DE102015113921A1 - Material web and heating element - Google Patents

Material web and heating element Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102015113921A1
DE102015113921A1 DE102015113921.9A DE102015113921A DE102015113921A1 DE 102015113921 A1 DE102015113921 A1 DE 102015113921A1 DE 102015113921 A DE102015113921 A DE 102015113921A DE 102015113921 A1 DE102015113921 A1 DE 102015113921A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
heating
web
conductive layer
layer
electrodes
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102015113921.9A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Thomas Großpietsch
Rembert SCHULZE WEHNINCK
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
K L Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH
Kl Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH
Original Assignee
K L Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH
Kl Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by K L Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH, Kl Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH filed Critical K L Kaschier- und Laminier GmbH
Priority to DE102015113921.9A priority Critical patent/DE102015113921A1/en
Publication of DE102015113921A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015113921A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/20Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater
    • H05B3/34Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater flexible, e.g. heating nets or webs
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/20Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater
    • H05B3/22Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible
    • H05B3/26Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible heating conductor mounted on insulating base
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/017Manufacturing methods or apparatus for heaters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/026Heaters specially adapted for floor heating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/029Heaters specially adapted for seat warmers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/036Heaters specially adapted for garment heating

Abstract

The invention relates to a material web of a conductive layer and a cover layer with adhesive strip therebetween, a heating element, and a method for producing the heating element and a vehicle with the heating element. The object of the present invention is to provide a technology with which heating foils for seats and armrests in vehicles can be produced as simply as possible. The object underlying the invention is achieved in a first embodiment by a material web (10) comprising a plurality of material layers, which has at least one electrically conductive layer (14) and at least one cover layer (16), wherein between the at least one cover layer (16 ) and the at least one conductive layer (14) at least one separating strip (30) is arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the material web (10) and this separating strip (30) at least on the, the conductive layer (14) facing surface an anti-adhesion coating having.

Description

  • The invention relates to a material web comprising a conductive layer and at least one cover layer with an intermediate separating strip, a heating element, and a method for producing the heating element, especially for use in the motor vehicle.
  • Various technologies are already known, such as seat heaters or heaters for armrests can be realized. So far, it is difficult to make this highly automated.
  • WO 2012/104826 A1 and RU 2 403 686 C1 describe electrodes that are sewn with insulating material.
  • WO 98/09478 A1 describes electrodes sewn with multiple layers at once so that the conductive suture is placed on the surface.
  • Heating foils are for example off EP 2 000 005 B1 known.
  • Conductive layers are for example off DE 10 2005 026 031 A1 known.
  • The object of the present invention is to provide a technology with which heating foils for seats and armrests in vehicles can be produced as simply as possible.
  • The object underlying the invention is achieved in a first embodiment by a material web comprising a plurality of material layers, which have at least one electrically conductive layer and at least one cover layer, characterized in that between the at least one cover layer and the at least one conductive layer at least one Separating strip is arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the material web, said separating strip having an anti-adhesion coating at least on the surface facing the conductive layer.
  • As a result, the precursor can be produced for example as a seat heater or a heater for an armrest as a roll product.
  • Due to the separating strip, the material web can be easily opened after the material web has been severed in the region of the separating strip. In order for a subsequent exposure of the conductive layer and optionally with einlaminierten electrodes is possible to allow, for example, a subsequent contact.
  • "Perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the web" within the meaning of the invention also includes angles in a range of 80 ° to 100 °.
  • The object underlying the invention is achieved in a further embodiment by a heating element comprising the following components:
    • a) at least one electrically conductive layer,
    • b) at least one cover layer and
    • c) at least two electrodes.
  • Conductive layer
  • The conductive layer is preferably an electrically conductive polymer film and / or woven carbon fibers.
  • The conductive layer preferably comprises a carrier material, in particular a plastic or a binder and electrically conductive pigments distributed in the carrier material, characterized in that the electrically conductive pigments have a broad size distribution and / or different shapes.
  • Preferably, the carrier material comprises polyurethane, polyacrylate, polycarbonate or mixtures thereof.
  • Preferably, the electrically conductive pigments are finely dispersed within the carrier material.
  • Preferably, the electrically conductive pigments are carbon-based. The sheet resistance of the conductive layer is preferably in a range of 0.1 to 1 kΩ / m 2 . The resistivity of the conductive layer is preferably in a range of 3 to 300 Ω / □.
  • The basis weight of the conductive layer is preferably in a range of 80 to 200 g / m 2 . Above this range, the layer may be brittle. Below this range, it is often difficult to process.
  • The electrically conductive layer may comprise metallic and / or non-metallic conductive pigments.
  • It is preferred if the electrically conductive layer has predominantly non-metallic conductive pigments. This embodiment makes it possible to achieve a particularly flexible contacting system.
  • The electrically conductive layer may have a resistivity in a range of 0.01 to 10 Ω · cm. A specific resistance of 0.05 to 1 Ω · cm is preferred.
  • The carbon is preferably present within a polymer matrix. The material of the polymer matrix is preferably polyurethane.
  • Carrier and cover layer
  • The cover layer is preferably electrically insulating. Preferably, the cover layer is a layer of film, woven material or non-woven, very particularly preferably polyurethane films or needle felt. The material of the cover layer is preferably thermoplastic, more preferably selected from polyurethane, polyester, polypropylene and / or polyethylene. The cover layer preferably has a thickness in a range of 0.01 to 2 mm.
  • Preferably, a carrier layer is arranged in the material web and / or the heating element on the other side of the conductive layer. This carrier layer is preferably electrically insulating. The carrier layer is preferably a layer of film, woven material or non-woven, very particularly preferably needle-punched nonwoven. The material of the carrier layer is preferably thermoplastic, more preferably selected from polyurethane, polyester, polypropylene and / or polyethylene. The carrier layer preferably has a thickness in a range of 0.1 to 2 mm.
  • The cover layer and / or independently of the support layer have a basis weight in a range of 25 to 120 g / m 2 . Below this range, the fleece is no longer so easy to process. In addition, it may not take on the function of an electrical insulator. If the thickness is higher, it can happen that the material web can no longer be processed with a calender.
  • electrodes
  • The material web preferably has at least two electrodes between the cover layer and the conductive layer.
  • The electrodes may be, for example, metal wires, metal seats, braided metal seats, metal bands or electrode bands.
  • Preferably, the electrodes, in particular electrode bands or conductor strips, are sewn with contact cables and in particular with strands of contact cables. In contrast to previous technologies, a heating element could be produced in which the contact cables were connected to the electrodes in a particularly stable manner. Surprisingly, the contact cables could no longer be pulled out of the heating element with the usual effort of a person.
  • The electrodes comprise or are preferably electrode bands to which contact cables are very particularly preferably connected.
  • The electrode tapes are preferably a woven composite of one or more metal hoops, metal wires or braided metal hoops or braided metal wires and fibers or yarns or twines
  • The material web and / or the heating element preferably have at least two electrically conductive electrode bands. In the material web, the electrode bands are preferably arranged between the cover layer and the electrically conductive layer. The electrode bands preferably extend in the direction of the material web. The electrode bands preferably contain metal filaments. The metal of these metal filaments is preferably selected from copper, tin-plated copper, silver-plated copper, silver, gold or mixtures thereof. The electrode bands preferably have a width in a range of 0.3 to 5 cm. The electrode tapes preferably have a thickness in a range of 0.05 to 1 mm. The electrode bands preferably have a length which corresponds at least to the length of the material web and / or of the heating element.
  • The electrode bands particularly preferably have silver-plated copper strands woven into textile.
  • The distance between the electrodes or electrode bands to the edge of the material web and / or the heating element is preferably in a range of 0.1 to 20 cm. The distance between at least two electrodes or electrode bands is preferably in a range of 50 to 90% of the width of the material web and / or of the heating element. At least one electrode band is preferably connected to a contact cable. The contact cable preferably has strands. The strands are preferably connected to the at least one electrode band, most preferably sewn. Most preferably, the strands are arranged in the heating element according to the invention between the electrode tape and the cover layer and / or the adhesive strip. Preferably, the strands are sutured through the electrode band to the conductive layer. It has been found that this allows particularly low contact resistance and a particularly high strain relief can be realized.
  • The electrodes in the heating element according to the invention are preferably sewn to the strands only in a range of 1 to 20 cm 2 . Preferably, the electrodes or electrode tapes are sewn to the conductive layer in the region of the strands of the at least one contact cable. Preferably, the strands are disposed between the electrodes and the cover layer. The electrodes or electrode bands are preferably at a constant distance from each other. As a result, the heating power remains constant.
  • The metal of the strands is preferably selected from copper, tin-plated copper, silver-plated copper, silver, gold or mixtures thereof.
  • The suture is preferably metal or metallized polymer. Most preferably, the suture is silver-plated or copper-plated polyamide twisted yarn. The fiber weight of the suture is preferably in a range of 100 to 400 dtex. It has been found that, outside of this range, surprisingly, the electrical resistance of the contact between the contact cables or their strands and the electrodes became worse.
  • The seam pattern is preferably a zig-zag pattern with intermediate stitches.
  • The contact cables are preferably each insulated. The insulation is preferably removed at the end of the contact cable. Particularly preferably, the insulation is removed in a range of 0.5 to 5 cm. In the area in which the insulation of the contact cable is removed, the strands of the contact cable are so blank, for example. In order for a particularly good electrical contact to occur, the strands at the end of the contact cable are preferably distributed over the entire width of the electrode or of the electrode band.
  • The contact cable in the heating element according to the invention is preferably sewn to the electrode band and the conductive layer at the end of the electrode band. Particularly preferably, the insulation of the contact cable extends over a length in a range of 1 to 10 mm into the heating element. As a result, unwanted electrical contact outside the heating element can be avoided particularly well.
  • Preferably, the electrodes or electrode bands are connected on the same side of the heating element, each with a contact cable.
  • separating strips
  • The separating strip may preferably be a double-sided adhesive strip, this adhesive strip having an adhesive layer and a protective film on the side facing the conductive layer.
  • The surface with the release coating of the release strip may be a siliconized or a polytetrafluoroethylene coated surface.
  • The adhesive strip may be a double-sided adhesive strip having a protective film on the side facing the conductive layer. This protective film may be, for example, siliconized paper.
  • The protective film may, for example, be made of siliconized paper, PE film or PTFE film.
  • Preferably, the double-sided adhesive strip is glued to the inside of the cover layer; A protective film is preferably not removed, so that in the subsequent lamination of the complete band adhesion takes place with the conductive layer and / or the electrodes. The separating strip preferably has a protective film on only one of its two sides.
  • The separating strip preferably has a width in a range of 2 to 10 cm. The separating strip preferably has a thickness in a range of 10 to 500 μm. The separating strip preferably has a length of at least the width of the material web and / or of the heating element.
  • The separating strip is very particularly preferably also arranged between the electrode or the electrode strip and the covering layer.
  • general characteristics
  • The layers are preferably glued together and / or laminated. The width of the material web according to the invention and / or the heating element according to the invention is preferably in a range of 3 to 150 cm. The thickness of the material web according to the invention and / or the heating element according to the invention is preferably in a range of 0.5 to 2 mm.
  • Preferably, the heating element has a thermal sensor or a thermocouple. This thermocouple is preferably arranged between the conductive layer and the cover layer or carrier layer.
  • method
  • The object underlying the invention is achieved in a further embodiment by a method for producing the heating element according to the invention, characterized in that
    • a) the web of material according to the invention perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the web directly at the edge of the separating strip or in the region of the separating strip completely severed, so that the separating strip by the protective film or an anti-adhesion coating is easily separable from the conductive layer and
    • b) sewn at least two electrodes with contact cables. Preferably, the cover layer is then connected to the conductive layer.
  • Preferably, the material web is completely severed in the middle of the separating strip.
  • Preferably, in the method according to the invention, a double-sided adhesive tape is used as separating strip, in which one surface is adhesively bonded to the cover layer and a protective film is first arranged on the other surface. If the material web is then severed in the region of the double-sided adhesive tape, the conductive layer and the electrodes are easily accessible, and the latter can be easily sewn, for example, with contact cables or contact wires. Subsequently, the anti-adhesion coating or protective film may preferably be removed and the cover layer may be easily bonded to the conductive layer by squeezing.
  • vehicle
  • In a further embodiment, the object underlying the invention is achieved by a vehicle comprising a heating element according to the invention.
  • Further practical embodiments and advantages of the invention are described below in conjunction with the drawings. Show it:
  • 1 shows a material web with a conductive layer and a cover layer applied to the conductive layer,
  • 2 shows an enlarged detail of the 1 .
  • 3 shows the heating element before the final assembly and
  • 4 shows the heating element with the cover layer and the contact cables.
  • 1 shows a material web 10 with a conductive layer 14 on which a topcoat 16 is applied. At regular intervals is located between these layers 14 . 16 a dividing strip 30 ,
  • 2 shows an enlarged detail of the 1 , Here you can see that the separating strip 30 between the layers 14 . 16 a protective film 34 having. The separating strip is on both sides with an adhesive layer 32 provided (not shown).
  • 3 shows the heating element 12 before the final assembly. The top layer 16 is through the separation strip 30 from the conductive layer 14 separated. On the conductive layer 14 is an electrode band 22 glued. On the electrode band 22 are strands 26 of the contact cable 24 then put it on the electrode band 22 and the conductive layer 14 with a seam 28 are fixed.
  • 4 shows the heating element 12 with the topcoat 16 and the contact cables 24 ,
  • embodiment
  • Commercially available polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric (70-80 g / m 2 ) with a material width of about 150 cm was stuck at intervals of 60 cm with 10 cm wide double-sided adhesive tape transversely to the running direction. The release paper remained on the adhesive layer.
  • This prepared material served as a cover layer, the previously glued double-sided adhesive tapes with silicone paper served as a separating strip.
  • Subsequently, in the calender, the following materials were laminated in one step by means of suitable adhesive materials.
    • 1. Commercially available polyester needled nonwoven (70-80 g / m 2 ) (carrier layer).
    • 2. FlexiWarm ® film (width about 146 cm to 150 cm, from Kaschier &Laminier; conductive layer).
    • 3. 10 electrode bands with the following distances 7.5 cm, 23 cm, 5 cm, 23 cm, 5 cm, 23 cm, 5 cm, 23 cm, 5 cm 23 cm, 7.5 cm. This corresponded to a production of 5 benefits per meter.
    • 4. The topcoat coated with strips of double sided tape (see above); the protective film was oriented in the direction of the conductive layer or electrode bands.
  • The result was the material web according to the invention.
  • The material web produced in this way was then cut through between the small distances (5 cm) of the electrode bands, whereby 5 rolls with a width of approx. 28 cm were produced.
  • In the following step, the narrower material webs were cut through at intervals of 30 cm between the separating strips and then exactly in the middle of the separating strips. In this way, isolated precursors of a heating element having a width of about 28 cm and a length of 30 cm were obtained.
  • Alternatively, this "separation process" could also be carried out in one step (eg by punching out).
  • The isolated heating element precursor has now been unfolded along the cut-through separating strip.
  • Commercially available copper cables with copper strands were stripped off at the end 2 cm. The strands were widened so that they were placed in the width of the electrode bands on these electrode bands and together with the underlying conductive layer with conductive thread (silver-plated polyamide thread) were sewn. Then, the protective film was peeled off the double-sided adhesive tape and the top layer was bonded to the conductive layer via the contact wires and electrode tapes. This is how the heating element according to the invention was created.
  • The features of the invention disclosed in the present description, in the drawings and in the claims may be essential both individually and in any desired combinations for the realization of the invention in its various embodiments. The invention is not limited to the described embodiments. It can be varied within the scope of the claims and taking into account the knowledge of the person skilled in the art.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 10
    web
    12
    heating element
    14
    Conductive layer
    16
    topcoat
    18
    backing
    20
    electrodes
    22
    electrode strip
    24
    Contact cable
    26
    strands
    28
    seam
    30
    Separating strips or adhesive strips
    32
    adhesive layer
    34
    protector
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • WO 2012/104826 A1 [0003]
    • RU 2403686 C1 [0003]
    • WO 98/09478 A1 [0004]
    • EP 2000005 B1 [0005]
    • DE 102005026031 A1 [0006]

Claims (10)

  1. Material web of a plurality of material layers, the at least one conductive layer for electrical current ( 14 ) and at least one cover layer ( 16 ) ( 16 ), characterized in that between the at least one cover layer ( 16 ) and the at least one conductive layer ( 14 ) at least one separating strip ( 30 ) perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the web ( 10 ), this separating strip ( 30 ) at least on the conductive layer ( 14 ) facing surface having a release strip with anti-adhesion coating.
  2. Material web according to claim 1, characterized in that the material web ( 10 ) between the cover layer ( 16 ) and the conductive layer ( 14 ) two electrodes ( 20 ) having.
  3. Heating element comprising the following components: a) at least one electrically conductive layer ( 14 ), b) at least one cover layer ( 16 ) and c) at least two electrodes ( 20 ).
  4. Heating element according to claim 3 or material web according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the separating strip ( 30 ) is a double-sided tape.
  5. Heating element according to claim 3 or 4 or material web according to claim 1, 2 or 4, characterized in that the conductive layer ( 14 ) is an electrically conductive polymer film.
  6. Heating element according to one of claims 3 to 5 or material web according to one of claims 2 or 4 to 5, characterized in that the electrodes ( 20 ) Electrode bands ( 22 ), in which most preferably metal filaments are contained.
  7. Heating element according to one of claims 3 to 6, characterized in that the electrodes ( 20 ) with strands ( 26 ) of contact cables ( 24 ) are sewn.
  8. Heating element according to one of claims 3 to 7, characterized in that the fiber weight of the suture is in a range of 100 to 400 dtex.
  9. Method for producing the heating element according to one of Claims 3 to 8, characterized in that a) the material web ( 10 ) according to one of claims 1 to 2 perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the material web ( 10 ) directly on the edge of the separating strip ( 30 ) or in the area of the separating strip ( 30 ) is completely severed so that the release strip ( 30 ) by a protective film or an anti-adhesion coating slightly from the conductive layer ( 14 ) is separable and b) at least two electrodes ( 20 ) with contact cables ( 24 ) at least partially sewn.
  10. Vehicle comprising a heating element ( 12 ) according to claim 9.
DE102015113921.9A 2015-08-21 2015-08-21 Material web and heating element Pending DE102015113921A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015113921.9A DE102015113921A1 (en) 2015-08-21 2015-08-21 Material web and heating element

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015113921.9A DE102015113921A1 (en) 2015-08-21 2015-08-21 Material web and heating element
EP16184149.9A EP3139701B1 (en) 2015-08-21 2016-08-15 Material sheet and heating element

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102015113921A1 true DE102015113921A1 (en) 2017-02-23

Family

ID=56800153

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE102015113921.9A Pending DE102015113921A1 (en) 2015-08-21 2015-08-21 Material web and heating element

Country Status (2)

Country Link
EP (1) EP3139701B1 (en)
DE (1) DE102015113921A1 (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1998009478A1 (en) 1996-08-29 1998-03-05 Arthur Gurevich Heating element and method of manufacture
DE102005026031A1 (en) 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Heitexx Ltd. Electrically conductive material and a process for producing an electrically conductive material
EP2000005B1 (en) 2006-03-21 2010-07-14 Heitexx Ltd. Contacting system, heating element and production of a contacting system and heating element
RU2403686C1 (en) 2007-01-22 2010-11-10 Панасоник Корпорэйшн Sheet heating coil
WO2012104826A1 (en) 2011-02-04 2012-08-09 Universidade Do Minho Electrodes based on textile substrates

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007042644A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-12 Benecke-Kaliko Ag Electrically conductive, flexible sheet
AT507855A1 (en) * 2009-01-20 2010-08-15 Lang Leonh bioelectrode
EP2736304B1 (en) * 2012-11-21 2016-04-20 Sefar AG Heating fabric

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1998009478A1 (en) 1996-08-29 1998-03-05 Arthur Gurevich Heating element and method of manufacture
DE102005026031A1 (en) 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Heitexx Ltd. Electrically conductive material and a process for producing an electrically conductive material
EP2000005B1 (en) 2006-03-21 2010-07-14 Heitexx Ltd. Contacting system, heating element and production of a contacting system and heating element
RU2403686C1 (en) 2007-01-22 2010-11-10 Панасоник Корпорэйшн Sheet heating coil
WO2012104826A1 (en) 2011-02-04 2012-08-09 Universidade Do Minho Electrodes based on textile substrates

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Publication number Publication date
EP3139701B1 (en) 2020-04-22
EP3139701A1 (en) 2017-03-08

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