DE102016010873A1 - Multicopter lightweight construction - Google Patents

Multicopter lightweight construction

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Publication number
DE102016010873A1
DE102016010873A1 DE102016010873.8A DE102016010873A DE102016010873A1 DE 102016010873 A1 DE102016010873 A1 DE 102016010873A1 DE 102016010873 A DE102016010873 A DE 102016010873A DE 102016010873 A1 DE102016010873 A1 DE 102016010873A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
drive
base plate
multicopter
drive carrier
payload
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102016010873.8A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Holger Steinhaus
Mario Hintze
Original Assignee
Mario Hintze
Holger Steinhaus
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Mario Hintze, Holger Steinhaus filed Critical Mario Hintze
Priority to DE102016010873.8A priority Critical patent/DE102016010873A1/en
Publication of DE102016010873A1 publication Critical patent/DE102016010873A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C27/00Rotorcraft; Rotors peculiar thereto
    • B64C27/04Helicopters
    • B64C27/08Helicopters with two or more rotors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C39/00Aircraft not otherwise provided for
    • B64C39/02Aircraft not otherwise provided for characterised by special use
    • B64C39/024Aircraft not otherwise provided for characterised by special use of the remote controlled vehicle type, i.e. RPV
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C2201/00Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor
    • B64C2201/02Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterized by type of aircraft
    • B64C2201/027Flying platforms

Abstract

Multicircular support structure with high strength and rigidity with minimal structural weight, characterized by at least two drive carrier, each having a drive or a drive combination at each end, the connection in the crossover point is designed statically independent of a supporting body body, and one below and / or above the drive carrier Base plate suspended from fasteners, carrying all other components of the aircraft. Particular consideration is given to the isolation and damping of vibrations inevitable in the multicopter.

Description

  • The present invention "Lightweight Multicopter Structures" refers to electronically controlled and stabilized rotary wing aircraft carried by multiple, usually at least three, propellers [ DE 10 2005 010 336 B4 . DE 10 2007 054 126 A1 . DE 20 2004 010 057 U1 ], hereinafter referred to as multicopter. Such aircraft are used for a variety of commercial, scientific and military tasks [ DE 10 2010 046 479 A1 . EP 1659365 A1 ] and are mainly used unmanned, but also with people on board [ DE 201310108207 ]. Multicopters are a special embodiment of the conventional helicopter, in which several, rotating in different directions Hubpropeller fixed geometry can be controlled by an electronic position control individually in their speed. The electronics influence the position in the room by changing the speed and thus can finally control the direction of movement. Such aircraft are floating and vertical start capable and show a stable flight behavior.
  • The buoyancy necessary for the flight comes about as the sum of the thrust of the individual engines and corresponds in time average over the entire flight considered at least at moderate flight speeds in about the takeoff weight. The drive power required for the flight is therefore directly related to the take-off weight of the aircraft and determines, with limited entrained energy supply, directly the maximum achievable duration of flight. For many tasks, such. As in transport, inspection, surveying, reconnaissance, photo and video flights, the achievable maximum flight time of immediate importance for the efficiency of the use of the aircraft.
  • The often insufficient flying time according to the prior art currently prevents the use of multicopters in many applications with high flight endurance requirements. In these applications are currently used fixed wing aircraft, although this is to take numerous disadvantages, such. As complex take-off and landing procedures, poor portability, as well as for certain photographic purposes too high a minimum flight speed. Improving the flight endurance of multicopters thus enables the development of new fields of application.
  • Considering the energy density of the energy storage and the efficiency of the drives as given by the prior art, there are two main ways to extend the maximum flight time: First, there is the possibility to increase the aircraft in relation to the given payload. This reduces the percentage of the payload at the take-off weight of the aircraft, the proportion of energy storage increases, and thus the flight time. However, this type of scaling is due to aviation law concerns, practical and economic considerations, as well as the disproportionate increase in moment of inertia of the enlarged propellers and the resulting inferior controllability. The second approach is to reduce the share of the aircraft structure in the total take-off weight. With unchanged propeller dimensioning, this shows a disproportionate gain in flight endurance in relation to the weight saved.
  • According to the state of the art, today's multicopters frequently consist of a central fuselage body and a number of drive carriers or outriggers, each of which has a drive or a drive combination [ EP 2 035 276 B1 ] connect to the trunk body. The fuselage body carries all other components of the aircraft, such. As the flight control, the drive control electronics, the energy storage and the payload. The drive carriers are essentially arranged in a cross or star shape around the trunk body [ DE 20 2006 013 909 . DE 10 2013 000 168 . DE 10 2013 108 207 ]. Other forms are also possible [ DE 10 2008 014 853 ], but are traceable to the same basic construction of a star-shaped main support structure. The central fuselage body concentrates the largest part of the takeoff weight of the aircraft, while the drive carrier initiate all the buoyancy forces generated in the fuselage body and thus produce the necessary force balance for stationary flight. The connection of drive carriers to the central body of the fuselage is subjected to high mechanical loading, and the fuselage body itself. In order to withstand the flight loads permanently, the drive carrier, the body of the fuselage and the connection points between the two must be designed to be sufficiently rigid and also sufficiently rigid to avoid vibration problems. A considerable part of the structural weight of the aircraft arises from these requirements. On the other hand, the structural weight of today's multicopters represents a significant portion of the take-off weight, often of the order of 50% or even more. Taking into account a typical payload then often remains for the energy storage less than 25% of the takeoff weight, which often short flight times of well under 30 minutes, sometimes even less than 10 minutes, entails. Ideally, however, for a maximum achievable duration of flight, the multicopter should be designed so that the energy storage fills a proportion of 50-66% of the take-off weight - this requires mandatory savings in the weight of the supporting structure.
  • The object of the present invention is therefore to extend the maximum flight time of aircraft described above. Regardless of other influencing factors, such. As an optimization of the energy density of the energy storage or the efficiency of the drives, this invention relates to ways to reduce the proportion of the weight of the supporting structure of the aircraft on the total take-off weight.
  • The present invention selects a novel solution for designing the drive carriers ( 1 ) and to a load-appropriate attachment of the other components of the aircraft ( 3 ) - ( 8th ) in statically favorable locations ( 9 ) waiving a supporting central body trunk. These connection points ( 9 ) are located substantially outside the center of the drive carrier, for example, 5% to 30% of the length of the entire drive carrier ( 1 ), measured from the middle. The omission of the need to divide the drive carrier in the middle increases its rigidity, which has a favorable influence on the vibration and natural frequency behavior of the entire aircraft. Direct crossover of the drive carriers ( 1 ) allows a statically favorable construction of the joint, for example using one or two node plates ( 2 ). In the For example, the case of an X-shaped configuration is illustrated by two drive carriers and four drives or drive groups, but the same scheme applies to a different number of drive carriers crossing in one point.
  • If an uninterruptible construction is not desired for other reasons (eg smaller packing dimensions), the central connection point can also be designed to be lighter than in constructions with a supporting central trunk body, since in flight operation due to the off-center force introduction the middle areas between the attachment points are only small be charged.
  • Successfully flying prototypes show that the fraction of the weight of the load-bearing structure of an unmanned quadrocopter designed for 5 kg take-off weight can be reduced to less than 10% of the take-off weight. In conjunction with payloads of 500 g and commercially available drives and lithium-ion batteries, flight times of over one hour per battery charge are possible. In this case, a distance of more than 30 km can be flown, which is possible according to the current state of the art in this weight class so far only with fixed-wing aircraft.
  • The solution proposed here is further characterized by a defined separation of relatively light, but highly vibration-loaded components of relatively heavy components with usually high demands on the vibration. It thus allows an embodiment for targeted damping and / or isolation of these vibrations of payload or other sensitive components of the aircraft.
  • shows as an embodiment of the construction of a quadrocopter (multicopter with four drives on two drive carriers) using the invention. The abbreviated illustrated drive carrier as a component ( 1 ). Component ( 2 ) refers to a node plate, which offers a very simple way of connecting the two drive carrier. A disadvantage of this embodiment is the non-level position of the two drive carrier. Therefore, shows a particularly advantageous embodiment, the use of round tubes made of fiber-reinforced plastic, a height-equal crossover of the drive carrier ( 1 ) realized. The crossover point of the partially cut drive carrier is reinforced above and below by a respective node plate made of the same material and thus ensures a continuous power transmission. Component ( 3 ) denotes the energy storage of the multicopters. As a rule, a commercially available lithium-ion accumulator is used here. For multicopters with a long flight endurance, 50% or more of the total take-off mass is concentrated in this component. The energy store is powered by a base plate ( 4 ) carried. The base plate can be made of fiber-reinforced plastics, for example, and offers ideal possibilities for a landing gear ( 5 ) as well as a payload ( 6 ) with unobstructed view from the back, to both sides and downwards. Such mounted landing gear, made for example of fiber-reinforced plastics or light metal, with appropriate design and dimensioning provides the best possible protection for payload and energy storage in the event of a hard landing or crash. Component ( 8th ) denotes a connecting element, for example made of light metal, that the drive carrier ( 1 ) in the anchor point ( 9 ) with the base plate ( 4 ) connects. Optionally, a vibration damping component ( 7 ), for example, a commercially available elastomer or wire rope damper, are used per connecting element.
  • For the following reasons, this construction allows considerable weight savings compared to a conventional construction with a load-bearing, central fuselage body:
    • • Shorter arms of buoyancy forces due to force introduction points ( 9 ) allow easier dimensioning of the drive carrier ( 1 ).
    • • The drive carriers ( 1 ) connect opposing drives directly, without significant bending moments, resulting from the buoyancy forces opposite drives to initiate into other components. These other components can thus be considerably lighter dimensions than in conventional constructions with central, supporting body trunk.
    • • The lifting points ( 9 ) can be constructed very easily by clamps or in the drive carrier bearing points. The continuous drive carrier ( 1 ) avoid at these points problems due to buckling loads, as they arise in one-sided clamping of the half-drive carrier in clamps or bearing blocks in conventional constructions with central body fuselage. This in turn allows a considerably thinner walled design of the drive carrier ( 1 ) with high rigidity and strength of the entire structure.
  • Many applications of multicopters are geared to the use of optical cameras that make some demands on a low-vibration mounting. However, the drives of a multicopper always cause (low-frequency) vibrations even with perfect static and dynamic balance, in particular due to aerodynamic effects. These are variable in amplitude and frequency depending on the drive power and flight condition. The connecting elements ( 8th ) offer however an ideal possibility, by installation of a spring and / or damper element ( 7 ) to isolate and also to damp these vibrations from the payload. The relatively high static mass of the energy store ( 3 ) through the base plate ( 4 ) is rigidly connected to the payload. Such a solution is clearly superior to the customary in conventional constructions flexible suspension of the payload alone and allows to shift possible resonance frequencies targeted.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102005010336 B4 [0001]
    • DE 102007054126 A1 [0001]
    • DE 202004010057 U1 [0001]
    • DE 102010046479 A1 [0001]
    • EP 1659365 A1 [0001]
    • DE 201310108207 [0001]
    • EP 2035276 B1 [0005]
    • DE 202006013909 [0005]
    • DE 102013000168 [0005]
    • DE 102013108207 [0005]
    • DE 102008014853 [0005]

Claims (9)

  1. Supporting structure for a hoverable and vertical launching rotary-wing aircraft with several drives or drive groups (multicopters) which can be individually controlled in terms of speed, comprising: • at least two drive carriers ( 1 ) for two opposing drives or drive groups crossing each other at one point • a static and low-weight connection of intersecting drive carriers with one or two node plates ( 2 ) • one on connecting elements ( 8th ) below the drive carrier ( 1 ) suspended base plate ( 4 ), which carries other components of the aircraft, characterized in that: • the drive carrier ( 1 ) are at least partially designed to be independent of a body body for load-carrying and connect directly opposite drives or drive groups with each other • the drive carrier ( 1 ) are not interrupted by a central, supporting trunk body • the crossover point ( 2 ) the drive carrier is statically designed so that a transmission of transverse forces (upward or downward forces, approximately parallel to the axial direction of the drives) is ensured • the below the drive carrier ( 1 ) suspended base plate ( 4 ) all other components of the aircraft, such as energy storage ( 3 ), Payload ( 6 ), Control electronics and sensors, and possibly a landing gear ( 5 ) carries • the below the drive carrier ( 1 ) suspended base plate ( 4 ) of connecting elements ( 8th ) at clearly off-center points ( 9 ) on the drive carriers ( 1 ) are fixed (preferably at 0.05 * L <= x <= 0.3 * L, where L is the distance of opposing drives or drive groups and x is the distance of the attachment points from the center L / 2) • the structure so designed compared to conventional constructions with supporting central fuselage body with the same stiffness and strength has a significantly reduced structural weight • or the structure so designed a significantly higher rigidity and / or strength compared to conventional constructions with supporting central fuselage body with the same structural weight.
  2. Supporting structure for a rotary-wing aircraft (multicopter) according to claim 1, characterized in that the base plate (1) described in 1. 4 ) as well as for fixing these necessary fasteners ( 8th ) are not below, but above the drive carrier.
  3. Support structure for a rotary wing aircraft (multicopter) according to claim 1, characterized in that in addition to the below the drive carrier ( 1 ) base plate ( 4 ) further connecting elements carry a further base plate above the drive carrier, which serves for example for the attachment of (further) flight control components, (further) payloads or (further) energy stores.
  4. Support structure for a rotary-wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-3., Characterized in that the connecting elements ( 8th ) between drive carriers ( 1 ) and base plate ( 4 ) Means for vibration damping and / or insulation ( 7 ) contain.
  5. Support structure for a rotary wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-4., Characterized in that heavy components such as the energy storage ( 3 ) rigidly with the payload ( 6 ) as well as other vibration-sensitive components, but this unit is suspended in a flexible, vibration-damped or vibration-isolated manner.
  6. Structure for a rotary-wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-5., Characterized by a payload ( 6 ) particularly protective, direct attachment of a robust landing gear ( 5 ) on the unit of base plate, energy storage and payload, so that in case of a crash or a hard landing the maximum protective effect for a valuable payload and the potentially fire, environmental and explosive energy storage ( 6 ) is achieved.
  7. Structure for a rotary-wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-6., With a cross-shaped or star-shaped arrangement of two or more drive carriers ( 1 ) and mutually rotatable center connection, as well as connecting elements between drive carriers ( 1 ) and base plate ( 4 ), the quick-release closures or fittings for space-saving transport and for quick (dis) assembly included.
  8. Structure for a rotary wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-7., With a cross or star-shaped arrangement of the drive carrier ( 1 ), characterized by guying with wires, fibers, ropes or strands between the ends of the drive carrier ( 1 ) and suitable points of the base plate ( 4 ) of the landing gear ( 5 ) or the payload ( 6 ). These can optionally be supplemented by struts or bracing of the same or different kind between the ends of the drive carriers ( 1 ) among themselves.
  9. Support structure for a rotary-wing aircraft (multicopter) according to 1.-7., With a cross-shaped or star-shaped arrangement of the drive carriers, characterized by struts between the ends of the drive carriers ( 1 ) and suitable points of the base plate ( 4 ), the landing gear ( 5 ) or the payload ( 6 ). These can optionally be supplemented by struts or guying between the ends of the drive carrier with each other ( 1 ).
DE102016010873.8A 2016-09-02 2016-09-02 Multicopter lightweight construction Pending DE102016010873A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102016010873.8A DE102016010873A1 (en) 2016-09-02 2016-09-02 Multicopter lightweight construction

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102016010873.8A DE102016010873A1 (en) 2016-09-02 2016-09-02 Multicopter lightweight construction

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102016010873A1 true DE102016010873A1 (en) 2018-03-08

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DE102016010873.8A Pending DE102016010873A1 (en) 2016-09-02 2016-09-02 Multicopter lightweight construction

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018133355A1 (en) 2018-12-21 2020-06-25 Cotesa Gmbh Annular support structure and assembly for lightweight applications

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE202004010057U1 (en) 2004-06-26 2004-08-26 Braun, Andrea Electrical helicopter has four inclined co-rotating lifting rotors with individual drives providing control over all axes, varies drive speeds selectively
EP1659365A1 (en) 2004-11-17 2006-05-24 EADS Deutschland GmbH Method for autonomously obtaining a cartographic representation of the operational area of a military unit
DE202006013909U1 (en) 2006-11-17 2007-02-22 Bieberich, Peter Aircraft e.g. quadrocopter, has centrally fixed base unit, hoist arms detachably fixed at base unit by plug-in and screw connections, electronic components fixed at base unit, and landing frame formed from simple wires
DE102005010336B4 (en) 2004-11-06 2007-09-06 Dolch, Stefan, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Speed controlled helicopter
DE102007054126A1 (en) 2007-11-11 2009-05-20 Stefan Reich Unmanned gyroplane for advertising or other display purposes, e.g. sports events or demonstrations, has rigid connecting body formed in elongated manner, where two lift generating rotor devices are provided and spaced at connecting body
DE102008014853A1 (en) 2008-03-18 2009-10-08 Ascending Technologies Gmbh Rotary-wing aircraft
EP2035276B1 (en) 2006-06-26 2011-02-23 Burkhard Wiggerich Aircraft
DE102010046479A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-01 Lacos Computerservice Gmbh Method for collecting data for site-specific treatment or processing of agricultural land
DE102013000168A1 (en) 2013-01-09 2014-07-10 microdrones GmbH Aerodynamic Multicopter / Quadrocopter
DE102013108207A1 (en) 2013-07-31 2015-02-05 E-Volo Gmbh Aircraft, especially multicopters

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE202004010057U1 (en) 2004-06-26 2004-08-26 Braun, Andrea Electrical helicopter has four inclined co-rotating lifting rotors with individual drives providing control over all axes, varies drive speeds selectively
DE102005010336B4 (en) 2004-11-06 2007-09-06 Dolch, Stefan, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Speed controlled helicopter
EP1659365A1 (en) 2004-11-17 2006-05-24 EADS Deutschland GmbH Method for autonomously obtaining a cartographic representation of the operational area of a military unit
EP2035276B1 (en) 2006-06-26 2011-02-23 Burkhard Wiggerich Aircraft
DE202006013909U1 (en) 2006-11-17 2007-02-22 Bieberich, Peter Aircraft e.g. quadrocopter, has centrally fixed base unit, hoist arms detachably fixed at base unit by plug-in and screw connections, electronic components fixed at base unit, and landing frame formed from simple wires
DE102007054126A1 (en) 2007-11-11 2009-05-20 Stefan Reich Unmanned gyroplane for advertising or other display purposes, e.g. sports events or demonstrations, has rigid connecting body formed in elongated manner, where two lift generating rotor devices are provided and spaced at connecting body
DE102008014853A1 (en) 2008-03-18 2009-10-08 Ascending Technologies Gmbh Rotary-wing aircraft
DE102010046479A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-01 Lacos Computerservice Gmbh Method for collecting data for site-specific treatment or processing of agricultural land
DE102013000168A1 (en) 2013-01-09 2014-07-10 microdrones GmbH Aerodynamic Multicopter / Quadrocopter
DE102013108207A1 (en) 2013-07-31 2015-02-05 E-Volo Gmbh Aircraft, especially multicopters

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018133355A1 (en) 2018-12-21 2020-06-25 Cotesa Gmbh Annular support structure and assembly for lightweight applications
WO2020128100A1 (en) 2018-12-21 2020-06-25 Cotesa Gmbh Annular support structure and assembly for lightweight construction applications in aviation

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