DE102015222983A1 - Energy storage system - Google Patents

Energy storage system Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102015222983A1
DE102015222983A1 DE102015222983.1A DE102015222983A DE102015222983A1 DE 102015222983 A1 DE102015222983 A1 DE 102015222983A1 DE 102015222983 A DE102015222983 A DE 102015222983A DE 102015222983 A1 DE102015222983 A1 DE 102015222983A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
gas
hydraulic
pneumatic
storage
piston
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DE102015222983.1A
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German (de)
Inventor
Dirk Vahle
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Robert Bosch GmbH
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Robert Bosch GmbH
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Priority to DE102015222983.1A priority Critical patent/DE102015222983A1/en
Publication of DE102015222983A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015222983A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B11/00Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action; Circuits therefor
    • F15B11/06Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action; Circuits therefor involving features specific to the use of a compressible medium, e.g. air, steam
    • F15B11/072Combined pneumatic-hydraulic systems
    • F15B11/0725Combined pneumatic-hydraulic systems with the driving energy being derived from a pneumatic system, a subsequent hydraulic system displacing or controlling the output element
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B21/00Common features of fluid actuator systems; Fluid-pressure actuator systems or details thereof, not covered by any other group of this subclass
    • F15B21/14Energy-recuperation means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B3/00Intensifiers or fluid-pressure converters, e.g. pressure exchangers; Conveying pressure from one fluid system to another, without contact between the fluids
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J15/00Systems for storing electric energy
    • H02J15/003Systems for storing electric energy in the form of hydraulic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J15/00Systems for storing electric energy
    • H02J15/006Systems for storing electric energy in the form of pneumatic energy, e.g. compressed air energy storage [CAES]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/20Fluid pressure source, e.g. accumulator or variable axial piston pump
    • F15B2211/205Systems with pumps
    • F15B2211/2053Type of pump
    • F15B2211/20569Type of pump capable of working as pump and motor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/20Fluid pressure source, e.g. accumulator or variable axial piston pump
    • F15B2211/21Systems with pressure sources other than pumps, e.g. with a pyrotechnical charge
    • F15B2211/216Systems with pressure sources other than pumps, e.g. with a pyrotechnical charge the pressure sources being pneumatic-to-hydraulic converters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/30Directional control
    • F15B2211/305Directional control characterised by the type of valves
    • F15B2211/30505Non-return valves, i.e. check valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/30Directional control
    • F15B2211/305Directional control characterised by the type of valves
    • F15B2211/3056Assemblies of multiple valves
    • F15B2211/30565Assemblies of multiple valves having multiple valves for a single output member, e.g. for creating higher valve function by use of multiple valves like two 2/2-valves replacing a 5/3-valve
    • F15B2211/30575Assemblies of multiple valves having multiple valves for a single output member, e.g. for creating higher valve function by use of multiple valves like two 2/2-valves replacing a 5/3-valve in a Wheatstone Bridge arrangement (also half bridges)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/30Directional control
    • F15B2211/305Directional control characterised by the type of valves
    • F15B2211/3056Assemblies of multiple valves
    • F15B2211/30565Assemblies of multiple valves having multiple valves for a single output member, e.g. for creating higher valve function by use of multiple valves like two 2/2-valves replacing a 5/3-valve
    • F15B2211/3058Assemblies of multiple valves having multiple valves for a single output member, e.g. for creating higher valve function by use of multiple valves like two 2/2-valves replacing a 5/3-valve having additional valves for interconnecting the fluid chambers of a double-acting actuator, e.g. for regeneration mode or for floating mode
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/30Directional control
    • F15B2211/31Directional control characterised by the positions of the valve element
    • F15B2211/3105Neutral or centre positions
    • F15B2211/3111Neutral or centre positions the pump port being closed in the centre position, e.g. so-called closed centre
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/30Directional control
    • F15B2211/32Directional control characterised by the type of actuation
    • F15B2211/327Directional control characterised by the type of actuation electrically or electronically
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/40Flow control
    • F15B2211/405Flow control characterised by the type of flow control means or valve
    • F15B2211/40515Flow control characterised by the type of flow control means or valve with variable throttles or orifices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/40Flow control
    • F15B2211/42Flow control characterised by the type of actuation
    • F15B2211/426Flow control characterised by the type of actuation electrically or electronically
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/60Circuit components or control therefor
    • F15B2211/62Cooling or heating means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/70Output members, e.g. hydraulic motors or cylinders or control therefor
    • F15B2211/705Output members, e.g. hydraulic motors or cylinders or control therefor characterised by the type of output members or actuators
    • F15B2211/7058Rotary output members
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B2211/00Circuits for servomotor systems
    • F15B2211/80Other types of control related to particular problems or conditions
    • F15B2211/88Control measures for saving energy

Abstract

The invention relates to an energy storage system (1) for temporarily storing electrical energy with an electric machine (4), which is drivingly connected to a hydraulic machine (5), and with a pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement (10), with the interposition of valve devices between the hydraulic machine (5) and a gas storage device (8) is arranged. In order to optimize the storage of electrical energy with an electric machine, the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement (10) comprises at least one gas piston pump (12) which has two pneumatic ports (33, 34) and two hydraulic ports (23, 24), with interposition a hydraulic valve device (26) with the hydraulic machine (5) can be connected or connected.

Description

  • The invention relates to an energy storage system for temporarily storing electrical energy with an electric machine drivingly connected to a hydraulic machine, and a pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement arranged with the interposition of valve means between the hydraulic machine and a gas storage device. The invention further relates to a method for operating such an energy storage system. The invention also relates to a system for buffering electrical energy with such an energy storage system.
  • State of the art
  • From the German patent application DE 10 2013 105 186 A1 is a compressed air energy storage system with a compressed air reservoir, a compressor arrangement for supplying compressed air to the compressed air reservoir, and with a pneumatic-hydraulic device having at least one pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement for generating a hydraulic pressure which can be fed to a hydraulic machine for driving a load wherein the at least one pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement comprises at least two cylinders, each with a pneumatic chamber for relaxing compressed air, wherein the pneumatic chambers are connected in series with an outlet of the compressed-air reservoir. From the US patent US 7,832,207 B2 For example, there are known a method and system for storing and recovering energy using hydraulic-pneumatic open air accumulators together with amplifier assemblies in which at least one accumulator and at least one amplifier communicate with a high pressure gas reservoir, a fluidic machine coupled on a fluid side with an electric machine.
  • Disclosure of the invention
  • The object of the invention is the storage of electrical energy with an electric machine, which is drivingly connected to a hydraulic machine, and with a pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement, which is arranged with the interposition of valve means between the hydraulic machine and a gas storage device, in particular In terms of space requirements, efficiency and / or in terms of thermodynamic losses to optimize.
  • The object is achieved in an energy storage system for temporarily storing electrical energy with an electric machine, which is drivingly connected to a hydraulic machine, and with a pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement, which is arranged with the interposition of valve means between the hydraulic machine and a gas storage device, thereby achieved in that the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement comprises at least one gas-piston pump which has two pneumatic connections and two hydraulic connections which can be connected or connected to the hydraulic machine with the interposition of a hydraulic valve device. The electric machine can be operated as an electric motor or as a generator. The hydraulic machine can be operated as a hydraulic pump or as a hydraulic motor. With the help of the at least one gas piston pump can be provided in a simple manner, a very efficient compressed air storage system for electrical energy. With the energy storage system can be stored in the gas storage device by compressing gas, in particular ambient air, pneumatic energy in the order of one hundred to seven hundred. For energy generation, the stored pneumatic energy, in particular the stored air or compressed air, relaxed in the environment and drives the hydraulic machine operated as a hydraulic motor and connected thereto as a generator operating electric machine. The generator returns the generated electrical energy to a consumer. The at least one gas piston pump is an air compressor, which is driven by hydraulic pressure, in particular hydraulic oil pressure, which in turn is provided by the working as a hydraulic pump hydraulic machine. While the gas, in particular the air, is compressed and conveyed into the gas storage device on one side of the gas piston pump, gas, in particular air, is drawn in from the environment on the other, in particular opposite or opposite, side of the gas piston pump. By a suitable reversal of valve devices, which are assigned to the pneumatic connections or the hydraulic connections, conveying and suction areas of the gas piston pump can be operated alternately from one side to the other of the gas piston pump. To recover the stored pneumatic energy, the pressurized gas, in particular the pressurized air, is discharged from the gas storage device via the gas piston pump. In a compression of the hydraulic medium, in particular a hydraulic fluid in a double piston of the gas piston pump can then be driven in a simple manner operating as a hydraulic motor hydraulic machine. By coupling with the electric machine, the stored pneumatic energy over the as Electric generator working electrical machine in the form of electrical energy can be given back to the consumer. The control or reversing takes place by means of suitable hydraulic and pneumatic switching valves.
  • A preferred embodiment of the energy storage system is characterized in that the gas piston pump comprises two separated by a separating inner hydraulic cylinder chambers, which are separated by two pistons of outer pneumatic cylinder spaces, which are connected or connected with the interposition of pneumatic valve devices with the gas storage device or an environment. This allows a simple forced return of the piston of the gas piston pump in a simple manner. The energy storage system with the hydraulic machine and the gas piston pump is hydraulically sealed in itself. The arrangement of the hydraulic cylinder chambers and the pneumatic cylinder chambers in combination with the two pistons and the separating element in the gas piston pump enables a simple system structure. In addition, a particularly compact design with relatively few control valves is possible. By targeted control of the control valves unwanted energy losses in the thermodynamic gas process can be kept low.
  • A further preferred exemplary embodiment of the energy storage system is characterized in that the two pistons are coupled to one another by a piston rod which extends through the separating element such that a forced return of the pistons results during operation of the gas piston pump. The separating element is designed, for example, as a partition in a cylinder in which the pistons coupled to one another by the piston rod are guided to and fro. The pistons define with mutually facing piston surfaces the hydraulic cylinder spaces, which are separated by the separating element. With their piston surfaces facing away from each other, the pistons limit the pneumatic cylinder chambers. The cylinder of the gas piston pump has, for example, substantially the shape of a straight, closed hollow cylinder.
  • A further preferred embodiment of the energy storage system is characterized in that throttle check valves are connected between the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement and the pneumatic valve devices associated with the environment. The throttle check valves are advantageously used to further reduce the unwanted energy losses in the storage process. The throttle check valves can be carried out regulated or unregulated. By using the throttle check valves can be particularly advantageous to dispense with a mutual control of the pneumatic valve devices. The throttle check valves provide the advantage that the pneumatic valve devices can remain open during a relaxation process.
  • A further preferred embodiment of the energy storage system is characterized in that the gas storage device comprises a gas storage, which is surrounded by a temperature storage system. The gas storage, in particular air storage, is advantageously located in a temperature storage system of a liquid or solid material. The temperature storage system is advantageously used to buffer compression heat. The temperature storage system returns the stored heat controlled demand or uncontrolled back to the gas storage, in particular air storage, back to heat the stored gas, in particular the stored air before their relaxation. As a result, the energy losses during operation of the energy storage system can be further reduced.
  • A further preferred embodiment of the energy storage system is characterized in that the gas storage device is associated with at least one heat exchanger. By the at least one heat exchanger, the unwanted energy losses during operation of the energy storage system can be further reduced. The at least one heat exchanger is installed in or on the gas storage device, for example. In a compression process, the at least one heat exchanger advantageously takes over the resulting heat of compression and transports it, for example, to another heat exchanger in the environment. There, a transport medium of the heat exchanger cools and is guided back to the gas storage device. In the relaxation process of the gas storage device, heat is then advantageously transported from the environment in the direction of the gas storage device. As a result, the relaxing gas, in particular the relaxing air, can be heated in a simple manner. The process described above can be advantageously supported by an active fan on the heat exchanger environment.
  • In a method for operating a previously described energy storage system, the above-mentioned object is alternatively or additionally achieved by compressing gas, in particular air, in one of the pneumatic cylinder chambers of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement, while in the other pneumatic cylinder space of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement, especially air, is sucked from the environment. The compressed gas is conveyed into the gas storage device. Due to the intermediate storage, the unwanted energy losses during operation of the energy storage system can be advantageously reduced.
  • A preferred embodiment of the method is characterized in that the pneumatic cylinder chambers associated with the pneumatic cylinder chambers of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement are mutually switched on / off so that gas is slowly released from the gas storage device. This prevents the gas, especially the air, from cooling too much during the expansion process. As a result, the undesirable energy losses during operation of the energy storage system can be further reduced.
  • In a system for temporary storage of electrical energy with an energy storage system described above, the above object is alternatively or additionally achieved in that the system comprises at least two gas piston pump and gas storage gas cylinders in a system cabinet, in which accommodated also the electric machine and the hydraulic machine are. The gas cylinders are particularly advantageous for conventional gas cylinders. The electric machine and the hydraulic machine are advantageously housed in a lower portion of the plant cabinet.
  • The invention further relates to a gas piston pump, a hydraulic machine and / or an electric machine for a previously described energy storage system, in particular for a previously described system for temporary storage of electrical energy.
  • Further advantages, features and details of the invention will become apparent from the following description in which, with reference to the drawings, various embodiments are described in detail.
  • Short description of the drawing
  • Show it:
  • 1 a representation of the energy storage system with a gas piston pump and a gas storage device in the form of a hydraulic circuit diagram;
  • 2 a pV diagram to the energy storage system 1 ;
  • 3 a section from 1 with an additional throttle control;
  • 4 a pV diagram to the energy storage system 3 ;
  • 5 a section of the energy storage system 1 a temperature storage system associated with the gas storage device;
  • 6 a pV diagram to the energy storage system 5 ;
  • 7 a Ausschni8tt the energy storage system 1 with an additional heat exchanger associated with the gas storage device;
  • 8th a pV diagram to the energy storage system 7 ;
  • 9 a system cabinet with an energy storage system, as in 1 is shown, and
  • 10 a view into the plant cabinet 9 to illustrate an arrangement of gas cylinders and gas piston pumps.
  • Description of the embodiments
  • In 1 is an energy storage system 1 with an electric machine 4 and a hydraulic machine 5 represented in the form of a hydraulic circuit diagram. By a plus symbol and a minus symbol is in 1 indicated that the electric machine 4 is connected to an electrical supply device. The electric machine 4 can be operated both as an electric motor and as a generator.
  • The hydraulic machine 5 is driving with the electric machine 4 connected and can be operated as a hydraulic motor or as a hydraulic pump, as symbolically by arrowheads in 1 is indicated. When the electric machine 4 works as an electric motor, then working as a hydraulic pump hydraulic machine 5 with the electric machine 4 are driven. When the hydraulic machine 5 works as a hydraulic motor, then it can with her working as a generator electric machine 4 are driven.
  • The energy storage system 1 further comprises a gas storage device 8th , with which gas, in particular air, can be stored under pressure. A pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement 10 is between the hydraulic machine 5 and the gas storage device 8th connected.
  • The pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement 10 includes a gas piston pump 12 with a cylinder 14 , In the cylinder 14 the gas piston pump 12 are two pistons 15 . 16 movable back and forth, that is in 1 movable up and down, arranged. The two pistons 15 . 16 are by a piston rod 18 coupled together, that is in the case of the gas piston pump 12 rigidly connected.
  • The piston rod 18 is through a separator 19 passed through. Through the separator 19 is the cylinder 14 divided into two halves inside. Through the separator 19 is a first inner hydraulic cylinder space 21 from a second inner hydraulic cylinder space 22 separated. The first inner hydraulic cylinder space 21 is in 1 up from the piston 15 limited. The second inner hydraulic cylinder space 22 is in 1 down from the piston 16 limited.
  • The first inner hydraulic cylinder space 21 the glass piston pump 12 is via a hydraulic connection 23 to a hydraulic valve device 26 connected. The second inner hydraulic cylinder space 22 is via a hydraulic connection 24 to the hydraulic valve device 26 connected.
  • The hydraulic valve device 26 is designed as a 4/3-way valve with four connections and three switching positions. By symbolically indicated springs is the hydraulic valve device 26 biased into their illustrated middle position. The hydraulic valve device 26 is electromagnetically actuated.
  • To the in 1 right side of the hydraulic valve device 26 are the two hydraulic connections 23 . 24 the gas piston pump 12 connected. To the in 1 left side of the hydraulic valve device 26 are the hydraulic machine 5 and a hydraulic medium reservoir 28 connected.
  • The gas piston pump 12 includes in the cylinder 14 a first outer pneumatic cylinder space 31 and a second outer pneumatic cylinder space 32 , The first outer pneumatic cylinder space 31 is from the the separator 19 facing away from the piston surface of the piston 15 limited. The second outer pneumatic cylinder space 32 is from the the separator 19 facing away from the piston surface of the piston 16 limited.
  • The first pneumatic cylinder room 31 is a pneumatic connection 33 assigned. The second pneumatic cylinder space 32 is a pneumatic connection 34 assigned. The pneumatic connection 33 stands with a pneumatic branch 35 in connection. The pneumatic connection 34 stands with a pneumatic branch 36 in connection.
  • To the pneumatic branch 35 are two pneumatic valve devices 41 . 42 connected. To the pneumatic branch 36 are two pneumatic valve devices 43 . 44 connected. The pneumatic valve devices 41 to 44 are designed as 2/2-way valves with a check valve position and an opening valve position. By symbolically indicated springs are the pneumatic valve devices 41 to 44 all biased into their check valve position.
  • The pneumatic valve devices 41 and 43 are between each associated pneumatic branch 35 . 36 and an environment of the gas piston pump 12 connected. In the check valve position of the pneumatic valve devices 41 and 43 is a connection to the environment interrupted.
  • The pneumatic valve devices 42 . 44 are between each associated branch 35 . 36 and a pneumatic branch 48 connected. The gas storage facility 8th is at the pneumatic branch 48 connected. In the illustrated check valve position of the pneumatic valve devices 42 . 44 is an escape of gas from the gas storage facility 8th interrupted or prevented.
  • In 2 is a pV diagram to the energy storage system 1 out 1 shown. On an x-axis, a compression volume V is plotted in a suitable volume unit. With V s a start volume is designated. V E denotes a final volume. With p S / E , a starting pressure and a final pressure are indicated, which are the same and the start volume V s and the final volume V E are assigned. With p S is called a memory pressure. With p V a compression pressure is designated.
  • Through a dashed curved arrow 51 is a relaxation process indicated. Through a dashed curved arrow 52 is a compression process indicated. Through a bend 53 is an isothermal compression process indicated. Due to an increase in temperature during compression and cooling after compression during the expansion, energy losses result 54 in the real storage process. The memory losses result from the difference between p V minus p S and from the difference V S minus V e .
  • At the in 1 illustrated energy storage system 1 takes place by a mutual switching on and off of the pneumatic valve devices 41 to 44 a slow release of air from the gas storage 8th , which is also referred to as air storage. The slow relaxation prevents the air in the relaxation process from cooling too much and the associated Energy loss the efficiency of the energy storage system 1 undesirably reduced.
  • In the compression process is due to a slow hydraulic pressure build-up in the corresponding hydraulic cylinder space 21 . 22 the gas piston pump 12 prevents the temperature in the air reservoir 8th increases too much.
  • To get a highly efficient thermodynamic gas process is in the design of the energy storage system 1 Make sure that the pneumatic components of the energy storage system 1 Allow a quick temperature compensation in the environment. This can be the gas piston pump 12 , the associated piping, the pneumatic equipment 41 to 44 and the gas storage device 8th equipped with special construction elements, such as cooling fins, to increase the surface area.
  • In 3 is a section of 1 with the gas piston pump 12 and the gas storage device 8th and the pneumatic valve devices 41 to 44 illustrated according to another embodiment of the energy storage system. In 3 is between the branches 35 . 36 and the pneumatic valve devices 41 . 43 in each case a throttle check valve device 61 . 62 connected.
  • The throttle check valves 61 . 62 are regulated in their illustrated embodiment, but can also be carried out unregulated. With the throttle check valves 61 . 62 is a mutual control of the pneumatic valve devices 41 . 43 not necessary anymore. Both pneumatic valve devices 41 . 43 can stay open during the relaxation process. Depending on the set throttling, the relaxation process is automatically slowed down.
  • In 4 the corresponding pV diagram is shown. By an arrow 65 is indicated that the point V E is moved further in the thermodynamic gas process by the previously described slowing down of the relaxation process in the direction of V s . As a result, the energy loss in the storage process can be further reduced.
  • In 5 is the same section 1 as in 3 illustrated according to another embodiment. In 5 is the gas storage facility 8th to further reduce the storage energy losses a temperature storage system 74 assigned. The temperature storage system 74 is formed for example of liquid or solid materials and surrounds a gas storage 70 the gas storage facility 8th ,
  • The temperature storage system 74 has the task of buffering heat of compression. If necessary, the stored heat can be controlled or uncontrolled back into the gas storage 70 to be returned to the gas store 70 to heat stored air before it relaxes.
  • In 6 is through a bend 53 an isothermal compression process indicated. In the thermodynamic gas process results from the temperature entry using the temperature storage system 74 after compression, a maintenance of the pressure in the gas storage or air storage 70 (p V = p S ). The intermediate storage results in a further reduction of the storage energy loss 76 , By an arrow 78 a further shift from V E to V S is indicated.
  • In 7 is the same section of the energy storage system 1 out 1 like in the 3 and 5 illustrated according to another embodiment. In 7 is a heat exchanger 82 in the gas storage facility 8th arranged. The heat exchanger 82 in the gas storage facility 8th is with a heat exchanger 81 connected in the area.
  • The heat exchanger 81 there is a fan in the area 84 assigned. The heat exchanger 82 takes over compression heat generated in the compression process and transports it to the heat exchanger 81 in the neighborhood. There, the transport medium cools down and is returned to the heat exchanger 82 in the gas storage facility 8th guided.
  • In the process of relaxing the gas storage device 8th Heat from the environment in the direction of the gas storage device 8th transported. This turns into the gas storage facility 8th heated relaxed air. Through the fan 84 this process is supported.
  • In 8th is through a bend 53 an isothermal compression process is shown. By arrows 88 . 89 is in 8th indicated that the characteristics of the compression and expansion process the isothermal compression process 86 be approximated. This results in a reduced storage energy loss 87 ,
  • In 9 is a plant 100 for the energy storage system 1 out 1 exemplified. The attachment 100 includes a plant cabinet 102 with feet 104 . 105 , For example, the plant has a height of almost two meters and a width of about sixty centimeters. At the top of the system cabinet 102 is an air connection pipe 108 intended.
  • In a lower area of the plant cabinet 102 are an electrical machine 114 and a hydraulic machine 115 arranged. Above the two machines 114 . 115 is a hydraulic medium reservoir 116 arranged. A gas storage facility 118 takes up much of an interior of the equipment cabinet 102 one. The gas storage facility 118 includes a total of six gas cylinders 121 to 126 , The gas bottles 121 to 126 are with two gas piston pumps 131 . 132 combined.
  • In 10 is a cross section of the plant cabinet 102 out 1 shown. In the cross-section one sees, like the altogether six gas bottles 121 to 126 together with the two gas piston pumps 131 . 132 particularly space-saving in the system cabinet 102 are arranged.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102013105186 A1 [0002]
    • US 7832207 B2 [0002]

Claims (10)

  1. Energy storage system ( 1 ) for temporarily storing electrical energy with an electric machine ( 4 ; 114 ) drivingly powered by a hydraulic machine ( 5 ; 115 ), and with a pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ), with the interposition of valve devices between the hydraulic machine ( 5 ; 115 ) and a gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ), characterized in that the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ) at least one gas piston pump ( 12 ; 131 . 132 ), the two pneumatic connections ( 33 . 34 ) and two hydraulic connections ( 23 . 24 ), which with the interposition of a hydraulic valve device ( 26 ) with the hydraulic machine ( 5 ; 115 ) are connectable or connected.
  2. Energy storage system according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas piston pump ( 12 ; 131 . 132 ) two by a separating element ( 19 ) separate inner hydraulic cylinder spaces ( 21 . 22 ) by two pistons ( 15 . 16 ) of outer pneumatic cylinder spaces ( 31 . 32 ), with the interposition of pneumatic valve devices ( 41 - 44 ) with the gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ) or an environment connectable or connected.
  3. Energy storage system according to claim 2, characterized in that the two pistons ( 15 . 16 ) by a piston rod ( 18 ) extending through the separating element ( 19 ), are coupled together so that in operation of the gas piston pump ( 12 ; 131 . 132 ) a forced return of the piston ( 15 . 16 ).
  4. Energy storage system according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that throttle check valves ( 61 . 62 ) between the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ) and the associated with the environment pneumatic valve devices ( 41 . 43 ) are switched.
  5. Energy storage system according to one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ) a gas storage ( 70 ) obtained from a temperature storage system ( 74 ) is surrounded.
  6. Energy storage system according to one of claims 2 to 5, characterized in that the gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ) at least one heat exchanger ( 81 . 82 ) assigned.
  7. Method for operating an energy storage system ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in one of the pneumatic cylinder chambers ( 31 . 32 ) of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ) Gas, in particular air, is compressed while in the other pneumatic cylinder space of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ) Gas, in particular air, is sucked from the environment.
  8. A method according to claim 7, characterized in that the pneumatic cylinder chambers ( 41 - 44 ) of the pneumatic-hydraulic piston-cylinder arrangement ( 10 ) associated pneumatic valve devices ( 41 - 44 ) are mutually switched on / off so that gas from the gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ) is slowly relaxed.
  9. Investment ( 100 ) for temporarily storing electrical energy with an energy storage system ( 1 ) according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the plant ( 100 ) at least two gas piston pumps ( 12 ; 131 . 132 ) and as a gas storage device ( 8th ; 118 ) Gas cylinders ( 121 - 126 ) in a plant cabinet ( 102 ), in which also the electrical machine ( 114 ) and the hydraulic machine ( 115 ) are housed.
  10. Gas piston pump ( 12 ; 131 . 132 ), hydraulic machine ( 5 ; 115 ) and / or electrical machine ( 4 ; 114 ) for an energy storage system ( 1 ) according to one of claims 1 to 6, in particular for a plant ( 100 ) for temporarily storing electrical energy according to claim 9.
DE102015222983.1A 2015-11-20 2015-11-20 Energy storage system Withdrawn DE102015222983A1 (en)

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DE102015222983.1A DE102015222983A1 (en) 2015-11-20 2015-11-20 Energy storage system
PCT/EP2016/072612 WO2017084792A1 (en) 2015-11-20 2016-09-22 Energy storage system

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