DE102016002143A1 - Filling module in planetary roller extruder design - Google Patents

Filling module in planetary roller extruder design

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Publication number
DE102016002143A1
DE102016002143A1 DE102016002143.8A DE102016002143A DE102016002143A1 DE 102016002143 A1 DE102016002143 A1 DE 102016002143A1 DE 102016002143 A DE102016002143 A DE 102016002143A DE 102016002143 A1 DE102016002143 A1 DE 102016002143A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
extruder
teeth
de
planetary
housing
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102016002143.8A
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German (de)
Inventor
Harald Rust
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Rust & Mitschke Entex
Entex Rust and Mitschke GmbH
Original Assignee
RUST & MITSCHKE ENTEX
Entex Rust and Mitschke GmbH
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Priority to DE102016002143.8A priority Critical patent/DE102016002143A1/en
Publication of DE102016002143A1 publication Critical patent/DE102016002143A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/487Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws with consecutive casings or screws, e.g. for feeding, discharging, mixing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/485Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws with three or more shafts provided with screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/488Parts, e.g. casings, sealings; Accessories, e.g. flow controlling or throttling devices
    • B29B7/489Screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/58Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/72Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/80Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/82Heating or cooling
    • B29B7/823Temperature control
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/80Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/82Heating or cooling
    • B29B7/826Apparatus therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/395Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders
    • B29C48/40Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders using two or more parallel screws or at least two parallel non-intermeshing screws, e.g. twin screw extruders
    • B29C48/425Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders using two or more parallel screws or at least two parallel non-intermeshing screws, e.g. twin screw extruders using three or more screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/395Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders
    • B29C48/40Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders using two or more parallel screws or at least two parallel non-intermeshing screws, e.g. twin screw extruders
    • B29C48/435Sub-screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/488Parts, e.g. casings, sealings; Accessories, e.g. flow controlling or throttling devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/80Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/84Venting or degassing ; Removing liquids, e.g. by evaporating components
    • B29B7/845Venting, degassing or removing evaporated components in devices with rotary stirrers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/285Feeding the extrusion material to the extruder
    • B29C48/29Feeding the extrusion material to the extruder in liquid form
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/39Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages a first extruder feeding the melt into an intermediate location of a second extruder

Abstract

According to the invention, an eccentric material supply is provided for direct material entry into a planetary roller extruder section / module.

Description

  • The extruders are divided into the following main groups:
    Single-screw extruder, twin-screw extruder, planetary roller extruder.
  • Single-screw extruders consist of a rotating screw and a surrounding housing. With single screw can achieve a high pressure build-up and a large conveying effect. However, homogenization and dispersion in the single-screw extruder is weak. However, single screw extruders are still the most widely used extruders.
  • Twin-screw extruders consist of two parallel and intermeshing screws and a surrounding housing. With twin screws can also achieve a high pressure build-up and a high conveying effect. The mixing effect of the twin-screw extruder is much greater than with a single-screw extruder. However, plastics experience a more or less large change in their molecular chains due to the mechanical stress in the twin-screw extruder. There are applications where this can be done. For other applications, the maintenance of molecular chains is important. Then the planetary roller extruder offers itself. Planetary screw extruders consist of a more parts, namely a rotating central spindle, a surrounding the central spindle at a distance housing with an internal toothing and planetary spindles, which revolve around the central spindle in the cavity between the central spindle and internally toothed housing like planets. As far as is spoken below of an internal toothing of the housing, so also includes a multi-part housing with a socket, which forms the internal toothing of the housing. In the planetary roller extruder, the planetary spindles mesh with both the central spindle and the internally toothed housing.
  • At the same time, the planetary spindles slide with the end pointing in the conveying direction against a stop ring. The planetary roller extruders have in comparison to all other extruder types an extremely good mixing effect, but a much lower conveying effect.
  • For a continuous processing of plastics has been known for some decades to use planetary roller extruder. Such methods and corresponding planetary roller extruders are described in particular in the following publications:
    DE 19939075 A1 . CA 698518 . DE 19653790 A . DE 19638094 A1 . DE 19548136 A1 . DE 1954214 A . DE 3908415 A . DE 19939077 A . EP 1078968 A1 . EP 1067352 A . EP 854178 A1 . JP 3017176 . JP 11080690 . JP 9326731 . JP 11-216754 . JP 11-216764 . JP 10-235713 . WO 2007/0874465 A2 . WO 2004/101627 A1 . WO 2004/101626 A1 . WO 2004/037941 A2 . EP 1056584 . PCT / EP99 // 00968 . WO 94/11175 . US Pat. No. 6,780,271 B1 . US 7476416 ,
  • Planetary roller extruder sections / modules are used when an extruder is composed of several sections / modules. In most cases, these are different sections / modules. For years it has been found convenient to combine planetary roller extruder sections / modules with sections / modules of other types. In particular, planetary roller extruder sections / modules are combined with a filling section designed as a single-screw extruder section / module. Via the filling part, the feed materials for the extrusion are withdrawn from a hopper and pressed into the planetary roller extruder sections / modules. The use of a planetary roller extruder section / module as a filling part has not proven itself. The material emerging from a funnel downwards is pushed out of the filling part by the revolving planetary spindles.
  • As far as liquid propellants or other liquid substances are to be entered into the planetary roller extruder sections / modules, it has been proven to inject these fluids via injection rings in the system, which are arranged between each two planetary roller extruder sections / modules. It is also known to introduce melt via a side arm extruder or a pump directly into a planetary roller extruder section / module.
  • In addition to the plastics, various other materials are used for the extrusion. These include fillers, dyes, plasticizers, stabilizers and other additives and auxiliaries or additives. Not all substances are well absorbed by the planets. In part, the material is recalled by the orbiting planets. In part, this is attributed to a lack of lubricity. Some substances tend to stick on their own or tend to caking in the extruder after reaction with other substances. In order to prevent or reduce sticking and caking, it is known to add lubricants to the extrusion material. On the other hand, there are a variety of plastics for which lubricants are unsuitable. This applies, for example, to adhesives, even if the adhesives are to be processed in the extruder. Adhesive preparation by means of an extruder is described in the following publications:
    CA 698518 . DE 69937111 . DE 69808332 . DE 19939078 . DE 19939077 . DE 19939076 . DE 19939075 . DE 19939074 . DE 19939073 . 19824071 . DE 19806609 . DE 19730854 . DE 19638094 . DE 19819349 . DE 19749443 . DE 19653790 . DE 19548136 . DE 19534239 . DE 10334363 . DE 10137620 . DE 20130049 . DE 10059875 . DE 10050295 . DE 10036707 . DE 10036706 . DE 10036705 . DE 4308098 . DE 4111217 . DE 3908415 . DE 2719095 . DE 235613 . DE 2303366 . DE 1954214 . EP 1080865 . EP 1078968 . EP 1067352 . EP 0854178 . US 6780271 . US 6179458 . US 5536462 . US 4268176 . US 4176967 . WO 2007/874465 . WO 2004/101627 . WO 2004/101626 . WO 220/037941 . WO 94/11175 ,
  • In addition, from the EP 2098354 a method for producing a highly cohesive PSA is known in which planetary roller extruder sections find application. The raw materials are supplied via a trained as a single screw filler. This corresponds to the conventional supply of raw materials. There is also an indication that the raw materials can be introduced directly between the central spindle and the planetary spindles. At the Selle material entry is so difficult that an implementation of this proposal without further details is not readily possible. Also the DE 19856235 shows an extruder with planetary roller extruder sections. In this document is described in column 2, below, as raw materials for powder coating production through a funnel in granular form with appropriate additions by means of a funnel can be placed directly through the housing shell in a planetary roller extruder part. Further details are missing.
  • As far as the processed in the extruder plastics are compatible with lubricants, the lubricant has prevailed.
  • Efforts have been made to reduce the use of lubricants for lubricant-incompatible substances. In addition, the invention has set the goal to get along without any lubricant, so that also Gleitmittelunverträgliche materials can be better processed in the extruder.
  • The PCT / EP2013 / 000132 has also set itself the goal to develop another material entry as a filler. For this purpose, a filling part has been used in the form of a planetary roller extruder section / module whose planetary spindles are at least partially formed in the region of the inlet opening as transport spindles. This design advantageously allows a (apart from the filling level of the feed material in the filling funnel over the filling opening) pressure-free entry of the feed material into the filling opening. In addition, the formation of the filling part is also advantageous if the filling part is provided with a stuffing screw / Stopfwerk.
  • Stuffing augers / stuffing plants are also described in various publications in combination with extruders, also in combination with planetary roller extruders. For example, reference is made to DE 10 2007 050 466 . DE 10 2007 041 486 . DE 20003297 . DE 19930970 , DE 10 2008 058 048 . DE 10 2007 059 299 . DE 10 2007 049 505 . DE 10 2006 054 204 . DE 10 2006 033 089 . DE 10 2004 026 599 . DE 19726415 . DE 10334363 . DE 20200601644 . DE 20200401971 . DE 10201000253 . DE 10 2009 060 881 . DE 10 2009 060 851 . DE 10 2009 060 813 , The stuffing screw / Stopfwerk is used when the intended for the extruder feed material not only exits due to its weight from the hopper of the filling part and enters the inlet opening. This is the case, for example, with fibers that are to be mixed with plastic. The stuffing screw / Stopfwerk then forces the feed into the inlet opening of the extruder. In the case of the plug screw, the resistance of all feed material against retraction is significantly reduced with the described training.
  • Incidentally, a special inlet region is preferably provided on the inside of the housing of the planetary roller extruder section / module.
  • The lead-in area is the annular surface on the housing shell of the planetary roller extruder section / module in which the material inlet opening is plus / minus a 50% change in annular surface width, preferably plus / minus 30%, more preferably plus / minus 10% Change of the ring surface width - from the center of the ring surface evenly distributed on both halves of the ring surface, which lie on both sides of the center of the ring surface.
  • In the described planetary roller extruder sections / modules, which are used as filling parts, the collection effect of the transport spindles can be supplemented by a flattening of the housing internal teeth. But the flattening has also regardless of the use of planetary spindles advantages that are at least partially designed as transport spindles.
  • The flattening takes place in the area which adjoins the inlet opening in the direction of rotation of the central spindle. With sufficient stability of the planetary spindles, the support of the planetary spindles, which partly falls away due to the flattening, has no effect on the planetary spindles. The planetary spindles are held at their ends sufficiently between the central spindle and the housing inner teeth, because the housing internal teeth there has full teeth. The resulting from the omitted support additional bending load of the planetary spindles is supported by conventional planetary spindles readily.
  • In principle, the flattening in the direction of rotation of the central spindle can be uniform. Preferably, however, it is provided that the flattening becomes smaller in the direction of rotation of the central spindle. This results in a funnel-shaped enlargement of the cavity between the housing internal teeth and the central spindle. This enlargement reduces the resistance of the feed as it is drawn into the extruder. The funnel shape advantageously directs the feed material between the plaad roller parts of the filling part. The flattening can take place into the tooth base. Preferably, a reduction of the tooth height by a maximum of 90%, more preferably by a maximum of 80%. Despite flattening is still all feed, which enters the space of the previous tooth gaps, displaced by the teeth of the rotating planetary spindles. To prevent at the same time that a deposition takes place on the flats, the flattened teeth can be provided with new, less inclined tooth flanks, so that new teeth arise there with a preferably rounded new tooth head, so that the displaced from the previous tooth base feed all wegschiebt the new tooth flanks adhering feedstock. Such tooth changes can be produced, inter alia, with electrically operated erosion devices. In this case, an electrode is used, which is adapted to the desired new flattening tooth shape and is immersed with the housing in an erosion bath. In this case, the electrode is brought close to the flattened toothing and applied to the workpiece with electricity, so that the molecules detach from the surface of the flattened teeth and migrate to the electrode. With increasing deformation of the flattened toothing, the electrode is tracked so that a desired, short distance is maintained.
  • The described spatial enlargement by flattening of the housing internal teeth depends on the extent to which the flattening extends in the direction of rotation of the central spindle and to what extent the flattening extends in the axial direction of the central spindle.
  • Preferably, the degree of flattening is at least 1/10, more preferably at least 1/5, and most preferably at least 1/2 of the circumference of the pitch circle of the housing internal teeth.
  • The extent of the flattening in the axial direction of the central spindle is referred to as width. The width is at most 30% greater or smaller than the opening width of the inlet opening, preferably at most 20% larger or smaller than the opening width of the inlet opening and even more preferably at most 10% larger or smaller than the opening width of the inlet opening. Most preferably, the width of the flattening is equal to the opening way of the inlet opening.
  • The so-called transport spindles occur when at least one tooth is removed on at least one normally toothed planetary spindle. Optionally, more teeth are removed. Preferably, at least each 3 remain evenly on the circumference of the planetary spindles. It can also be removed every fourth or every third or every second tooth. It can also be removed all teeth except for one tooth. If more than one tooth remains, the teeth are preferably evenly distributed around the circumference of the spindles. This results in a reduced tooth stocking as opposed to non-reduced tooth stocking. The removal of the teeth is preferably carried out to the tooth base. It is also conceivable that a further material preparation, as well as a partial removal of the teeth. Alternatively, the transport spindles are made from the beginning to form in the shape that results when one or more teeth are removed on standard spindles. Due to the entire or partial removal of certain teeth, a planetary spindle with more conveying effect is produced while the remaining teeth remain unchanged. It has been shown that the transport spindles, in contrast to other planetary spindle, pick up the material from a feeding hopper into the planetary roller extruder section / module. The number of remaining teeth of the transport spindles is optionally at most 4, preferably 3, after more preferably 2 and most preferably 1. The "whole or partial" formation of the planetary spindles as transport spindles means that
    • a) planetary spindles are provided outside the region of the inlet opening with a different toothing and / or
    • b) transport spindles in the area of the inlet opening is combined with planetary spindles of other teeth.
  • Other gearing means, for example: normal gearing or hedgehog gearing or nubble spindles. The hedgehog teeth and / or the knob toothing are provided on the in the conveying direction of the planetary roller extruder section / module.
  • The known hedgehog toothing is preferably formed from a standard toothing, by annular grooves are incorporated in the planetary spindles at axial intervals. The annular grooves are chosen so that the teeth end up like a vibration and rise at the beginning like a vibration, the teeth go from the beginning immediately in the end. This results in round teeth.
  • The studded toothing preferably arises from the normal toothing. The normal toothing of planetary spindles is characterized on the one hand by a cross section, as it show the interlocking teeth of the gears of a transmission. On the other hand, the teeth are not straight but spindle-shaped or like the threads of a screw thread along the circumference. The threads are cut in this form in the starting material of the planetary spindles, z. B. turned or milled. For the threads, a distinction is made between left-handed thread and right-handed thread. There are also multiple threads. The same distinction is made on extruder spindles.
  • A knob toothing arises when z. B. in a right-handed gearing a left-handed groove similar to a thread is incorporated. Through the groove, the threads of the planetary spindles are interrupted. The groove may have the same or a different slope (less or greater) than the toothing of the spindles. The slope of the groove preferably deviates at most by 50% from the pitch of the toothing.
  • It is advantageous if the planetary spindles have a normal toothing outside the inlet region at the end facing the conveying direction. There, the larger conveying effect of the normal toothing is used to prevent incoming feed material from spreading against the conveying direction of the extruder. However, a normal toothing can also be provided outside the inlet region on the conveying direction of the planetary roller extruder section / module. As stated above under b), planetary spindles of a planetary roller extruder section / module serving as a filling part, which are designed as transport spindles, can be combined with differently designed planetary spindles. That is, the planetary spindle stocking (totality of all planetary spindles) of a planetary roller extruder section / module serving as a filling part can optionally also consist in part of differently toothed planetary spindles. Preferably, the proportion of planetary spindles with transport spindle toothing is at least 50%, preferably at least 70% and even more preferably at least 90% of the planetary spindle stocking.
  • In case of partial use of transport spindles for the planet spindle stocking, the planetary spindles with transport spindle toothing are preferably evenly distributed in the planet spindle stocking. In a Planetspindelbesatz, which is provided with a total of transport spindles, the number of teeth on the transport spindles is selected so that at least within 10 revolutions of the planetary spindles around the central spindle a Planetspindelzahn in each tooth gap of the central spindle toothing and in each tooth gap of the internal toothing of the surrounding housing Tooth attacks. Preferably, this meshing occurs within at least 7 revolutions of the planetary spindles about the central spindle, more preferably within at least 4 revolutions of the planetary spindles about the central spindle, and most preferably within 1 revolution of the planetary spindles about the central spindle. The tooth engagement causes a cleaning of the toothing. The tooth engagement can be controlled, for example, by lubricating a molten colored material at room temperature with sufficient adhesion to planetary spindles, central spindle and internal teeth of the housing in their tooth spaces. Then it can be clarified, after how many revolutions of the planetary spindles around the central spindle a desired tooth engagement is done. This happens, for example, after one revolution or 4 revolutions or 7 revolutions or 10 revolutions of the planetary spindles around the central spindle by opening the filling part.
  • In the process, the rotation of the planetary spindles about the central spindle is in a fixed relationship to the rotation of the central spindle. For the above control / design, the center spindle of the filling part can be easily turned by hand when the filling part is detached from the other extruder sections / modules. In this case, the movement of the central spindle can be simulated with a sample of the central spindle. If the desired tooth engagement is not achieved within the desired rotational speed of the planetary spindles about the central spindle, the planetary spindles can be replaced with other planetary spindles or additional planetary spindles can be used. The other planetary spindles can have more teeth than transport spindles and / or have differently arranged teeth. Optionally, already the replacement of a transport spindle against a normal toothed planetary spindle, to ensure that each time the planet is engaged in each gap in the toothed hole on the central spindle and the internally toothed housing.
  • In contrast to the described filling part, a conventional filling screw in a filling part has no comparable cleaning. The auger relies on postpone feed to push out the previous material. That's hard to control. The feedstock flows to where the least resistance is opposed. It can not be ensured that in the entire, left open by the screw in the filling part passage space everywhere the same resistances occur. Even the slightest caking / sticking can permanently adversely affect the flow behavior. Without intervention of the operators, it hardly comes to a cleaning. In a planetary roller extruder, on the other hand, it is inevitable that the respective tooth engagement leads to a cleaning. This can be called self-cleaning.
  • For the processing of various plastics, it is of great advantage to temper the filling part. Although a temperature of the filling screw on conventional filling parts is known. However, the tempering starts at the known filling parts in the conveying direction behind the inlet opening. Preferably, however, the temperature already starts at the inlet opening. Preferably, the filling member is divided into at least two Temperierungsabschnitten and / or of short length. The short length refers to the Füllteil-length after the filling opening. The short length is less than or equal to 0.5 D, where D is the pitch diameter of the internal teeth of the housing. In the case of a filling part length of more than 2 D (for example 3 D or 4 D), a section-wise temperature control is preferably provided in which the first tempering section in the conveying direction has a length which is equal to the length of a short filling part (less than or equal to 0) , 5 D). Each Temperierungsabschnitt is provided with a guide for the tempering. The guide for the temperature control is carried out as in other known planetary roller extruder sections / modules. There, cooling / heating channels are incorporated in the housing on the housing inner surface and / or on the socket outer surface cooling / heating channels before mounting the inner toothing bearing bush. The channels extend on the inner surface of the housing and / or on the outer surface of the seated in the housing socket such as threads. At one end of the threads enters the tempering and at the other end again. The channels are closed by the socket during their installation. Holes in the housing jacket lead to the cooling / heating channels. To the holes supply lines / leads for the tempering are connected. The tempering agent is mostly water, often oil. The temperature control comes from an outside of the plant standing heating / cooling unit in which it is brought to the desired temperature and fed to the associated Temperierungsabschnitt. In the Temperierungsabschnitt the Temperierungsmittel gives off heat as needed or absorbs the Temperierungsmittel as needed to heat. The exiting tempering is then fed to the outside of the system heating / cooling unit again for re-loading with heat or for cooling.
  • The filling part designed as a planetary-surface-extruder section / module preferably has a housing extending over the entire filling-part length with the bushing described above and incorporated cooling channels. The cooling channels can thereby run continuously from one end of the housing to the other end of the housing to facilitate the production. Before mounting the bush, the ends of the channels can be closed by rings which are positioned in corresponding recesses of the housing ends. To divide the entire cooling section into several sections, plugs can be placed in each channel between each two sections prior to inserting the socket. The holes described above lead to the channels for the tempering agent. The lead a hole to the end of each channel and the other holes to the beginning of each channel.
  • The application of the described filling parts has advantages for different materials. These include elastomers, polyurethanes, adhesives, chewing gum
  • The elastomers and comparable substances have a significant importance in the economy / technology. Wherever plastic is supposed to undergo a particularly pronounced deformation and should nevertheless return to its original shape after being relieved of strain, rubber-elastic plastics (rubber) are being considered via elastomers (elastics) and the like. Plastics consist of large molecule chains. The high elasticity of the elastomers is given by a phenomenon in the behavior of the molecular chains. In a tensile load of the original molecular chains lying in the ball, the molecular chains arrange differently, preferably in parallel, and stretch the molecular chains. However, the prerequisite for the desired deformation is that the molecular chains do not slide against each other. This is achieved by networking the molecular chains. The degree of crosslinking influences the deformation. With low networking creates a soft plastic. Strong networking creates a hard plastic. There are different cross-linking agents. Depending on the plastic, a selection of crosslinking agents takes place. Sulfur is one of the commonly used crosslinking agents. Sulfur occurs with appropriate heating of the plastic as a crosslinking agent in action. Other crosslinking agents do not depend on heat effect or the effect of the crosslinking agent may also depend on other circumstances. The elastomers include, for example
    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)
    Acrylonitrile / butadiene / acrylate (A / B / A)
    Acrylonitrile / chlorinated polyethylene / styrene (A / PE-C / S)
    Acrylonitrile / methyl methacrylate (A / MMA)
    Butadiene rubber (BR)
    Butyl rubber (HR) (IIR
    Chloroprene rubber (CR)
    Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer (E / EA)
    Ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM)
    Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM)
    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
    Fluororubber (FPM or FKM)
    Isoprene rubber (IR)
    Natural rubber (NR)
    Polybutadiene rubber BR
    polyethylene resins
    Polyisobutylene (PIB)
    Polspropylenharze
    Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)
    Silicone rubber (Q or SIR)
    Styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer (SIS)
    Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)
    Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)
    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU or TPE-U)
    Vinyl chloride / ethylene (VC / E)
    Vinyl chloride / ethylene / methacrylate (VC / E / MA)
  • For elastomers, the risk of sticking and caking is particularly high when cross-linking agents are drawn in along with other material over the filler, which respond to heating. Such elastomers are for example from DE 60124269 . DE 3738335 known. Then, any sticking and caking leads to unforeseen heating to the unexpected onset of crosslinking and poorer material properties. With the described filling the problems to be feared by sticking and caking in the filling part can be avoided.
  • In the case of polyurethanes, it is important to combine two reaction components in the correct ratio. It is known to bring the reaction components together with the aid of an extruder. This is described for example in DD 141975 . DE 1964834 . US 3233025 . DE 2059570 . DE 2447368 , Slight irregularity in the material guide already affect the mixture. This can also be avoided with the described filling part in the catchment area.
  • The processing of adhesives in the extruder is described, for example, in US Pat EP 1167017 , By using the described filling part, the adhesive processing in the extruder can be substantially facilitated.
  • The processing of chewing gum in the extruder is known. The heat-sensitive masterbatch contains lecithin, plasticizers, syrups, sugars, oils, fragrances and elastomers. Among them are strongly adhesive and caking-prone ingredients. Corresponding information can be found in the DE 69829695 . US 5135760 . US 5045325 . US 4555366 , This preparation is much easier with the described filling part.
  • The described filling part can be combined with other planetary roller extruder sections / modules. The essential components of the other planetary roller extruder sections are in turn the central spindle, rotating planetary spindles and an internally toothed housing and a stop ring for the plenum screws. The function of these parts is the same as stated at the beginning of planetary roller extruders. The planetary spindles can have different training. The planetary spindles preferably show a standard toothing and / or a hedgehog toothing and / or a knob toothing and / or a Tansportspindelverzahnung.
  • The standard toothing is an involute toothing. The involute determines the tooth form in cross section. Incidentally, the teeth on the circumference of the planetary spindles run like the thread teeth of the external teeth of a threaded rod.
  • The hedgehog teeth arise in the form described above from a standard toothing. Likewise, the knob toothing in the form described above arises from a standard toothing. The standard toothing is formed in the form described above from a standard toothing.
  • The different gear types (standard / hedgehog / pimples / transport) can be limited to individual planetary gear parts. The different types of toothing (standard / hedgehog / nubs / transport) can also be provided in several or in all planetary roller parts. The different types of gearing (standard / hedgehog / nubs / transport) can also occur together or in two or three different gearing types on the planetary spindles together. The above variations in the gearing can be all plenum spindles or only part of the Planet spindles of a planetary roller extruder section / module relate. It is favorable to arrange the normally toothed part of the planetary spindles in the conveying direction of the extruder at the rear end (at the discharge end of the planetary spindles / in the conveying direction end) of the planetary spindles to build there a delivery pressure, which facilitates a transition of the granules in the other extruder area.
  • Optionally, particularly toothed planetary spindles can alternate with differently toothed planetary spindles. Alternatively, it is also possible for individual toothed planetary spindles to be arranged between a multiplicity of differently toothed planetary spindles. It is favorable, if always at least two identically toothed planetary spindles occur in a planetary spindle stocking a planetary roller extruder section / module, which are evenly distributed in the stocking.
  • If the studded / hedgehog toothing is provided in a plurality of corresponding planetary roller parts (housing internal toothing, planetary spindles and central spindle), the stud toothing can be arranged such that the interruptions of the toothing in one planetary roller part are aligned with the interruptions in the corresponding planetary roller part or offset in relation to these interruptions. The offset may have a dimension equal to a fraction of the tooth gap between two teeth or a multiple of the tooth gap between two teeth, where a multiple may also be a number less than 2. The interruption of the teeth creates openings into which the material to be extruded can flow.
  • Preferably, the other planetary roller sections / modules have a length of at most 1200 mm with a diameter of up to 100 mm in the toothing of the planetary roller extruder housing, even more preferably of at most 1000 mm. For other diameters of the teeth of the planetary roller extruder housing result in correspondingly larger or smaller maximum lengths.
  • During extrusion, energy is released in the extruder or in the extruder section to a considerable extent, which is shown in the granules as heat. If the granules already reach the planetary roller extruder or the planetary roller extruder section at a considerable temperature, it may be necessary to dissipate the resulting heat by cooling. If the granules on entry into the planetary roller extruder or the extruder section still has no sufficient temperature, the above cooling is omitted. Optionally, even heat is supplied. For cooling and / or heating conventional temperature control devices on planetary roller extruders are sufficient. It is customary to make the casing double-shelled (as described above for the described filling part with housing and inner bushing) and to guide the tempering agent through the intermediate space. It is also common to provide the central spindle with channels, is also passed through the Temperierungsmittel. The usual tempering agent is water or oil, with which is heated or cooled.
  • To the planetary spindles, which are designed as transport spindles, may also be advantageous:
    The removal of teeth can be done on existing planetary spindles later. As far as a stockpiling of planetary spindles takes place and as far as a compensation or curing or other treatment is provided to increase the wear resistance of the tooth surfaces, the planetary spindles are preferably stored without the surface treatment, so in retrospect simple editing of the planetary spindles, z. B. by milling, is possible. The treatment of the tooth surfaces takes place after processing.
  • Surprisingly, the removal of teeth does not affect the smoothness of the planetary spindles, because the teeth run like screws / threads on the surface of the planetary spindles. With sufficient length of the spindles and a corresponding pitch, the helical or thread-shaped teeth loop around the spindles so often that the planetary spindles between the central spindle and the surrounding housing are securely guided and fixed. In a planetary spindle in which every other tooth has been removed, it is preferable
    • a) at a planetary roller housing diameter (based on the pitch circle diameter of the inner toothing of the housing) smaller than 160 mm machined minimum spindle length of 200 mm, preferably of at least 300 m and more preferably a spindle length of at least 400 mm and a machined maximum spindle length up to 1500 mm , preferably up to 1200 mm and most preferably provided to 900 mm for a planetary spindle.
    • b) at a planetary roller casing diameter (based on the pitch diameter of the internal teeth of the housing) of 160 mm and more, a machined minimum spindle length of at least 400 mm, preferably of at least 800 m and more preferably a spindle length of at least 1200 mm and a maximum spindle length to 3000 mm, preferably up to 2500 mm and more preferably provided to 2000 mm.
  • The above minimum spindle length refers to the toothing on the planetary spindle. Belongs to the minimum spindle spindle length preferably not the toothing, which results from the above-described leakage of milling cutters and / or arises when entering the milling cutter to the specified milling depth when the planetary spindle length is greater than the toothing length of the planetary spindle.
  • The machining (removal of teeth) of the planetary spindles can be applied to all known tooth modules, in particular to the common modules 1.5 to 12 or beyond to 20. The tooth modules are to be distinguished from the above-mentioned planetary roller parts / modules. The tooth modules indicate the size of the teeth.
  • The extruder sections / modules designed as planetary roller extruders are preferably arranged in one stage of the extrusion installation. Optionally, it may also be a multi-stage extrusion line. In two stages one speaks of a tandem system with a primary extruder and a secondary extruder. With more stages one speaks of a cascade plant. The multi-stage arrangement of an extrusion plant is used to perform a degassing of the extruded material between the stages and / or to drive the individual stages independently.
  • To the extrusion plant belongs usually also an end provided extruder section, in which the extruded material is brought to outlet temperature.
  • The planetary roller sections / modules are assembled with the other sections / modules to the respective desired extruder. It is customary to provide a common central spindle for all successively arranged modules one stage of an extrusion plant.
  • The modular design is comparable to a modular system and usually very economical. The various planetary parts (central spindle / planetary spindles / internal teeth) of a section / module regularly have the same tooth module.
  • Optionally, the teeth are not subsequently removed, but a production takes place in which the planetary spindles are immediately brought into the mold, as it arises after the tooth removal described above.
  • First of all, it is important to understand how the teeth arise with conventional toothing. The production is widespread by milling and grinding. For this purpose, the contour of the toothing is determined and the cutter moves along the contour. The cutter works relatively coarse. Therefore, then a fine machining is common, for. B. by grinding externally toothed parts or by honing or eroding in internally toothed parts usual. There are also known forming processes for gear parts, which are casting and sintering. The forming processes include forging, pressing, drawing, rolling, stamping). Milling is part of the machining process. Other machining methods include, for example, planing, beating, broaching, scraping, grinding, honing.
  • All manufacturing processes for toothing have in common that they follow the specified contour of the toothing. With normal gearing, a tooth changes with a tooth gap. The distance between two adjacent teeth of a part is the same
  • When defining the contour, it depends on the toothing. The gearing follows the general knowledge of gear technology. A distinction is made between different basic forms of toothing: involute toothing as customary toothing, cycloid toothing and driving tooth toothing. In addition, there are various special forms.
  • In planetary roller extruders, the involute gearing has prevailed. The involute toothing with full tooth stocking is referred to below as normal toothing. In the involute toothing, the flanks of the teeth of the gear are formed by involutes. One can imagine the involute, if one imagines the gear base circle as a massive cylinder, around which a thread is wound. If this thread is now unwound, then the taut end point of the thread describes the figure of an involute. All points on the thread, which have the integer multiple distance from the end point, thus move on the involute of another tooth. The involute gears have the following advantages:
    The flanks of two meshing gears always touch, and in these points of contact they always have approximately the same speed. This ensures that the transmission of the rotational movement takes place with little friction.
  • At the same time the involute toothing allows the uniform transmission of torque through a constant translation. It is insensitive to the shifting of the axes of the gears (distance between the axles). It is easy to manufacture with standardized straight-line tools. With the same geometry of the tool gears with different numbers of teeth and different profile displacement are freely combinable.
  • With planetary gearboxes, as with other transmissions, it is endeavored to work with as little clearance as possible between the gearbox parts. The Game can be considered when defining the contour. In planetary roller extruders usually a much larger game is provided. Also this game can be considered in the determination of the tooth contour.
  • In conventional gearing, a tooth of a tooth gap and a tooth space follows a tooth, the teeth and the tooth gaps are the same. Since the teeth engage in the tooth gaps and the intermeshing / meshing gear parts should have the same teeth, the tooth gaps include a mirror image of the teeth. In the design of the teeth, the tooth gaps are different than with conventional teeth. In the production of the toothing described above, one or more teeth are removed on existing transmission parts. Alternatively, even when determining the tooth contour, one or more teeth are removed. The production then follows in the manner described above the specified tooth contour. That is, in the case of using a milling cutter, the milling cutter follows the predetermined new contour with larger tooth gaps. The same applies to other tools for producing the previously defined new contour.
  • It is advantageous if the number of teeth of the housing internal teeth (bushing teeth), planetary spindles and central spindle is chosen so that the number of teeth on the central spindle and the housing internal teeth (bushing teeth) is straight and the number of teeth on the planetary spindles is odd. Then, the melt in each tooth gap between two teeth is displaced by the teeth of other parts of the planetary roller extruder penetrating into the interspace.
  • The same conditions arise with odd numbers of teeth on the central spindle and housing internal teeth and even number of teeth on the planetary spindles. The same result can be achieved by irregular removal of the tooth stock in the manufacture of the transport spindles, for example by not regularly removing every second tooth, but once or several times another tooth, for example the third tooth or, for example, two originally next to each other standing teeth remain untouched. That is, the processing takes place at different intervals. It may be sufficient that a distance is different than the other distances. It can also be different distances. The same result can also be achieved in that the planetary spindles machined in the manner described are combined with unprocessed planetary spindles or the differently machined planetary spindles are combined with one another.
  • The transport spindles and the associated prior art are described in DE 10 2006 033 089 A1 . EP 1844917 A2 . DE 2702390 A . EP 1833101 A1 . DE 10142890 A1 . US 4981711 . GB 2175513 A . US 5947593 . DE 2719095 , Each planetary roller extruder has a maximum planetary spindle stock. This is the maximum number of planetary spindles that can be accommodated between the internal teeth of the surrounding housing and the central spindle, without the planetary spindles preventing each other from rotating. The maximum planet spindle stock depends on the respective gear module. While the planetary roller extruder module is an extruder section, the spline module is a calculation / design feature that determines the shape of the teeth and gullets.
  • By choosing a lower planetary spindle stocking compared to the maximum planetary spindle stocking, in addition to the use of transport spindles, the energy input into the feedstock can be reduced in the extruder. Preferably, at least one reduction of the planetary spindle number is provided by one, optionally also by at least 2 or at least three compared to the maximum planetary spindle stocking.
  • Optionally, multi-part planetary spindles are provided, namely with a separately machined part and with a separately produced residual part. The remainder may be a knobbed part or a normal toothed part or another part. Both parts are also provided with a central bore for an armature, with which the two parts are braced together. On the way arise multipart planetary spindles, which have a change of teeth over their length, that is, change from one gearing to another gearing.
  • The multi-part can have advantages in the production of the teeth by the parts are made with different teeth separately. Then the tools do not have to follow the change of teeth. In connection with a desired abrupt change of the gearing, such an approach offers itself.
  • On the other hand, procedurally, a slow change from one gearing to another can also be advantageous. A slow transition from a gearing to a normal gearing described above arises in the application of a milling cutter, for example, by the fact that the cutter used for the subsequent tooth removal is slowly moved out of the material of the planetary spindle.
  • The multi-part planetary spindles can also have a multiple gear change.
  • There are also one-piece planetary spindles into consideration, which show over its length in the toothing one or more gear changes.
  • For each change of the gearing, the statements regarding the subsequent removal of teeth and the previous definition of the tooth contour apply accordingly.
  • Optionally, the described indentation also finds application in combination with further processing of the extrusion material in a single screw extruder or a twin screw extruder. In combination with a single-screw extruder, the central screw continues in the extruder section following the intake as a single screw. In combination with a twin-screw extruder, the central spindle in the feeder continues as one of the two screws of the twin-screw extruder.
  • Incidentally, it is advantageous if the housing has a rounding at the transition of the inlet opening into the housing toothing. Preferably, the rounding has a radius which is at least equal to ¼ of the tooth height, more preferably at least equal to ½ of the tooth height of the housing toothing.
  • The object of the invention has been found to improve the material feed even further. This is achieved according to the invention with the features of the main claim. Preferred embodiments are described in the subclaims.
  • According to the invention, the feedstock is directed eccentrically into the planetary roller extruder with respect to the center of the planetary roller extruder. The offset occurs in the direction of rotation of the central spindle of the planetary roller extruder. The center axis of the material supply extends at a distance past the central axis of the planetary roller extruder. Preferably, the distance is greater than a quarter of the pitch circle diameter of the toothing in the extruder housing or the toothing in the internally toothed sleeve of the housing. Even more preferably, the distance is greater than half the pitch circle diameter of the toothing in the extruder housing or the toothing in the internally toothed bushing of the housing. Most preferably, the distance is greater than half the diameter of the root circle of the central spindle toothing and smaller than half the root circle of the toothing in the extruder housing or the toothing in the internally toothed bushing of the housing. It is advantageous if the diameter of the material supply is smaller than the diameter of the root circle of the internal toothing of the extruder housing or of the internal toothing of the bushing in the housing. Insofar as the material supply protrudes laterally beyond the space in the eccentricity according to the invention, in which the material is processed in the planetary roller extruder, a chamfer is provided in the transition from the material supply to the housing of the planetary roller extruder. Due to the taper, the material supply tapers at the transition from the material supply to the extruder housing. Favorable conditions arise when the slope in the cross section of the extruder housing is approximately on a tangent to the pitch circle diameter of the inner teeth of the extruder housing or the internally toothed sleeve of the housing when the cut is also in the longitudinal direction of the material feed through the center. Roughly means that the slope deviates at most a measure of the tangent, which is equal to the diameter of the planetary gear belonging to the planetary spindles, preferably at most equal to half the diameter of the associated planetary spindles and most preferably equal to a quarter of the diameter of the associated planetary spindles. The bevel closes with the horizontal through the planetary roller center axis preferably an angle of at least 30 degrees, even more preferably an angle of at least 45 degrees and most preferably an angle of at least 60 degrees. On the way will the Material supply in the planetary roller extruder improved. Similar results can be achieved if, instead of a straight bevel running on a curved track slope is provided.
  • The material supply according to the invention is particularly suitable for module-constructed planetary roller extruder. Then, a planetary roller extruder module with the material supply according to the invention can be arranged at any desired location. The desired position does not have to be calculated in advance. It is also possible to find the correct location empirically by arranging the material feed in the second or third planetary roller extruder module. This is done by arranging the provided with the material supply planetary roller extruder module as a second or third or fourth module.
  • Optionally, the planetary roller extruder module according to the invention is used in multiple or in combination with a conventional filling part, which is modeled after a single-screw extruder and is provided for example with a hopper. On the way material can be fed in different places. This also materials can be processed, which may not be brought together in mixture or have to be brought into succession and possibly in temporal distance in mixture. In addition, materials that are difficult to process, for example solids with a tendency to stick and caking or solids that tend to segregate, can be added to the mixture as late as possible. In the way according to the invention, solids can be mixed with each other and optionally also with liquids or with melts. In most cases, an exact dosage is an advantage. The dosage can be volumetric or gravimetric. The solids can be forcibly carried in the extruder without pressure or with a Stopfwerk. The planetary spindles can be formed in the form described above wholly or partly by transport spindles or combined with differently designed planetary spindles. For temperature-sensitive materials, a temperature of the connection and / or other supply parts such as the inlet funnel may be provided. The technique according to the invention may, for example, have an advantage when using the extruder in chemical processes, in the food industry or in the plastics industry.
  • In the drawing, various embodiments of the invention are shown.
  • 1 shows an extruder with the following components / sections: drive 1 , Move-in 2 , Planetary roller extruder sections 3.1 . 3.2 and 3.3 . 4 and discharge nozzle 6 , In the feeder 2 emits a dosage 8th , From the container 8th leads a dosing line into the feeder 2 ,
  • The dosage is filled in unillustrated form with thermoplastic EPDM granules for its processing and closed.
  • The EPDM granulate enters the feeder 2 and is conveyed from there in the extrusion direction. The extrusion direction has in the drawing from left to right. The collection 2 is designed in modular design. This module has the construction of a planetary roller extruder. In the feeder 2 a first warming takes place. For the heating of the EPDM granules is a heating-cooling circuit 15 intended. The heating-cooling circuit 15 interacts with the housing shell of the module. The heat is transferred to the filled EPDM granulate via the housing jacket. In addition, it generates in the module 2 circulating screw heating of the EPDM granules.
  • The EPDM granules passes in the embodiment with preheating temperature of 140 degrees Celsius in the next extruder section / module 3.1 , To the extruder section / module 3.1 close extruder sections / modules 3.2 and 3.3 . 4 , The modules 3.1 to 4 have the design of planetary roller extruders. The modules 2 . 3.1 . 3.2 and 3.3 . 4 have matched housing and not shown flanges, where they are connected to each other. The connection is a screw connection.
  • In the planetary roller extruder sections / modules 3.1 . 3.2 and 3.3 . 4 The EPDM granules are often kneaded between the rotating planetary spindles, the central spindle and the internally toothed extruder housing, so that always form new surfaces that can be used for heat transfer. In this case, heat can be transferred from the housing jacket to the EPDM or withdrawn from the EPDM and removed via the housing jacket. As in the module 2 are the modules 3.1 . 3.2 and 3.3 such as 4 with heating and cooling circuits 16 . 17 . 19 . 20 Mistake.
  • In the extruder sections / modules 3.1 . 3.2 and 3.3 The EPDM is brought to a temperature of 300 degrees Celsius, in the extruder section / module 4 to a temperature of 220 degrees Celsius. The heating and cooling circuits 16 . 17 . 19 . 20 ensure compliance with the desired temperature. In this case, heat is introduced into the EPDM by the deformation work of the extruder sections / modules. As far as the heat input is insufficient to reach the desired temperature, the lack of heat from the heating cooling circuits via the associated housing shell of the module on the EPDM transfer. Insofar as the amount of heat generated by the work of deformation exceeds the amount of heat required for the desired temperature, the excess amount is withdrawn through the heating and cooling circuits. In the extruder sections, the EPDM is melted. At the same time, the molecular chains are linked together. The obtained and maintained temperature profile corresponds to the specifications of the EPDM manufacturer. In other application examples, a different temperature is set and maintained.
  • In addition, an oil addition is provided in the embodiment for the processing of the EPDM. The oil is added via an injection ring 21 , The injection ring 21 is between the modules 3.1 and 3.2 intended. The injection ring 21 is connected via a line with a pump and an oil reservoir.
  • In the embodiment, the injection ring forms 21 the starting ring for the rotating planetary spindles of the module 3.1 , Further, on the injection ring 21 Provided openings in which sit pressure gauges and temperature gauges. These devices are integrated in the control of the heating and cooling circuits. Because of the details of the injection ring 21 and its arrangement in the housing will be referred to the DE 19720916 B4 , Also on the modules 3.2 and 3.3 are contact rings 22 and 23 provided with which pressure measurements and temperature measurements as on the module 3.1 let carry out.
  • The EPDM is discharged from the extrusion plant at a temperature of 220 degrees Celsius. This is the module 4 on the outlet side with a round nozzle 24 provided with 20 mm diameter. The discharged EPDM is placed between chill rolls 25 cooled.
  • The embodiment according to 1a differs from the embodiment according to 1 by another cooling on the discharge. In the embodiment, the cooling for the EPDM consists of a simple water tank 26 ,
  • The embodiment according to 5 differs from the embodiment according to 1a through a degassing 27 and by an additional dosage 28 , The degassing 27 consists of a laterally flanged twin-screw extruder, which can be used to prevent melt discharge, but allows outgassing. The outgassing is effected by a voltage applied to the twin-screw extruder.
  • The additional dosage 28 serves to mix another polymer in the EPDM.
  • 3 schematically shows conventional planetary spindles 321 for planetary roller extruder These planetary spindles 321 form multi-flight screws, which extend with constant inclination over the entire spindle length.
  • The flights are shown in the drawing by oblique to the spindle axis extending lines. The worm threads run in the right side view from the right, clockwise. The screws have a toothing on the outside. The corresponding mirror-image toothing is found on the central spindle of the planetary roller extruder section and the inner toothed surrounding housing, so that the planetary spindles 321 can mesh with both the Gehäusungszahnnung and with the central spindle.
  • 4 shows known planetary spindles 322 which, on the one hand, follows the same screw flights as the screws / spindles 3 have. On the other hand, the spindles have at the same time left-handed grooves which intersect the right-handed worm threads. The left-hand grooves are marked with dashes in the 4 represented, which the 3 cross the known flights at right angles. This is shown with crossing lines. By the crossing grooves, the webs between the flights, which form the teeth of the teeth in cross-section, interrupted. The remaining between two interruptions teeth form a spiny / knob-like tooth. The many side by side resulting spikes / nubs lead to the name Noppenverzahnung. The interruptions are referred to as tooth gaps.
  • 2 shows more planetary spindles 23 with a part 25 , which of the gearing after 3 is modeled, and with a part 24 , which of the gearing after 4 is modeled.
  • 6 and 8th show a planetary spindle for the use of a planetary roller extruder in the drying station of an EPDM treatment plant 60 , The planetary spindle 60 consists of two parts 61 and 62 , The part 61 corresponds to a conventional planetary spindle with full tooth stock. In the exemplary embodiment, it is a planetary spindle with a pitch diameter of 34 mm, with an outer diameter of 42 mm and a diameter of 26 mm at the tooth root of Zahnbesatzes. In the embodiment, the part 61 a length of 200 mm. The total length of the planetary spindle 60 is 1000 mm.
  • This results in the part 62 a length of 800 mm. The part 62 defines the area of special training of the planetary spindle, part 61 defines the remaining area. In the part 61 the spindle has 7 teeth 64 , which are similar to threads, but with very large pitch on the planetary spindle outside. This is in the 8th shown.
  • In the part 62 are 3 teeth 64 been milled off. This is before a surface hardening of the teeth 64 he follows. The distribution of the remaining teeth is in 7 shown. There are still two teeth 64 side by side. To the other teeth results in a tooth gap.
  • The planetary spindles after the 6 and 8th are referred to as transport spindles, because they have a greater transport effect in contrast to the Noppenspindel. However, it also shows that the work done by the transport spindles is surprisingly low. Accordingly, the energy input into the EPDM is low. This facilitates compliance with the temperature required for the EPDM temperature.
  • In the embodiments according to 1 . 1a and 5 it is an extruder with 70 mm housing diameter (based on the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth). The maximum number of planetary spindles for stocking the modules 3.2 . 3.2 . 3.3 and 4 is 7. There are 6 planetary spindles of the type after the 6 and 8th intended for the processing of EPDM in each module. In other embodiments, different planetary spindles are provided in the various modules. The differences may concern the number of "missing" teeth. The differences may also arise from the combination with spindles of other designs. The differences may also arise from the combination of different teeth on individual or all planetary spindles. At least one partially designed as a transport spindle planetary spindle is provided in the extrusion line.
  • 9 shows a planetary spindle with a normal toothing 80 at one end, then an area 81 with a knob toothing and an area 82 with a reduced toothing as described above.
  • 10 shows a planetary spindle with a normal toothing 85 at one end, then an area 86 with a knob toothing, then an area 87 with a reduced toothing and again a normal toothing at the other end of the spindle.
  • The length of the modules is 400 mm in the exemplary embodiments. In the exemplary embodiment, the planetary spindles have a shorter length, in some cases a different length.
  • To 11 and 12 is the collection 2 designed as a planetary roller extruder module. The planetary roller extruder module includes a housing 100 , which at each end with a flange 101 is provided. In addition, the housing has a socket 109 , which with an internal toothing 110 is provided. Outside are the bushing cooling / heating channels 108 incorporated. In the assembled state are the heating / cooling channels 108 outside closed by the housing. At the ends of the heating / cooling channels 108 supply lines / leads are provided for a tempering agent. In 12 is from the two leads / leads a connection 103 shown.
  • In the middle of the case 100 is a central spindle 107 arranged. The drive side is the central spindle 107 as a splined shaft 105 designed to correspond with a geared motor.
  • Between the internal teeth 110 and the central spindle 107 are planetary spindles 106 intended. The planetary spindles 106 mesh with the teeth of the central spindle 107 and the internal teeth 110 , In the drawing, the planetary spindles 106 a normal / standard toothing such as the central spindle and the socket 109 , Other than illustrated, these are transport spindles.
  • Moreover, it is on top of the case 100 a flange 102 with an inlet opening 104 intended for the intended for extrusion feedstock. At the flange 102 an inlet funnel is attached. In the exemplary embodiment, no additional temperature control of the flange is provided. In other embodiments, an unillustrated additional temperature control of the flange and, if necessary. The inlet funnel is provided to temper a material which tends to stick or caking, so that the tendency for gluing or baking is minimized.
  • 13 shows the feeder with an open coat 100 so that the view of the transport spindles 106 free is.
  • In operation, the extrusion material from the inlet funnel, not shown, runs without pressure into the inlet opening 104 of the coat 100 one. Pressurized means that over the weight of the above the inlet opening 104 standing pressure column in the direction of the inlet opening on the material is applied. The extrusion material enters between the transport spindles 106 and is detected by the transport spindles and extremely gently mixed and promoted in the direction of other planetary roller extruder sections / modules to be further processed there.
  • 14 and 15 show a further embodiment. The further embodiment differs from the embodiment according to the 11 to 13 through another housing shell 119 , The housing jacket 119 also has an inlet opening 120 for feedstock. In addition, the housing shell 119 with an internal toothing 121 provided, which like the internal toothing after 11 to 13 is suitable with the planetary spindles 106 to work together. In contrast to the housing internal teeth after 11 to 13 the toothing is the internal toothing 121 but in which is the inlet opening 120 subsequent and extending in the direction of rotation of the central spindle area 122 flattened. The direction of rotation of the central spindle follows in the illustration 14 clockwise. At the end adjacent the inlet opening, the teeth are reduced by ¾ of their height due to the flattening. This flattening 133 decreases in the embodiment in the direction of rotation of the central spindle. In this case, the flattening extends 133 in the exemplary embodiment about 1/10 of the circumference of belonging to the housing internal teeth pitch circle. In other embodiments, the region may extend over at least ¼ of the circumference of the pitch circle, or at least ½ of the circumference of the pitch circle, or at least ¾ of the circumference of the pitch circle. Here is the extent of the range 122 determined from the point where the area 122 in the illustration 14 with a section through the center of the circular cross-section inlet opening adjoins the inlet opening.
  • The extension direction of the area 122 follows in the illustration 14 alone in the circumferential direction. In other embodiments, the in 14 shown extending direction also in the circumferential direction and at the same time inclined to the longitudinal direction of the housing.
  • 15 shows that the flattening 133 extends in the embodiment over the entire opening width of the inlet opening. In other embodiments, the flattening extends 133 over at most 90% of the opening width of the inlet opening, in still further embodiments over at most 80% of the opening width of the inlet opening and still other embodiments over more than 70% of the opening width of the inlet opening. The flattening 133 can be in need in the in 15 in further embodiments also extend beyond the opening width of the inlet opening, for example by at most another 10% of the opening width or by at most another 20% of the opening width or by at most 30% of the opening width.
  • In the 14 and 15 Flattening shown forms a feed hopper, which facilitates the collection of the feedstock in the extrusion plant.
  • 16 shows an original tooth 136 between tooth gaps 135 , The illustration includes a section of a housing internal toothing. Spark erosion is a tooth shown in dash-dotted lines 137 shown with lesser height, round head and tooth flanks, the pitch diameter of the housing internal teeth have a lower slope than the tooth flanks of the original tooth 136 ,
  • 17 shows a cross section through a planetary roller extruder section with a solids feed 202 , The cross section shows a housing 201 with an internal toothing 205 , In the case 201 run a central spindle 204 and planetary spindles 203 around. The solids feed 202 has a hopper, not shown, with a cylindrical outlet, which is connected to the housing 201 is flanged. The funnel with the cylindrical spout is in relation to the center of the central spindle 204 arranged eccentrically. That is, the central axis 208 the feeder 202 runs at a distance past the central axis of the central spindle. The distance between the two axes is slightly larger than a quarter of the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth in the embodiment 205 but much smaller than half the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth 205 , As a result, the central axis points 208 in an area of the trajectory of the planetary spindles 203 in which the planetary spindles 203 after reaching the maximum position in the view 17 move significantly downwards. On the way, the material is drawn much better into the planetary roller extruder module than in the conventional arrangement of the material feed over the planetary roller extruder module, wherein the center axis of the feed is perpendicular to the central axis of the planetary roller extruder module. The material is in the view after 17 schematic with particles 206 shown.
  • Due to the dimensions of the feeder 202 is the supply in the inventive eccentric arrangement of the feed 202 in the vertical projection on a horizontal plane in which the central axis of the planetary roller extruder module is located, in front of the planetary roller extruder module. Nevertheless, the solid particles 206 To steer well into the planetary roller extruder module is a tapered transition 207 provided by the material supply in the planetary roller extruder module. In the embodiment, the transition forms a slope. The slope runs at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal.
  • 18 shows a planetary roller extruder, which consists of a planetary roller extruder module 220 and a filling part 221 consists. To the planetary roller extruder module 220 belong planetary spindles 226 and a material feeder as in 17 shown. To the filling part 221 belong to a feeder screw 227 and a material feeder 228 , The material feed 228 is used to supply non-adhesive material, the material supply 225 the supply of material that tends to stick / stick.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
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Claims (31)

  1. Extruder, wherein the feed material is drawn into the extruder via a filling part, wherein the material feeder is formed by a planetary roller extruder section consisting of a rotating in a housing central spindle and planetary spindles, wherein the housing is internally toothed or has an internally toothed socket and the central spindle surrounds the distance and the planetary spindles in the space between the central spindle and the housing to rotate around the central spindle and thereby mesh with both the central spindle and with the housing internal teeth, characterized by a material supply, which is arranged eccentrically with respect to the central axis of the planetary roller extruder, so that the central axis of the material supply extends at a distance from the central axis of the planetary roller extruder on this central axis.
  2. Extruder according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance is at least equal to a quarter of the pitch circle diameter of the internal toothing of the extruder housing or an internally toothed sleeve of the housing.
  3. Extruder according to claim 2, characterized by a distance which is at least equal to half the pitch circle diameter of the internal toothing of the extruder housing or an internally toothed sleeve of the housing.
  4. Extruder according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the distance is greater than half the diameter of the root circle of the central spindle toothing and smaller than half the root circle of the internal toothing of the extruder housing or an internally toothed sleeve of the housing.
  5. Extruder according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the material supply at the transition to the planetary roller extruder housing has a chamfer, as far as the material supply projects with respect to the extruder housing.
  6. Extruder according to claim 5, characterized in that the slope lies approximately on a tangent to the pitch circle diameter of the internal toothing of the housing or an internally toothed sleeve of the housing, wherein the dimension "approximately" includes a maximum deviation from the tangent which is equal to Diameter of the planetary spindles, preferably equal to half the diameter of the planetary spindles and most preferably equal to a quarter diameter of the planetary spindles, wherein the slope with the horizontal through the extruder center an angle of at least 30 degrees, preferably an angle of at least 45 degrees and most preferably of at least 60 degrees
  7. Extruder according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the planetary spindles are at least partially formed as transport spindles in the inlet region of the material from the material supply at least for unpressurized material feed and / or that the housing internal teeth flattened to form an inlet funnel in the toothing at least in the area is, which adjoins the inlet opening of the housing shell and extends in the direction of rotation of the central spindle.
  8. Extruder according to claim 7, characterized in that the inlet portion is the annular surface on the housing shell in which the opening for the material inlet lies plus / minus an annular surface width deviation of 50%, preferably plus / minus 30% and still more preferably plus / minus 10% of a ring surface width deviation.
  9. Extruder according to claim 7 or 8, marked by a) the use of planetary spindles on which at least one tooth, but not all teeth have subsequently been wholly or partially worked out and / or b) the toothing has been produced according to a fixed tooth contour on planetary spindles, wherein the tooth contour is equal to a toothing with subsequently wholly or partially worked out teeth.
  10. Extruder according to claim 9, characterized by the use of planetary spindles with at most 4 remaining teeth, preferably at most 3 remaining teeth, more preferably at most 2 remaining teeth and most preferably a remaining tooth on the circumference of the planetary spindles.
  11. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 10, characterized by the use of planetary spindles, the either in the area of the reduced tooth stock have an even number of teeth, while the teeth on the corresponding planetary roller part has an odd number of teeth or in the region of the reduced tooth stock have an odd number of teeth, while the teeth on the corresponding planetary roller part has an even number of teeth.
  12. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 11, characterized in that the planetary spindles are provided outside the inlet region with a different toothing.
  13. Extruder according to claim 12, characterized in that the other toothing is a normal toothing and / or a hedgehog toothing and / or a knob toothing.
  14. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 13, characterized by the use of one-piece or multi-part planetary spindles and / or central spindles and / or Gehäuseverzahnungen.
  15. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 14, characterized in that the proportion of planetary spindles with transport spindle toothing amounts to at least 50%, preferably at least 70% and even more preferably at least 70% at the planetary spindle stock of the planetary roller extruder section forming the intake.
  16. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 15, characterized in that the planetary spindles with transport spindle toothing are evenly distributed in the planetary spindle stocking.
  17. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 16, characterized in that the number of teeth in the Planetspindelbesatz is selected so that within 10 revolutions, preferably at least within 7 revolutions and more preferably at least within 4 revolutions and most preferably with each revolution the planetary spindles around the central spindle a planetary spindle tooth engages in each tooth gap of the central spindle toothing and in each tooth gap of the internal toothing of the housing.
  18. Extruder according to claim 7, characterized in that the teeth of the housing internal teeth are flattened in the funnel-forming region to a maximum of the tooth base, preferably flattened by a maximum of 90% of the original tooth height, even more preferably has been flattened by a maximum of 80% of the original tooth height ,
  19. Extruder according to claim 18, characterized in that the flattening decreases with increasing distance from the inlet opening.
  20. Extruder according to one of claims 7, 18, 19, characterized in that the flattening is at least over 1/10, preferably over at least 1/5, more preferably over at least ½ and most preferably over at least ¾ of the circumference of the pitch circle of the housing internal teeth extends.
  21. Extruder according to one of claims 7 and 18 to 20, characterized in that the area of the housing internal teeth flattening has a width which is at most equal to 70% of the opening width of the inlet opening, preferably at most equal to 80% of the opening width, even more preferably at most equal to 90%. the opening width and most preferably at most equal to the opening width of the inlet opening.
  22. Extruder according to one of claims 18 to 21, characterized in that the flattened teeth are provided with tooth flanks whose inclination is smaller than the tooth flanks of the teeth in the non-flattened region and / or the flattened teeth are provided with a round at the top.
  23. Extruder according to one of claims 7 and 18 to 22, characterized in that the region of the housing internal teeth flattening has a width which is at most 30% greater than the opening width of the inlet opening, more preferably at most 20% greater than the opening width of the inlet opening and highest preferably at most 10% greater than opening width of the inlet opening.
  24. Extruder according to one of claims 7 and 18 to 23, characterized in that the flattened teeth with respect to the original teeth have tooth flanks which have a lower inclination to the pitch circle of the housing internal teeth and open into a rounded tooth tip.
  25. Extruder according to claim 7 or 24, characterized in that at least the edge of the inlet opening at the transition to the housing internal teeth has a rounding, wherein preferably the radius of the rounding is at least equal to ¼ of the tooth height, more preferably at least equal to ½ of the tooth height.
  26. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 25, characterized in that the planetary roller extruder section designed as a filling part is provided in a manner known per se with a temperature control, that the tempering at least already starts at the inlet opening.
  27. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 26, characterized by a length of less than or equal to 2 D formed as a planetary roller extruder section filling part, wherein the dimension refers to the distance of the end pointing in the conveying direction of the inlet and wherein D is the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth.
  28. Extruder according to claim 27, characterized by a length greater than 2 D of the formed as a planetary roller extruder section filling part, wherein the dimension refers to the distance of the conveying direction facing end of the inlet and wherein D is the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth, and characterized in that the Tempering at least two There are sections, of which the inlet-side portion has a length of less than or equal to 0.5 D, Temperierungsabschnittsendes from the inlet and wherein D is the pitch circle diameter of the housing inner teeth.
  29. Extruder according to one of claims 7 to 28, characterized in that the central axis of the inlet opening intersects the pitch circle diameter of the housing internal teeth as a secant or tangent to the pitch circle of the housing internal teeth or at a distance from the pitch circle of the housing internal teeth, wherein the distance at most equal to the thickness of the housing shell is.
  30. Extruder according to one of claims 1 to 29, characterized by a module constructed extruder with a filling part with the design of a single screw, wherein the filling part has a material supply, and one or more downstream planetary roller extruder modules, wherein on a planetary roller extruder module, a further material supply is provided.
  31. Extruder according to claim 30, characterized in that the further material supply is provided on the planetary roller extruder module for material which tends to stick or caking.
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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2019101938A1 (en) * 2017-11-24 2019-05-31 Tesa Se Producing a pressure-sensitive adhesive mass on the basis of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber
WO2019166125A1 (en) * 2018-02-28 2019-09-06 Entex Rust & Mitschke Gmbh Method for producing and processing polymers and polymer mixtures in a modular planetary roller extruder

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