DE102016209316A1 - Sensor with several pixels and corresponding pixel cell - Google Patents

Sensor with several pixels and corresponding pixel cell

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Publication number
DE102016209316A1
DE102016209316A1 DE102016209316.9A DE102016209316A DE102016209316A1 DE 102016209316 A1 DE102016209316 A1 DE 102016209316A1 DE 102016209316 A DE102016209316 A DE 102016209316A DE 102016209316 A1 DE102016209316 A1 DE 102016209316A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
layer
transit time
pixel cell
sensor
light transit
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE102016209316.9A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Jens Prima
Matthias Franke
Robert Rößler
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Pmdtechnologies AG
Original Assignee
Pmdtechnologies AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102015211504.6 priority Critical
Priority to DE102015211504 priority
Application filed by Pmdtechnologies AG filed Critical Pmdtechnologies AG
Publication of DE102016209316A1 publication Critical patent/DE102016209316A1/en
Application status is Ceased legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/89Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • G01S17/08Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only
    • G01S17/32Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only using transmission of continuous unmodulated waves, amplitude-, frequency-, or phase-modulated waves
    • G01S17/36Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only using transmission of continuous unmodulated waves, amplitude-, frequency-, or phase-modulated waves with phase comparison between the received signal and the contemporaneously transmitted signal
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • G01S17/42Simultaneous measurement of distance and other co-ordinates
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/491Details of non-pulse systems
    • G01S7/4912Receivers
    • G01S7/4913Details of detection, sampling, integration or read-out circuits
    • G01S7/4914Details of detection, sampling, integration or read-out circuits of detector arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14601Structural or functional details thereof
    • H01L27/14609Pixel-elements with integrated switching, control, storage or amplification elements
    • H01L27/14612Pixel-elements with integrated switching, control, storage or amplification elements involving a transistor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/148Charge coupled imagers
    • H01L27/14806Structural or functional details thereof

Abstract

The invention relates to a sensor with at least one pixel comprising a layer arrangement (12) having a photosensitive layer (16) and a reflection layer (14) for reflecting photons (18) into the photosensitive layer (16) and structurings (20) for formation of pixels that have photoelements. It is provided that the sensor is a light transit time sensor whose structuring (20) are designed such that they form photonic elements configured as photonic mixing elements. The invention further relates to a corresponding pixel cell and a corresponding light transit time camera system.

Description

  • The invention relates to a sensor according to the preamble of claim 1 and a pixel cell according to the preamble of claim 7.
  • The publication US 2007/108476 A1 describes a multi-pixel image sensor having (i) a layer arrangement comprising a photosensitive layer and a reflection layer for reflecting photons, and (ii) structuring for forming photo-conversion devices of the pixels. The structuring form, for example, photodiodes, phototransistors or other photoelements. This document also shows a corresponding pixel cell for a multi-pixel image sensor.
  • The object of the invention is to specify a sensor with a plurality of pixels and a corresponding pixel cell for such a sensor, which are distinguished by high luminous intensity and are set up for alternative or additional applications.
  • This object is achieved by the features specified in the independent claims.
  • In the case of the sensor according to the invention, it is provided that this sensor is a light transit time sensor whose structuring is designed in such a way that it forms photoelements designed as photonic mixing elements. In other words, the sensor according to the invention is a multi-pixel light transit time sensor which has a layer arrangement with a photosensitive layer and with a reflection layer for the reflection of photons into the photosensitive layer and furthermore structures for forming photonic mixing elements of the pixels. The reflection of the photons at the reflection layer results in a relatively high yield of photogenerated charge carriers (photoelectrons e - / holes h + ).
  • Photonic mixing elements of the type mentioned are for example from the document DE 197 04 496 C2 which, inter alia, also shows a typical structure of such a photonic mixing element, that is to say a single pixel of a photonic mixer detector. A photonic mixer device or PMD sensor (PMD: Photonic Mixing Device) is understood to be an optical sensor whose operating principle is based on the time of flight method (TOF) and subsumed in the context of the present invention by the term "multi-pixel light transit time sensor" should.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the reflection layer is formed by an oxide layer, in particular a semiconductor oxide layer.
  • According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, each of the photonic mixing elements has both modulation photogates and integration nodes, which in a preferred variant are designed as accumulation gates or photodiodes. The structuring has corresponding gate structures.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the reflection layer in the layer arrangement directly follows the photosensitive layer.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the reflection layer is formed as a buried reflection layer. The buried reflection layer is surrounded on both sides by material, in particular other layers of the layer arrangement, resulting in two material transitions. In the case of a buried (semiconductor) oxide layer, this layer is preferably surrounded by two semiconductor-based layers (semiconductor layers).
  • According to yet another preferred embodiment of the invention it is provided that the sensor has a substrate on which the layer arrangement is constructed.
  • In the case of the pixel cell according to the invention, it is provided that the structuring is designed in such a way that it forms a photoelement configured as a photonic mixing element.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the reflection layer of the cell is formed by an oxide layer, in particular a semiconductor oxide layer.
  • In accordance with a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the photonic mixing element has both modulation photogates and integration nodes, for example in the form of read-out diodes. Such photonic mixing elements are - as already mentioned - for example, from DE 197 04 496 C2 known.
  • The invention further relates to a light transit time camera system with a trained as a light transit time sensor sensor. Such time-of-flight camera systems relate, in particular, to light transit time or 3D TOF camera systems which acquire transit time information from the phase shift of an emitted and received radiation. As a light transit time or 3D TOF cameras in particular PMD cameras with photonic mixer detectors (PMD) are suitable, as for example in the DE 197 04 496 C2 and can be obtained from the company 'ifm electronic GmbH' or 'PMD-Technologies GmbH' as frame grabber O3D or as CamCube. In particular, the PMD camera allows a flexible arrangement of the light source and the detector, which can be arranged both in a housing and separately. Of course, the term camera or camera system should also encompass cameras or devices with at least one receiving pixel, such as, for example, the distance measuring device O1D of the Applicant.
  • The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing with reference to a preferred embodiment, wherein the features shown below, both individually and in combination may represent an aspect of the invention. It shows:
  • 1 a pixel cell for a multi-pixel light transit time sensor according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • The 1 shows a schematic sectional view of a pixel cell 10 for a multi-pixel light transit time sensor. The pixel cell 10 has a layer arrangement 12 on, which is a reflection layer 14 as well as a photosensitive layer 16 includes. Here is the photosensitive layer 16 above the reflective layer 14 arranged. This reflection layer 14 especially reflects photons 18 in a wavelength region around a wavelength λ, for which the photosensitive layer 16 is also photosensitive. The photosensitive layer 16 is, for example, a semiconductor layer, in particular a Si layer.
  • Furthermore, the pixel cell points 10 in the area of the surface of the photosensitive layer 16 a structuring 20 for forming a photonic mixing element. The structuring 20 includes two modulation gates 22 as well as two the modulation gates 22 framing diodes 24 . 26 for accumulating the photogenerated and demodulated charge carriers (e - ). That from this pixel cell 10 formed pixel represents a photo runtime pixel or PMD pixel.
  • The reflection layer 14 is from an oxide layer 28 , in particular semiconductor oxide layer, of the layer arrangement 12 educated. The thickness of the oxide layer 14 is chosen such that photons 18 of said wavelength range λ ± Δλ are reflected. The reflection layer 14 is between the photosensitive layer 16 and another layer 30 the layer arrangement 12 arranged. The reflection layer 14 is thus a buried layer, more precisely a buried semiconductor oxide layer. This is followed by the reflection layer 14 in the layer arrangement 12 directly on the photosensitive layer 16 , In the example shown are photosensitive layer 16 and more layer 30 Si layers (Si: silicon) and the reflection layer 14 preferably an oxide layer 28 in particular an SiO 2 layer (silicon dioxide layer). This results from a suitable choice of the layer thickness of the oxide layer 28 a constructive interference of the scattered at the two interfaces Si-SiO 2 photons 18 in the reflection direction, ie back towards the photosensitive layer 16 or structuring 20 , In particular, the reflective layer 14 also be constructed of a variety of oxide layers.
  • Preferably, the further layer 30 a contact possibility, for example a metallization, to which a potential -V can be applied. This procedure has the advantage that, for example, when a negative potential is applied, that in the photosensitive layer 16 generated negative charge carriers e- can be deflected in the direction of the photonic mixing element.
  • Through the reflection of the photons 18 at the reflection layer 14 results in a relatively high yield of photogenerated charge carriers, ie a higher "light yield"("lightyield"). This further results in the possibility of a reduction of epi-Si (or corresponding other semiconductor material) which in turn causes a lower crosstalk between the pixels.
  • A corresponding multi-pixel light transit time sensor has a plurality of such pixel cells 10 which are usually arranged in the form of a matrix. Here is the structuring 20 always the single pixel cell 10 assigned while the layer arrangement 12 a common layer arrangement of all pixels or pixel cells 10 is or a layer arrangement 12 the single pixel cell is.
  • The light transit time sensor with a plurality of pixels thus has (i) a layer arrangement 12 with a photosensitive layer 16 and a reflective layer 14 for reflection of photons 18 (back) into the photosensitive layer 16 and (ii) structuring 20 for forming photonic mixing elements of the pixels.
  • A major application for such light transit time sensors is time of flight camera systems.
  • In the following, the invention will be described again in other words:
    In 1 1 is a pixel of a multi-pixel light transit time sensor, wherein the pixel is a reflection layer 14 immediately after the photosensitive layer 16 is provided at the photons 18 be reflected to increase the yield of photogenerated charge carriers.
  • Accordingly, the invention relates to a light transit time sensor having a plurality of pixels, wherein the pixels have a reflection layer 14 immediately after the photosensitive layer 16 is provided at the photons 18 be reflected to increase the yield of photogenerated charge carriers e-.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 10
     pixel cell
    12
     layer arrangement
    14
     reflective layer
    16
     photosensitive layer
    18
     photon
    20
     structuring
    22
     modulation gate
    24
     diode
    26
     diode
    28
     oxide
    30
     another layer
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • US 2007/108476 A1 [0002]
    • DE 19704496 C2 [0006, 0014, 0015]

Claims (7)

  1. Pixel cell ( 10 ) for a light transit time sensor, with - a layer arrangement ( 12 ) containing a photosensitive layer ( 16 ) as well as a reflection layer ( 14 ) for the reflection of photons ( 18 ) and - structuring ( 20 ) for forming a photoelement, characterized in that the structuring ( 20 ) is designed as a photonic mixing element and modulation photogates ( 22 ) and integration nodes ( 24 . 26 ) having.
  2. Pixel cell ( 10 ) according to claim 1, wherein the reflection layer ( 14 ) of an oxide layer ( 28 ), in particular semiconductor oxide layer, is formed.
  3. Pixel cell ( 10 ) according to one of the preceding claims, in which the reflection layer ( 14 ) in the layer arrangement ( 12 ) directly onto the photosensitive layer ( 16 ) follows.
  4. Pixel cell ( 10 ) according to one of the preceding claims, in which the reflection layer ( 14 ) on another layer 30 or on a semiconductor 30 is arranged.
  5. Light transit time sensor with at least one pixel, which is a pixel cell ( 10 ) according to one of the preceding claims.
  6. Light transit time sensor according to claim 5, in which the further layer ( 30 ) has a contact possibility for the application of an electrical potential (-V).
  7. A light transit time camera system with a light transit time sensor according to one of claims 5 or 6.
DE102016209316.9A 2015-06-22 2016-05-30 Sensor with several pixels and corresponding pixel cell Ceased DE102016209316A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015211504.6 2015-06-22
DE102015211504 2015-06-22

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DE102016209316A1 true DE102016209316A1 (en) 2016-12-22

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DE102016209314.2A Pending DE102016209314A1 (en) 2015-06-22 2016-05-30 Pixel cell for a sensor and corresponding sensor
DE102016209316.9A Ceased DE102016209316A1 (en) 2015-06-22 2016-05-30 Sensor with several pixels and corresponding pixel cell
DE102016209319.3A Pending DE102016209319A1 (en) 2015-06-22 2016-05-30 Pixel cell for a sensor and corresponding sensor
DE102016211053.5A Pending DE102016211053A1 (en) 2015-06-22 2016-06-21 Pixel cell for a light transit time sensor and corresponding time of flight sensor

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DE102016211053.5A Pending DE102016211053A1 (en) 2015-06-22 2016-06-21 Pixel cell for a light transit time sensor and corresponding time of flight sensor

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018108794B3 (en) 2018-04-13 2019-05-02 pmdtechnologies ag Light transit time pixel and light transit time sensor with corresponding pixels

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018100571A1 (en) * 2018-01-11 2019-07-11 pmdtechnologies ag Transit Time pixels
DE102018106976A1 (en) * 2018-03-23 2019-09-26 pmdtechnologies ag Transit Time pixels
DE102018108379A1 (en) * 2018-04-09 2019-10-10 pmdtechnologies ag Transit Time pixels

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19704496C2 (en) 1996-09-05 2001-02-15 Rudolf Schwarte Method and apparatus for determining an electromagnetic wave of the phase and / or amplitude information
US20070108476A1 (en) 2004-06-01 2007-05-17 Hong Sungkwon C Imager with reflector mirrors

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6232626B1 (en) 1999-02-01 2001-05-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Trench photosensor for a CMOS imager
KR100927661B1 (en) 2007-11-05 2009-11-20 한국전자통신연구원 A light receiving element for converting an optical signal into an electrical signal
WO2009111556A1 (en) 2008-03-04 2009-09-11 Mesa Imaging Ag Drift field demodulation pixel with pinned photo diode

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19704496C2 (en) 1996-09-05 2001-02-15 Rudolf Schwarte Method and apparatus for determining an electromagnetic wave of the phase and / or amplitude information
US20070108476A1 (en) 2004-06-01 2007-05-17 Hong Sungkwon C Imager with reflector mirrors

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018108794B3 (en) 2018-04-13 2019-05-02 pmdtechnologies ag Light transit time pixel and light transit time sensor with corresponding pixels

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DE102016209319A1 (en) 2016-12-22
DE102016211053A1 (en) 2016-12-22

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