DE102016211951A1 - Method for transmission and damping of torques - Google Patents

Method for transmission and damping of torques

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Publication number
DE102016211951A1
DE102016211951A1 DE102016211951.6A DE102016211951A DE102016211951A1 DE 102016211951 A1 DE102016211951 A1 DE 102016211951A1 DE 102016211951 A DE102016211951 A DE 102016211951A DE 102016211951 A1 DE102016211951 A1 DE 102016211951A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
slip
torque
newp
speed
clutch
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE102016211951.6A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Tobias Höche
Tobias Dieckhoff
Daniel Lorenz
Andreas Orlamünder
Ingrid Hoffelner
Wolfgang Grosspietsch
Steffen Matschas
Johannes Frieß
Angelika Ebert
Matthias Kram
Dennis Egler
Axel Rohm
Erwin Wack
Bernd Unseld
Thomas Dögel
Matthias Reisch
Lukas Spath
Christofer Ebert
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Original Assignee
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by ZF Friedrichshafen AG filed Critical ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Priority to DE102016211951.6A priority Critical patent/DE102016211951A1/en
Publication of DE102016211951A1 publication Critical patent/DE102016211951A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F15/00Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion
    • F16F15/002Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion characterised by the control method or circuitry
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D48/00External control of clutches
    • F16D48/06Control by electric or electronic means, e.g. of fluid pressure
    • F16D48/08Regulating clutch take-up on starting
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F15/00Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion
    • F16F15/10Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system
    • F16F15/12Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system using elastic members or friction-damping members, e.g. between a rotating shaft and a gyratory mass mounted thereon
    • F16F15/131Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system using elastic members or friction-damping members, e.g. between a rotating shaft and a gyratory mass mounted thereon the rotating system comprising two or more gyratory masses
    • F16F15/133Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system using elastic members or friction-damping members, e.g. between a rotating shaft and a gyratory mass mounted thereon the rotating system comprising two or more gyratory masses using springs as elastic members, e.g. metallic springs
    • F16F15/134Wound springs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/30Signal inputs
    • F16D2500/304Signal inputs from the clutch
    • F16D2500/3041Signal inputs from the clutch from the input shaft
    • F16D2500/30415Speed of the input shaft
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/30Signal inputs
    • F16D2500/304Signal inputs from the clutch
    • F16D2500/3042Signal inputs from the clutch from the output shaft
    • F16D2500/30426Speed of the output shaft
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/50Problem to be solved by the control system
    • F16D2500/502Relating the clutch
    • F16D2500/50293Reduction of vibrations
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/70Details about the implementation of the control system
    • F16D2500/704Output parameters from the control unit; Target parameters to be controlled
    • F16D2500/70422Clutch parameters
    • F16D2500/70426Clutch slip
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/70Details about the implementation of the control system
    • F16D2500/704Output parameters from the control unit; Target parameters to be controlled
    • F16D2500/70422Clutch parameters
    • F16D2500/70438From the output shaft
    • F16D2500/7044Output shaft torque
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2500/00External control of clutches by electric or electronic means
    • F16D2500/70Details about the implementation of the control system
    • F16D2500/706Strategy of control
    • F16D2500/70673Statistical calculations
    • F16D2500/70689Statistical calculations using maximum or minimum values

Abstract

A method for transmitting and damping an average torque (Mm) with a superimposed alternating torque (Mw), in a torque transmission arrangement (1) for a drive train of a motor vehicle, comprising an input region (25) rotatable about an axis of rotation (A) and one about an axis of rotation (B) rotatable output region (35), wherein the mean torque (Mm) is transmitted with the superimposed alternating torque (Mw) along a torque path (M) from the input region (25) to the output region (35), wherein the input region (25) the torque transmitting assembly (1) having an input speed (ne) about the rotation axis (A) and the output portion (35) of the torque transmitting assembly with an output speed (na) about the rotation axis (B) rotates, wherein at least the input speed (ne) from a middle Speed (nem) and a superimposed alternating component (newp) composed, wherein the alternating component (new) approximately by an overlay periodic speed oscillations (newp_i) can be described, whose frequencies (f) are substantially in an integer ratio (i) to the ignition frequency (Zf), where each of these periodic oscillations (newp_i) a minimum (newp_i_Min) and a maximum (newp_i_Max ), wherein a slip arrangement (30) in the torque path (M) between the input region (25) and the output region (35) for transmitting the average torque (Mm) with the superimposed alternating torque (Mw) and for generating a rotational speed slip (ns) between the speed ne and the speed na in the torque path (M) is provided, wherein the slip arrangement (30) in the region of the maxima (newpi_i_Max) at least one periodic vibration component (newp_i) of the alternating component (newp) a maximum of an external activation (40) of the rotational speed slip (ns) and in the region of the minima (newpi_i_Min) of at least one periodic oscillation component (newp_i) of the alternating component (new) a minimum of an external component Activation (45) of the rotational speed slip (ns) provides.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a method for transmitting and damping an average torque with a superimposed alternating torque in a torque transmission arrangement for the drive train of a motor vehicle with an input area, and a subsequent output area.
  • From the prior art of DE 10 2008 009 135 A1 Such a method is known in a torque transmission arrangement for the drive train of a motor vehicle in which between a combustion engine and a change gear, a friction clutch is provided, and wherein the friction clutch is controlled so that a voltage applied to the friction clutch speed difference of a resonance speed width is reduced when starting, in comparison without control.
  • A disadvantage of this method of the prior art that with this method, only the starting and the known by the starting chatter should be reduced. However, this method does not have the capability of dampening torsional vibrations caused by the internal combustion engine that occur in a permanent running condition.
  • Object of the present invention is therefore to provide a method for torsional vibration reduction of a torque transmitting device, which causes an advantageous, torsional vibration reduction especially after the starting.
  • This object is solved by the features of independent claim 1.
  • This is a method for transmitting and damping an average torque with a superimposed alternating torque, in a torque transmission arrangement for a drive train of a motor vehicle, comprising an input region rotatable about an axis of rotation (A) and an output region rotatable about an axis of rotation (B). wherein the average torque with the superimposed alternating torque is transmitted along a torque path from the input portion to the output portion, wherein the input portion of the torque transmitting assembly rotates at an input speed about the rotational axis (A) and the output portion of the torque transmitting assembly at an output rotational speed about the rotational axis (B); wherein at least the input speed of an average speed and a superimposed alternating component is composed, wherein the alternating component can be described approximately by a superposition of periodic speed oscillations whose F Frequencies are substantially in an integer ratio to the firing frequency, each of these periodic oscillations having a minimum and a maximum, wherein a slip arrangement in the torque path between the input and the output range for transmitting the average torque with the superimposed alternating torque and for generating a rotational speed slip between the Speed ne and the speed na is provided in the torque path, wherein the slip arrangement provides a minimum of external activation of the rotational speed slip in the region of the maxima of at least one periodic oscillation component of the alternating component a maximum of an external activation of the rotational speed slip and in the range of minima of at least one periodic oscillation component of the alternating component , In this case, further torsional vibration damping units such as, for example, a first and / or a second spring set as well as a damping unit can be connected in series between the input area and the exit area and before the slip arrangement. This is particularly advantageous because the alternating torques that come from the input area, for example an internal combustion engine, are prefiltered. The slip arrangement aims to reduce the remaining remaining alternating moments, in the optimal case even to set to "zero". In order to achieve this, the method according to the invention provides that, in the event that a maximum external activation of the slip arrangement takes place in the region of a maximum of a periodic oscillation of the superimposed alternating torque, more slippage is permitted, and in the region of a minimum of a periodic oscillation of the superimposed alternating torque minimal external activation of the slip arrangement is to allow less slippage. This means that the slip arrangement, which can be formed for example by a slip clutch, for example a multi-plate clutch, receives a hydraulic signal from the external activation in the form of a lower hydraulic pressure, which can result in a reduction of a contact force on the multi-plate clutch and thus a slip increase ie an increase in the speed difference results. In the case of slip reduction, the external activation should give a hydraulic signal to the slip clutch in the form that a hydraulic pressure is increased and thus the contact pressure on the slip clutch is also increased, resulting in a slip reduction in the slip clutch. As a result, the maximum in the superimposed alternating moment can be counteracted. The external activation to achieve the slip reduction or the slip increase can also be referred to as slip modulation. Here is the frequency of Slip modulation depending on the use of the drive unit, for example, the internal combustion engine. When using a four-stroke internal combustion engine, a frequency range of 23 hertz to 60 hertz, using a four-cylinder cycle engine, the use of a frequency range of about 33 to 66 hertz, and using a six-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine, the use of a frequency range of 50 to 100 hertz advantageous.
  • A further advantageous embodiment provides that the external activation of the slip arrangement is effected by a hydraulic unit. Here, for example, in the event that the slip assembly is designed as a friction disc clutch, the hydraulic release system can be used for this, which is inexpensive.
  • It may be advantageous for the external activation of the slip arrangement to be effected by a hydraulic unit.
  • Also, the hydraulic unit may provide at least a hydraulic pump and a leakage valve.
  • In this case, the leakage valve is locally associated with the high-pressure accumulator.
  • It may also be advantageous if the leakage valve is assigned locally to the slip arrangement.
  • It may also be advantageous if the external activation is suitable for providing on the slip arrangement a modulation range of 23 to 50 Hz or a range of 33 to 66 Hz or a range of 50 to 100 Hz
  • Furthermore, the slip arrangement can be used as a starting element.
  • It may also be advantageous if a starting element is provided in addition to the slip arrangement.
  • Furthermore, the axis of rotation (A) and the axis of rotation (B) can extend coaxially or offset relative to one another. Particularly in vehicles with rear-wheel drive and longitudinally mounted front engine, the two axes of rotation (A) and (B) are coaxial with each other. In a front-wheel drive with a transversely mounted engine, the axis of rotation (A) is usually offset from the axis of rotation (B).
  • In the following, the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to illustrations. The embodiments illustrated in the drawings represent only preferred embodiments and are not intended to define the scope of the invention. This is defined solely by the appended claims.
  • It show in
  • 1 : A schematic representation of a drive train as prior art
  • 2 : advantageous schematic representation of a drive train
  • 3 : Diagram of a deflected moment course
  • 4 : advantageous schematic representation of a drive train
  • 5 : Preferential topology schematic
  • 6 : Schematic diagram of a slip clutch
  • 7 : Diagram of a deflected moment course
  • 8th : Chart slip speed over time
  • 9 : Diagram friction coefficient over slip speed
  • 10 : Diagram friction coefficient over time
  • 11 : Diagram sinusoidal course of Fa
  • 12 : Diagram of the trapezoidal course of Fa
  • 13 : Diagram Sinusoid of Fa with higher order
  • 14 : more diagrams
  • 15 : Diagram input speed at the slip arrangement in one operating point.
  • 16 : Diagram of coefficient of friction over slip
  • 17 : Schematic structure of a control of a slip clutch by means of a leakage valve
  • 18 : Embodiment of a control according to the invention
  • Hereinafter, identical or functionally equivalent components are denoted by the same reference numerals.
  • First of all to the 1 It should be mentioned that today's torsional vibration decoupling systems for passenger cars in addition to spring-mass arrangements, for example, ZMS, also provide speed-adaptive absorbers. In addition, and at least in drive trains with wet-running starting element, a reduction in the torque fluctuations of the internal combustion engine can be carried out via a slip in the starting element. The technique used here, in which a slip controller sets a predetermined average slip speed, is referred to below as "active slip mode 1". In the following, a method for controlling a clutch in a passenger car drive train is presented, which is referred to as "active slip mode 2" and should in particular enable a significantly better decoupling to be achieved with the same average slip speed and thus the same friction losses than with one Prior art slipping clutch, or at least an equivalent level of decoupling as conventional systems using lighter and less expensive pre-decoupling components, such as spring sets and absorbers.
  • The 1 shows a torque transmission arrangement 1 in an automated drive train of a motor vehicle according to the prior art, which is a torsional vibration damping unit 15 with speed-adaptive absorber 6 contains. In this case, the relevant masses, stiffnesses and the starting element are arranged as follows, wherein the representation is made only up to and including the transmission. The residual drive train is hidden. A lockup clutch 72 is at the entrance 25 the torsional vibration damping unit 15 arranged.
  • The speed-adaptive absorber 6 is at an intermediate mass 3 between a first spring set 10 and a second spring set 20 placed. This topology has the following drawbacks with respect to torsional vibration decoupling.
  • Will the lockup clutch 72 operated with a clutch slip, this reduces the torque fluctuations, which in the torque transmission arrangement 1 be directed. Characterized in that the speed of the components on the output side of the lockup clutch 72 , and thus also those of the Tilgers 6 to the regulated slip speed is lower than, for example, an engine speed of the drive unit 80 , agrees the vote of the absorber 6 on the engine order no longer, so that it works worse and worse with increasing slip. The task of the second spring set 20 it is a spring stiffness between the relatively high inertia of the absorber 6 and also the relatively heavy gearbox 33 display. Would the absorber 6 directly on a transmission input shaft 100 be connected, this would result in the usual moment of inertia and wave stiffness that form so-called nodes. This means that at certain, even gear-dependent speeds, the absorber in the vibration system does not experience excitation and thus set up no reaction torque and therefore can not contribute to rotational nonuniformity decoupling. This manifests itself then at the appropriate speed by a significant increase in the remaining rotational nonuniformity, see also in the 3 , the dashed line in the upper speed range. Although this is prevented with the existing topology, the relatively high mass moment of inertia of the intermediate mass can be a factor 3 and the Tilgers 6 , in conjunction with the stiffness of the spring sets 10 and 20 form an intermediate mass resonance unfavorable in terms of rotational nonuniformity decoupling.
  • The 2 shows a more favorable topology of the components, which also in the 1 were shown. This is characterized by the fact that the second spring set 20 primary side to the absorber 6 is arranged, resulting in the following advantages. On the one hand is due to a reduced sum stiffness of the two spring sets connected in series 10 and 20 a pre-decoupling in front of the absorber 6 improved, so that it can be made smaller and the system is already working supercritically at lower rpm, good to see in the 3 , the dashed and dotted line. Next falls the intermediate mass 3 without the connection to the absorber 6 significantly smaller, so that no disturbing intermediate mass resonance arise in the operating range. Next is the lockup clutch 72 on the output side of the torque transmitting device 1 arranged between the absorber 6 and the transmission 33 , This is advantageous because the coupling slip the order tuning of the absorber 6 is not affected. Also, by the clutch slip of the lockup clutch 72 reduces or prevents the formation of the vibration nodes described above, as in the 3 shown with the dotted line.
  • The in the 2 shown arrangement used for reasons of better comparability in principle the same schematic design of and number of subassemblies, especially spring sets, as in the 1 described.
  • However, this is only an example. Functionally, for example, other embodiments of the torsion damper 10 . 20 possible, inter alia, as a single or multi-row DMF. Also the absorber 6 can be carried out in different ways, with constructions as speed-adaptive absorber according to the principle Sarrazin, Salomon or DFTvar are particularly advantageous.
  • The 3 shows the deflected torque over the speed of a torque transmission system according to the prior art, a variant without slip and a variant with slip Mode 2.
  • The 4 shows another topology arrangement, as already in the 1 and 2 described, but with only one spring set 10 , here as a dual-mass flywheel with a single-row spring set.
  • The 5 shows an advantageous topology for torsional vibration reduction in the drive train. In this sense, rotational nonuniformity decoupling refers to a system which provides rotational nonuniformity prior to the slip clutch 30 reduced. This can consist of an arrangement of torsion springs, masses and absorbers as in the concrete example above. However, other principles are possible, such as rotational nonuniformity decoupling with two parallel torque transmitting paths and a coupling arrangement, a gas spring torsional damper, or a centrifugal force spring arrangement.
  • For the required slip-capable coupling 30 It can also be a start-up clutch at the same time. But this is not absolutely necessary. The starting clutch may otherwise be placed at another arbitrary position of the drive train. In the same way, the slip-capable clutch can also be one or more clutches of the transmission, which solve each gear, tasks in the transmission circuit and / or rotational nonuniformity decoupling by slip. The type of transmission, for example as an automatic transmission (AT), dual-clutch transmission (DCT), automated manual transmission (ASG), continuously variable or manual transmission (MT) and the design of the drive train as front-rear or all-wheel drive, also in hybridized design , are arbitrary. Especially with MT and DCT transmissions, the topology described is already standard, but not in combination with AT gearboxes. However, especially in MT transmissions, but also in dry-running DCT transmissions the starting clutch used there is not suitable to take a permanent function of slip for rotational nonuniformity decoupling. In this respect, the proposed structure is new for these powertrains.
  • The 6 shows simplified a schematic diagram of a slip-capable coupling 30 after an improved procedure, the clutch slip Mode 2.
  • With the topology already described can at the same stiffness values of the spring set 10 . 20 a significantly improved decoupling can be achieved even at low speed and already clutch slip Mode 1 effectively works to further improve the decoupling or to avoid vibration nodes. However, the clutch slip generally leads to friction losses, which can assume unacceptable values at high engine torque and high slip speed. Limiting here are the increasing fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions and the generated frictional heat, which must be dissipated.
  • The aim of the present invention is to increase at low slip speed, the decoupling effect of the slip.
  • This is achieved by actively modulating the torque that can be transmitted by the clutch. This method is therefore called active slip mode 2.
  • In this case, F0 is a force, which is regulated by a slip controller, by a certain average speed difference between an input side 31 the slip arrangement 30 and a home page 32 the slip arrangement 30 to reach. In a stationary operating point, F0 can be regarded as constant. The transferable moment of the clutch 30 is calculated so far M_üb = F_0 · r · μ (n_slip) With
  • r
    = mean friction radius
    μ
    = Coefficient of friction of the clutch linings, which depends on the slip speed n_slip.
  • Fa (α,) is an additional force whose amplitude is dependent on a reference angle α and a phase shift β. The dependence can be given for example via a sine function.
  • As a reference angle, for example, the crankshaft position comes into question. For a vote on the main engine order in a 4-cylinder 4-stroke engine, this would mean: F_a (α, β) = F_a * sin (2a + β)
  • The transferable moment is calculated as follows: M_üb = {[F} _0 + F_a * sin (2a + β)] * r * μ (n_slip)
  • In the 7 It can be seen what effect the modulation of the clutch torque causes the torsional vibration decoupling of the engine main order. Compared to slip mode 1, the slip mode 2 significantly reduces the rotational nonuniformity again, with the same average slip speed and correspondingly equal friction losses.
  • The 8th . 9 and 10 illustrate the derivation of the functioning of the active slip mode 2. Due to non-linear relationships and the non-harmonic excitation in the real drive train, the mode of operation of the modulation of the transmittable clutch torque with respect to the DU decoupling can be clearly derived only under greatly simplified conditions.
  • For this purpose, one in the main order, here the 1st engine order, assumed a purely sinusoidal rotational irregularity at the input side of the clutch. In this example, with a constant coupling force F0, a mean slip of 5 rpm occurs, which oscillates around the mean value with an amplitude of 4 rpm, cf. 8th ,
  • The course of the coefficient of friction of the slip clutch on the slip is linearized in this area, represented by the solid line, in the 9 ,
  • Thus, there is also a sinusoidal course over time for the coefficient of friction 10 , The average coefficient of friction here is μ_0 = 0.105 and the amplitude μ_a = 0.012.
  • For the transmittable moment, the following applies to modulation in the main order: M_üb = {[F} _0 + F_a * sin (a + β)] * r * [μ_0 + μ_a * sin (α)]
  • The angle α is calculated here as α = 2 · π · n · t with n = rotational speed t = time
  • With an optimal phase shift β = 180 ° = π, sin (α + π) = -sin (α) follows by multiplying M_üb by: M_üb = r * [F_0 μ_0 + (F_0 μ_a-F_a μ_0) sin (α) -F_a μ_a sin ^ 2 {(α)}]
  • With sin ^ 2 {(α) = 1/2 (1 - cos (2α)}) follows: M_üb = r · [{(F} _0 μ_0 - (F_a μ_a) / 2) + (F_0 μ_a-F_a_ μ_0) sin (α) + (F_a_ μa) / 2cos (2α)]
  • The summands in the square brackets of this term can be assigned to different orders: 0th order: F_0 μ_0 - (F_a μ_a) / 2 middle moment
  • In order to obtain the same average transmittable torque, different forces F_0 are necessary for different subtrahends (F_a μ_a) / 2 (is adjusted by slip regulators). 1st order: (F_0 μ_a - F_a μ_0) sin (α)
  • Main order in this example
  • Can be completely extinguished under the simplified assumptions when choosing F_a = (F_0 μ_a) / μ_0! Herein is the effect of the invention justified! 2nd order: (F_a μ_a) / 2cos (2α)
  • The modulation creates a new order with twice the modulation frequency.
  • However, the amplitude of this order is comparatively low and, in addition, higher orders are better damped by the drivetrain than low, so that the positive effect of reducing the main order outweighs.
  • This derivation is a much simplified model. Due to the different conditions in reality, although this method virtually no complete extinction of the main engine order possible, but a significant reduction, as in the 7 you can see.
  • The function of the clutch slip with active modulation, ie clutch slip mode 2, is determined by the following parameters.
  • For one, this is the waveform. The optimal course of the transmissible clutch torque over time depends on the course of the rotational nonuniformity of the main order at the clutch input. In the previous example, the assumed excitation was purely sinusoidal and the optimum course of the modulated coupling force was also. In a real drive train, the already decoupled main order of the alternating torque at the clutch input has an at least approximately sinusoidal course, so that here the modulation of the clutch torque can be described via a sine function to achieve good results, see in the 11 , However, other harmonic as well as nonharmonic functions may be taken as basis, such as a trapezoidal course, seen in the 12 , Likewise, the waveform can be optimized to reduce multiple engine orders. In a simple case, this is possible because the modulation is described by a superimposition of two sinusoidal oscillations, wherein one sinusoidal oscillation has, for example, the ignition frequency and the other two times the ignition frequency.
  • However, the distribution of the actuation force of the clutch into a predetermined by the slip control, constant in the steady-state operating force F0, and a dynamic force Fa for the modulation of the transmissible torque, but is primarily a thought model to describe the principle of effect of the invention. It is a matter of constructive implementation, whether actually two forces are superimposed, z. Example, in the sense of two separate actuators, whether the force which a single actuator applies to the clutch, is varied according to whether mixed forms are used.
  • Crucial for the process is only that the transmittable torque of the clutch is dynamically changed in a suitable form and with suitable parameters. For a vote on the main Engine order must correspond to the modulation frequency of the ignition frequency of the internal combustion engine. Thus, it increases depending on the engine speed. For a 3-cylinder 4-stroke engine results, for example, for the speed range from 1000 to 2000 rpm a necessary modulation frequency of 25 to 50 Hz. In engines with cylinder deactivation, it is particularly advantageous if the control of the slip operation switching between the orders of Full and shutdown operation allows. Likewise, an interpretation to higher orders, or a combined interpretation of several orders is possible.
  • The optimum phase angle of the modulation is 180 ° with respect to the oscillation of the input rotational speed of the slip arrangement, as already described above in the theoretical derivation of the function.
  • Phase shifts in the range of 180 ° ± 45 ° are particularly advantageous.
  • If the phase shift is too small, the rotational nonuniformity increases, which becomes maximum when the phase is equal.
  • The 14 shows different sizes in the drive train of a motor vehicle according to the 4 , for three different cases:
    • 1st column: Slip Mode 1
    • 2nd column: Slip mode 2 - phase position in a favorable range
    • 3rd column: Slip mode 2 - phase position in an unfavorable range
  • In the top line is the speed at the input area 31 the slip coupling 30 shown. Due to the rotational nonuniformity of the internal combustion engine, the speed varies despite pre-decoupling by, for example, a DMF and a speed-adaptive absorber 6 , to the arrangement compare the comments in the 5 and 6 to a medium speed, here ~ 1205rpm. For the sake of clarity, in addition to the raw signal, the oscillation of the rotational speed in engine ignition order is also shown. This can be determined by means of fast Fourier transformation from the time course of the overall oscillation.
  • In the second line, the slip speeds ns are between the input side 31 and home page 32 the slip clutch 30 , as well as the active moment Ma shown. The active moment Ma is directly proportional to the above-mentioned active force component Fa and is calculated as: M_a = F_a · r · μ
  • With active slip Mode 1 in the first column, the force Fa and thus also the moment Ma is equal to zero. The self-adjusting course of the slip is thus the result of the operating force F0 set by the slip control in order to obtain a mean slip (in this case 5 1 / min), the course of the excitation, i. H. the speed or torque fluctuation on the clutch and the course of the friction coefficient of the clutch over the slip speed.
  • In the active slip mode 2 in the second and third column, a sinusoidal profile of the force component Fa or of the active torque Ma is predetermined with a specific amplitude and with the ignition frequency of the internal combustion engine.
  • In the second column, the phase angle of the course of the active torque Ma compared to the course of the rotational speed before the clutch in ignition order in the diagram about 180 °. In other words, in the time ranges in which the speed fluctuation in ignition order has minima, the active moment Ma has maxima and vice versa. This represents an optimized tuning of the active slip mode 2.
  • The third column shows an unfavorable case in which the active torque is approximately in phase with the speed at the input area of the clutch.
  • The graphs in the third row show the torque transmitted by the clutch, again as the original raw signal and as its component in engine firing order. It can be seen that with the active slip Mode 2 with optimized phase position, see column 2, the nonuniformity of the moment in the engine main order is almost completely smoothed. With the unfavorable phase position, see column 3, the amplitude of the torque nonuniformity compared to the active slip mode 1, see column 1, even increased.
  • The phase of the modulation need not be exactly 180 ° with respect to the speed at the input of the slip device to achieve a positive effect. To be an improvement over the However, it is advantageous if the phase shift is in the range 180 ° ± 45 °.
  • The 15 shows the course of the speed in the entrance area 31 the slip arrangement 30 as well as in the 14 , middle column, top line shown, for a static operating point.
  • The input speed (ne) has an average value (nem), here 1205 1 / min, around which an alternating component (new), here not specifically shown, since congruent with the course of ne, oscillates. The course of the alternating component depends essentially on the nature of the drive unit 80 , in particular the number of cylinders, and the pre-decoupling. The alternating component can be described by means of fast Fourier transformation (FFT) approximately as a superposition of sinusoidal oscillations (newp_i). The lowest frequency of such a periodic partial oscillation of the alternating component is the ignition frequency of the engine. The frequencies of other harmonic oscillations are in an integer ratio to the firing order. In a real drive train and vibration components with non-integer reference to the ignition frequency can occur, but these are neglected here. In the 15 For example, the periodic alternating components in the engine main order (newp_1) and in the double engine main order (newp_2) are shown. The amplitudes of the alternating components fluctuate between a minimum (newp_i_Min) and a maximum (newp_i_Max). The course of such an alternating component is a reference variable for the phase shift β of the modulation of the activation of the slip arrangement in order to achieve a reduction of the rotational nonuniformity in the corresponding engine order.
  • There is an optimum amplitude of the active torque Ma, which depends mainly on the average engine torque 0th order and the average slip speed. There is an approximately linear relationship between the optimal amplitude and the mean moment at different load conditions.
  • Particularly suitable are amplitudes of the modulation of the torque transferable by the slip arrangement between 5 and 15% of the average engine torque.
  • The effective friction coefficient, in particular a wet-running friction clutch, as is commonly used in motor vehicle drive trains, depends on the instantaneous differential rotational speed between the input and output of the clutch. Usually, the course is significantly adjusted by additives in the oil, material and geometry of the pads so that there is a degressive slope above the slip speed. A usual Reibwertverlauf is in the 16 shown.
  • For the slip clutch proposed here, it is particularly advantageous if the coefficient of friction lies in a range between 0.05 and 0.15 and rises sharply up to a very high slip speed. Slopes of the coefficient of friction over the rotational speed between 0.001 / rpm and 0.005 / rpm in a slip range up to 30 rpm are particularly favorable. The average slip rotational speed is regulated by a slip regulator. Since slippage generally causes friction losses, which must be dissipated in the form of heat energy, the lowest possible average slip speed should be aimed for. Favorable for the actively modulated slip average slip speeds are less than or equal to 30 rpm, more preferably less than or equal to 10 rpm.
  • The active slip Mode 2 brings a significant improvement in decoupling, especially in the low and medium speed range, compared with the known slip Mode 1. This has the advantage of lower cost in the control and in the operation of the slip clutch. In particular, at high speed and depending on the vibration behavior of the drive train, no slip may be necessary in certain operating conditions for the DU decoupling.
  • It therefore makes sense to implement a demand-oriented operating strategy. This can be based on the following scheme: Low speed Average speed High speed High load Slip Fashion 2 Slip Fashion 2 Slip Mode 1 Medium load Slip Fashion 2 Slip Mode 1 no slippage Low load Slip Mode 1 no slippage no slippage
  • Special operating conditions, such as vibration dependent nodes, starting or resonances, are also to be considered.
  • The 17 shows a schematic representation of an inventive control of a slip arrangement 30 , shown here as a friction disc clutch. This creates a hydraulic unit 50 that is a hydraulic pump 53 and a high-pressure accumulator 52 includes a basic hydraulic pressure acting on the slip assembly / slip clutch 30 acts and the slip clutch 30 consequently, can transmit a desired torque. This is in a pressure line 36 to the clutch 30 in addition to a low-frequency clutch pressure control valve which adjusts the base pressure for the desired torque and the desired static clutch slip, an additional high frequency operable leakage valve 21 intended. This should be arranged in favor of a control precision and to reduce the structural complexity best at the end of the route, ie shortly before or already in the clutch.
  • A panel 23 Here is an example of a low-pass filter between the hydraulic pump 53 and transmission hydraulics in the hydraulic range to the leakage valve 21 built-in. The leakage valve generates 21 , Which is designed, for example, as a servo valve or a high-frequency cycled operated insensitive seat valve, a defined pressure drop and thus the required pressure modulation, in the pressure oil in a hydraulic sump 84 is discharged and the pressure drop in a reduction of the contact force Fa on the slip clutch 30 effect.
  • The slip clutch 30 is controlled so that, superimposed on the hitherto already customary setting of a constant slip a high-frequency, for example, a frequency ranges in the 3-cylinder from about 23 Hz to 50 Hz, the 4-cylinder about 33 to 66 Hz and the 6- cyl. 50 to 100 Hz, a variable slip modulation is enabled, which filters out the remaining behind a torsional damping device, such as a dual-mass flywheel and or a Tilgereinheit, both not shown, residual rotational nonuniformities.
  • The 18 shows a torque transmission arrangement 1 for an automated hybrid transmission 2 , Here, a basic structure is as follows in an order of a torque path M from an input area 25 , which can be formed by an internal combustion engine, for example, to an output area 35 , which can be formed for example by an output shaft of a transmission. The torque transmission arrangement 1 is divided into three areas. A first room area 17 which also acts as a drying room 24 can be designated, a subsequent second space area 19 that also acts as a wet room 26 can be designated and a subsequent third room area 29 that also acts as a wet room 29 can be designated. A first torsion damper 10 is located in the first room area 17 and is designed as a dual mass flywheel. This can be operated with a grease filling and is preferably placed in the drying room, in which no viscous medium is contained. After the dual-mass flywheel is a speed-adaptive absorber 6 in the second room area 19 arranged. This is located in the oil mist-containing working space 26 ,
  • An advantage of this variant is an efficient and cost-effective space utilization, as well as a resulting high quality of decoupling of rotational irregularities that of the drive unit 80 For example, the internal combustion engine to be initiated. The following is a slip arrangement 30 arranged in the form of a multi-plate clutch, wherein an inner disc carrier 27 rotatably with the Tilgereinheit 6 connected is. An outer disc carrier 28 the slip arrangement 30 is non-rotatable with the Ausggsgbereich 35 connected. Next is with the outer disk carrier 28 a rotor 42 an electric drive unit 70 , which is used here as a hybrid engine connected. A release piston 38 the slip arrangement 30 is powered by a hydraulic working chamber 39 Pressurized. This is the hydraulic working chamber 39 with a leakage valve 21 a hydraulic unit 50 in active connection. The leakage valve 21 For example, can be a servo valve or a high-frequency cycled operated pollution-resistant seat valve that reduces the incoming pressure here in the frequency of the desired torque modulation or torque reduction by a variable leakage and thus discharge of the pressure oil.
  • So can without a required changes to the hydraulic unit 50 , which anyway for the control of the slip clutch, which can also be used here as a start-up clutch, is present and also an existing pressure line 36 a fairly inexpensive actuator can be represented. A supportive, rather stiff coupling construction contributes to the control precision.
  • In this case, a sensing of the torque peaks to control the leakage valve is carried out separately. In this case, the slip arrangement can be arranged by a couplings as co-used system elements, such as a disconnect couplings in a hybrid systems, the torque flow, for example, behind a rotational nonuniformity reduction system and also radially within an electric motor can be, as shown here, or a drive-compatible clutches, arranged comparably, for example, in a design of a hydrodynamic cooled clutch (HCC) or a double clutch or a triple clutch, the functions of dual clutch and K0 clutch, so a clutch, the electric motor one hybrid drive on and off, united, or one or, depending on the torque flow in the transmission in the various gears, if necessary, several internal gear clutches or brake, which are operated actively slipping. One of the clutches or brakes used can be an integrated starting element. In this case, the slip arrangement is to be controlled so that, superimposed on the hitherto already customary setting of a constant slip a high-frequency, for example, a frequency ranges in the 3-cylinder of about 23 Hz to 50 Hz, the 4-cylinder about 33 to 66 Hz and at 6-cyl. 50 to 100 Hz, a variable slip modulation is enabled, the behind a torsional damping device, as here the dual mass flywheel 10 and the absorber unit 6 , filters out remaining residual rotational nonuniformities.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    Torque transmitting assembly
    2
    primary mass
    3
    intermediate mass
    4
    secondary mass
    6
    Tilgereinheit / speed-adaptive Tilgereinheit / variable speed-proof Tilgereinheit / Tilger
    7
    Transmission input shaft
    10
    1. Spring set / torsion damper / dual mass flywheel
    15
    Torsional vibration damping unit
    17
    first room area
    19
    second room area
    20
    2. Spring set torsion damper / dual mass flywheel
    21
    leakage valve
    23
    cover
    24
    drying room
    25
    entrance area
    27
    Inner disk carrier
    28
    External disk carrier
    29
    wet room
    30
    Hatcher arrangement / disconnect clutch / K0 clutch / clutch slip
    31
    Entrance part slip arrangement
    32
    Output part slip arrangement
    33
    gear unit
    34
    control unit
    35
    output range
    36
    pressure line
    38
    release piston
    37
    pressure sensor
    39
    hydraulic working chamber
    40
    external activation
    42
    rotor
    45
    external activation
    50
    hydraulic unit
    52
    High-pressure accumulator
    53
    hydraulic pump
    54
    Pressure control valve
    60
    starting element
    70
    electric drive unit
    72
    Converter lockup clutch
    80
    power unit
    84
    hydraulic swamp
    100
    Transmission input shaft
    M
    torque path
    mm
    average torque
    mw
    superimposed alternating moment
    ne
    Input speed
    n / A
    Output speed
    nm
    medium speed
    ns
    Speed slip
    newp
    superimposed alternating component
    newp_i
    periodic vibrations
    newp_i_Min
    Minimum of a periodic vibration
    newp_i_Max
    Maximum of a periodic oscillation
    A
    axis of rotation
    B
    axis of rotation
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102008009135 A1 [0002]

Claims (10)

  1. Method for transmitting and damping a mean torque (Mm) with a superimposed alternating moment (Mw), in a torque transmission arrangement ( 1 ) for a drive train of a motor vehicle, comprising an input area rotatable about an axis of rotation (A) ( 25 ) and an about an axis of rotation (B) rotatable output range ( 35 ), wherein the mean torque (Mm) with the superimposed alternating torque (Mw) along a torque path (M) from the input area (M) 25 ) to the exit area ( 35 ), the input area ( 25 ) of the torque transmission arrangement ( 1 ) with an input speed (ne) about the axis of rotation (A) and the output range ( 35 ) of the torque transmission arrangement with an output speed (na) about the rotation axis (B) rotates, wherein at least the input speed (ne) of a mean speed (nem) and a superimposed alternating component (newp) composed, wherein the alternating component (new) approximately by a Overlapping periodic speed oscillations (newp_i) can be described, the frequencies (f) are substantially in an integer ratio (i) to the ignition frequency (Zf), each of these periodic oscillations (newp_i) a minimum (newp_i_Min) and a maximum (newp_i_Max) having a slip arrangement ( 30 ) in the torque path (M) between the input region ( 25 ) and the exit area ( 35 ) for transmitting the average torque (Mm) with the superimposed alternating torque (Mw) and for generating a rotational speed slip (ns) between the rotational speed ne and the rotational speed na in the torque path (M), characterized in that the slip arrangement ( 30 ) in the region of the maxima (newpi_i_Max) of at least one periodic oscillation component (newp_i) of the alternating component (newp) a maximum of an external activation ( 40 ) of the rotational speed slip (ns) and in the region of the minima (newp_i_Min) of at least one periodic vibration component (newp_i) of the alternating component (newp) a minimum of an external activation ( 45 ) of the rotational speed slip (ns).
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the external activation ( 40 ; 45 ) of the slip arrangement ( 30 ) is carried out by a hydraulic unit.
  3. Method according to claim 2, characterized in that the hydraulic unit ( 50 ) at least one hydraulic pump ( 53 ) and a leakage valve ( 21 ).
  4. Method according to claim 3, characterized in that the leakage valve ( 21 ) locally of the hydraulic pump ( 53 ) assigned.
  5. Method according to claim 3, characterized in that the leakage valve ( 21 ) locally of the slip arrangement ( 30 ) assigned.
  6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the external activation ( 40 ; 45 ) is adapted to the slip arrangement ( 30 ) to provide a modulation range of 23 to 50 Hz or a range of 33 to 66 Hz or a range of 50 to 100 Hz
  7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the slip arrangement ( 30 ) as a starting element ( 60 ) is used..
  8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that in addition to the slip arrangement ( 30 ) a starting element ( 60 ) is provided.
  9. Method according to one of claims 7 or 8, characterized in that the slip arrangement ( 30 ) and / or the starting element as a friction clutch, or as a multi-plate clutch, or as a hydrodynamic coupling, or as a separating clutch in hybrid drives, or designed as a double clutch or a triple clutch, or is designed as a brake in conjunction with a planetary gear.
  10. Method according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the axis of rotation (A) and the axis of rotation (B) extend coaxially or that the axis of rotation (A) and the axis of rotation (B) are offset.
DE102016211951.6A 2016-06-30 2016-06-30 Method for transmission and damping of torques Withdrawn DE102016211951A1 (en)

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PCT/EP2017/062830 WO2018001658A1 (en) 2016-06-30 2017-05-29 Method for transmitting and damping torques

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2020079267A1 (en) * 2018-10-18 2020-04-23 Borgwarner Sweden Ab A hybrid drive module, and a method for improving performance of such hybrid drive module

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DE19549259A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag Drive system, in particular for a motor vehicle, and method for operating the same
DE102006044273A1 (en) * 2006-09-20 2008-04-03 Dr.Ing.H.C. F. Porsche Ag Control of a friction clutch between an internal combustion engine and a transmission
DE102008009135A1 (en) 2008-02-14 2009-08-20 Dr. Ing. H.C. F. Porsche Aktiengesellschaft Method for controlling drive train of motor vehicle, involves detecting internal combustion engine-sided speed of coupling and change speed gearbox sided speed of coupling
WO2015070851A1 (en) * 2013-11-13 2015-05-21 Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. KG Clutch assembly for coupling an internal combustion engine to a drive train of a motor vehicle and method for dampening torsional vibrations in a drive train of a motor vehicle

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DE19612455C2 (en) * 1996-03-28 1999-11-11 Siemens Ag Method for determining a target torque on the clutch of a motor vehicle
DE19823766B4 (en) * 1997-06-04 2005-12-22 Daimlerchrysler Ag Device and method for controlling the torque that can be transmitted by an automated clutch
DE112013001982A5 (en) * 2012-04-11 2015-01-08 Schaeffler Technologies Gmbh & Co. Kg Method for reducing juddering vibrations

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19549259A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag Drive system, in particular for a motor vehicle, and method for operating the same
DE102006044273A1 (en) * 2006-09-20 2008-04-03 Dr.Ing.H.C. F. Porsche Ag Control of a friction clutch between an internal combustion engine and a transmission
DE102008009135A1 (en) 2008-02-14 2009-08-20 Dr. Ing. H.C. F. Porsche Aktiengesellschaft Method for controlling drive train of motor vehicle, involves detecting internal combustion engine-sided speed of coupling and change speed gearbox sided speed of coupling
WO2015070851A1 (en) * 2013-11-13 2015-05-21 Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. KG Clutch assembly for coupling an internal combustion engine to a drive train of a motor vehicle and method for dampening torsional vibrations in a drive train of a motor vehicle

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2020079267A1 (en) * 2018-10-18 2020-04-23 Borgwarner Sweden Ab A hybrid drive module, and a method for improving performance of such hybrid drive module

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