method is by means of the navigation device 110 with reference to FIG 1 has been described. 3A shows a calculated route 330 from a current position 310 of the aircraft 150 to a target position 320 , 3B shows a calculated route 332 from a current position 310 of the aircraft 150 to a target position 320 between an exit area 312 and a target area 322 ,
  • In a first process step 210 is determined by the position determination unit 113 a current position 310 the navigation device 110 and the aircraft 150 certainly. By means of the current position 310 The aircraft is located using the map data relative to a road.
  • In a second process step 220 becomes a destination by means of the destination input unit 115 in the navigation device 110 entered. The destination can be manually by the user of the navigation device 110 or automatically specified using a corresponding input interface. In an automated input, a destination of a freight can be determined using a reader, for example by reading out information arranged on the freight to the receiver. From the information, for example, a code, the navigation device 110 determine a corresponding address or the corresponding geographic coordinates. For this purpose, the navigation device 110 in be able to identify further information, for example by means of an affiliate merchandise management system. Also, a destination can be specified in the form of an address.
  • Alternatively or additionally, the destination input unit 115 a receiving unit, by means of which the navigation device 110 receives the destination from another electronic device, such as a server or a mobile phone.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the navigation device is set up to determine a mobile destination. The mobile destination may represent a mobile object, for example a person or a vehicle. The mobile destination can be determined by means of an identifier such as a license plate and / or an identity module, for example a SIM card or an IP address. Thus, a suitably equipped aircraft can deliver a transmission to a person, even if the person is away from an address assigned to the person.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, it is possible to input multiple destinations so that the aircraft carries a first cargo to a first destination, picks up a second cargo there and carries it to a second destination, etc. The destinations may be provided prior to commencement of transportation , Further, it is possible to change a destination during transportation, to specify another destination, to remove a predetermined destination and / or to change an order in which the destinations are driven.
  • In a third step 230 is using the target by means of the arithmetic unit 112 a target location associated with the destination 320 certainly. Such a target position 320 denotes a point on the surface of the earth and can be represented by geographic coordinates.
  • In a fourth process step 240 is by means of the arithmetic unit 112 a route 330 calculated by the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 to the target position 320 leads. The route 330 is calculated to have a route section that runs along a road. In the present case, the route becomes 330 calculated so that the road along which the route section runs belongs to a predetermined road type. Alternatively, the road may be of any street type.
  • The calculated route 330 can be used for a route guidance, where the aircraft 150 from the current position 310 to the target position 320 to be led. In this case, by means of a corresponding input using the destination input unit, the route guidance along the route 330 to be started. Alternatively, the route guidance may be automatically started when the calculated route 330 is present. In this alternative, the user may additionally be provided with a possibility to abort, that is, to prohibit the automatic starting of the route guidance if a calculated route exists.
  • Among other things, the road type can be determined by the user of the navigation device 110 have been given. Additionally or alternatively, the road type may have been predetermined automatically, for example, taking into account a certain property. For example, depending on a property of the aircraft 150 , a property of an aircraft 150 cargo to be transported and / or a current property of a road along which the aircraft is to be moved, a particular type of road from a group of road types are selected and specified. Properties according to which the aircraft 150 can be classified, for example, the dimensions and / or a propulsion technology of the aircraft 150 , The aircraft 150 For example, it may have an electric motor or an internal combustion engine as a drive. Characteristics by which a cargo can be classified are, for example, the dimensions of the freight, a dangerous goods class or an administrative regulation relating to the freight. Properties according to which a road can be classified are, for example, its patency, its clearance gauge and / or its road cross section.
  • The route 330 runs along roads 301 . 302 that belong to a given street type. From a node 350 the route runs 330 along the road 302 instead of the street 303 to the target position 320 because the street 303 not belonging to the given street type. The route 330 does not run along a shortest distance between the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 and the target position 320 but along the shortest link between the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 and the target position 320 using roads 301 . 302 , which correspond to the given street type, can be covered.
  • In the fourth method step 240 Optionally, it can be checked first if the target position 320 starting from the current position 310 can be reached via a route that runs exclusively along roads that belong to the given street type. Only in this case will such a route 330 provided. Deviating from this, if the test shows that the target position 320 just can be reached by means of a road belonging to a higher street type than the given road type, a route is calculated which runs along this street, among other things.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, it is first determined in the fourth method step whether an update of the land data is available. When an update of the map data is available, the map data is updated so that it can be checked using updated map data whether the target position is accessible from the current position via a route that runs exclusively along roads belonging to the given road type.
  • In yet another embodiment of the invention, in the fourth method step, an optimal route to a plurality of destination positions is calculated. Thus, a distance to be covered can be minimized, a minimum transport time can be determined, an optimal sequence, for example for avoiding empty flights, can be determined, but also an optimal use of an energy store of the aircraft, a distribution and / or availability of charging stations along the route and / or minimizing the time to fill the energy storage of the aircraft.
  • In the present case, in a first sub-step 241 of the fourth method step 240 an exit area 312 in which the current position 310 is arranged, and a target area 322 in which the target position 320 is arranged, defines the output area 312 and the target area 322 are each formed square. Alternatively, the exit area 312 and the target area 322 each be circular or formed in the form of a plot.
  • Using an output area 312 and a target area 322 allows to calculate a route 332 even in the event that a current position 310 of the aircraft 150 and / or a target position 320 can not be located on a road marked in the map data. This is the case, for example, when the aircraft is moving 150 currently located in a building and thus no reception of a satellite signal for position determination is possible. This is also the case when the target position 320 on a building or on a private property. In another example, the aircraft is located 150 on a road that is not included in the map data.
  • In a second sub-step 242 of the fourth method step 240 , after the first step 241 is executed, it is checked if the target position 320 starting from the current position 310 over a route 332 is reachable between the exit area 312 and the target area 322 runs exclusively along roads that belong to the given road. Because the test shows that this is the case, a third sub-step is performed 243 of the fourth method step 240 such a route 332 calculated.
  • Alternatively, a route can be calculated from the exit area 312 to a target position 320 or from a current position 310 of the aircraft 150 to the target area 322 leads, if only one of the current position 310 or the target position 320 not reachable by means of a road included in the map data corresponding to the given road type. For example, the route may be used as a departure area from a position where a road joins a property 312 is marked up to a position where a road joins another lot as the target area 322 is marked, along a road corresponding to the given road category.
  • If, on the other hand, it were determined that the target position 320 starting from the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 There is no route available between the exit area 312 and / or the target area 322 runs exclusively along roads that belong to the given road type, instead a route would be calculated whose route sections not running along roads of the given road type have a minimum overall length. Thus it could be ensured that the route runs as far as possible along roads of the given road type.
  • The route 332 leads from the exit area 312 in which the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 is arranged to the target area 322 in which the target position 320 is arranged. The route 332 runs between the exit area 312 and the target area 322 exclusively along roads 304 . 305 that belong to the given street type. Therefore, the route runs 332 from a node 352 instead of the street 306 along the road 305 to the target area 322 because the street 306 not belonging to the given street type.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, if it were determined that the target position from the current position of the aircraft could not be reached via a route passing between the exit area and the destination area exclusively along roads belonging to the given road type, the procedure would be as follows : It would be the target position Determines the closest position, which is accessible from the current position of the aircraft via a route that runs between the exit area and a defined surrounding area in which the nearest position is located, exclusively along roads that belong to the given road type. The surrounding area may have a predetermined shape and size. For example, the surrounding area is the same shape and size as the destination area. Furthermore, when calculating the route, the closest position would be used as the target position instead of the previous target position, and the surrounding area would be used as the target area instead of the previous target area. Furthermore, it can also be checked whether accessibility of the target position starting from the closest position is possible, for example that no overhead line separates the target position from the closest position. If there is no accessibility, another position closest to the target position can be determined.
  • Optionally, the route would only be calculated if a user of the navigation device accepts the use of the closest position as the target position instead of the previous target position by the user making a corresponding input to the navigation device. In particular, using the closest position as a new target position instead of the previous target position may require the user's explicit consent. For example, the user may signal approval in the form of a corresponding input using the destination input unit. The necessary input should remind the user that supervision of the aircraft may be necessary, for example when the aircraft is moving from the closest position to the original target position or when the aircraft is moving along a road that does not correspond to the given road type.
  • After providing the route, the aircraft can 150 from the current position 310 along the route 330 to the target position 320 be moved, the aircraft 150 with the help of the control unit 152 is controlled. Moving the aircraft 150 from the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 to the target position 320 In addition, the picking up of a freight may additionally include the unloading or depositing of the freight. For example, controlling the aircraft 150 have an automated search, driving and picking up a cargo to be transported when the route 330 to the target position 320 is provided, the cargo at the current position 310 of the aircraft 150 or at another position along the route 330 to the target position 320 can be included. Steering the aircraft 150 In addition, an automated search and control of a suitable storage area as well as the unloading or depositing of the cargo at the parking area, wherein the cargo at the destination position 320 or at another position along the route 330 can be unloaded or stored.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the navigation device can also be set up to check the storage area, whether it is suitable for the cargo, for example, has sufficient dimensions for the cargo, there is a restriction in the form of an allowable dangerous goods class or related to the freight administrative regulation. If it is determined that the parking area is not suitable, the aircraft can independently search for a suitable parking area using the sensor unit, for example within a predefinable radius, or issue a corresponding message to the user by means of the destination input unit.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, the storage area is a parking space in another means of transport such as a motor vehicle or other aircraft, wherein the means of transport is in one movement. Thus, the target position and thus the route calculation are subject to a dynamic change. The navigation device is able to determine the changed geographic coordinates of the target position and to calculate based on a route as described above. For this purpose, the means of transport can be identified and located by means of an identifier such as a license plate or an identity module such as a SIM card. Alternatively, the navigation device of the aircraft may be configured to communicate with a navigation device of the means of transport so as to define a destination position at which the means of transport will be or will be at a certain time.
  • In still another embodiment of the invention, when the aircraft has unloaded a cargo to be transported, a signal is generated and output. The signal indicates that the aircraft is available and / or has a free transport capacity. The navigation device can now check whether a cargo is to be picked up at the current position of the aircraft and transported to another destination position. Alternatively, it may be checked whether a cargo to be transported is located in a certain area around the current position of the aircraft, the area being able to be formed in a circle around the current position. In another alternative, the navigation device may be given a position by a control center at which a cargo to be transported is located. If a cargo to be transported is determined, the navigation device checks whether it is possible to transport to the destination position of the freight, taking into account the parameters of the aircraft as well as the parameter of the freight. If transport is possible, the navigation device may calculate a route as described above and control movement of the aircraft along that route. If transport is not possible, the check to see whether a cargo is to be picked up at the current position of the aircraft and transported to another destination position will continue. In addition, a message may be generated and sent, for example, to a control center, that a particular cargo is located with specific requirements at a particular location so that a suitably suitable aircraft may be scheduled for the particular cargo. Thus, a largely autonomous operation of an aircraft is made, in which automatically a freight to be transported is determined and is autonomously transported to a corresponding target position with a correspondingly suitable aircraft with a navigation device according to the invention.

Claims (10)

  1. Method for providing an unmanned aerial vehicle route (330, 332) by means of a navigation device (110) having a computing unit (112), a position determination unit (113) and a destination input unit (115), the method comprising the following steps: - determining a current position (310) of the aircraft (150) by means of the position determination unit (113); - inputting a destination into the navigation device (110) by means of the destination input unit (115); - determining a target position (320) using the target by means of the arithmetic unit (112); and Calculating the route (330, 332) by means of the arithmetic unit (112), such that the route (330, 332) leads from the current position (310) to the destination position (320) and has a route section which runs along a road (301 , 302, 304, 305).
  2. Method according to Claim 1 in which the route (330, 332) is calculated such that the road (301, 302, 304, 305) belongs to a predetermined road type.
  3. Method according to Claim 2 in which the route (330, 332) is calculated in such a way that all roads (301, 302, 304, 305) along which the route (330, 332) runs belong to the predetermined road type.
  4. Method according to one of Claims 2 to 3 in which the given type of road has exclusively - private roads, - public roads, - local roads, - county roads, - provincial roads, - highways, - streets of a given street category or - roads of several predetermined categories of roads.
  5. Method according to one of the preceding claims, in which an output region (312) is defined, in which the current position (310) is arranged, a target region (322) is defined, in which the target position (320) is arranged, and checked whether the target position (320) is accessible from the current position (310) via a route (332) extending between the exit area (312) and the destination area (322) along only roads (304, 305) that are predetermined Belonging to street type.
  6. Method according to Claim 5 in which, when checking, it is determined that the target position (320) is accessible from the current position (310) via a route (332) between the exit area (312) and the destination area (322) along only roads (304, 305) belonging to the given road type, such a route (332) is provided in calculating the route.
  7. Method according to Claim 5 in which, when checking, it is determined that the target position (320) can not be reached from the current position (310) via a route extending between the exit area (312) and the destination area (322) along only roads that belong to the given road, when calculating the route, the route is calculated such that their non-running along roads of the given road route sections have a minimum overall length.
  8. Method according to Claim 5 in which, when checking, it is determined that the target position (320) can not be reached from the current position (310) via a route extending between the exit area (312) and the destination area (322) along only roads that belong to the predetermined road type, - the position closest to the target position (320) is reached, which starting from the current position (310) can be reached via a route which runs between the exit area (312) and the nearest position exclusively along roads which belong to the given road type, and - when calculating the route the nearest position is used instead of the previous target position (320) as a target position.
  9. Method according to Claim 8 in which the route is calculated only when a user of the navigation device (110) accepts using the closest position as a target position instead of the previous target position (320) by making a corresponding input to the navigation device (110).
  10. A navigation device (110) for providing a route (330, 332) to an unmanned aerial vehicle (150), comprising: - A position determination unit (113), which is designed to determine a current position (310) of the aircraft (150); a destination input unit (115) adapted to input a destination into the navigation device (110), and - A computing unit (112) for determining a target position (320) using the target and calculating the route (330, 332), so that the route (330, 332) from the current position (310) to the target position (320 ) and having a route section that runs along a road (301, 302, 304, 305) is formed.
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CN106155086A (en) 2016-08-09 2016-11-23 长安大学 A kind of Road Detection unmanned plane and automatic cruising method thereof
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102014201238A1 (en) 2014-01-23 2015-07-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and system for creating a vector map
US20160068264A1 (en) 2014-09-08 2016-03-10 Qualcomm Incorporated Methods, Systems and Devices for Delivery Drone Security
US20170011340A1 (en) 2015-07-08 2017-01-12 Ebay Inc. Public transport infrastructure facilitated drone delivery
WO2017044079A1 (en) 2015-09-09 2017-03-16 Thomson Licensing Method and apparatus for allocation of air space for unmanned aerial vehicles
CN106155086A (en) 2016-08-09 2016-11-23 长安大学 A kind of Road Detection unmanned plane and automatic cruising method thereof

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