DE102015111207A1 - Method for driving an IGBT and drive device - Google Patents

Method for driving an IGBT and drive device

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Publication number
DE102015111207A1
DE102015111207A1 DE102015111207.8A DE102015111207A DE102015111207A1 DE 102015111207 A1 DE102015111207 A1 DE 102015111207A1 DE 102015111207 A DE102015111207 A DE 102015111207A DE 102015111207 A1 DE102015111207 A1 DE 102015111207A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
drive
voltage
igbt
voltage value
drive voltage
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Ceased
Application number
DE102015111207.8A
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German (de)
Inventor
Thomas Eck
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Semikron Elektronik GmbH and Co KG
Semikron GmbH and Co KG
Original Assignee
Semikron Elektronik GmbH and Co KG
Semikron GmbH and Co KG
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Publication date
Application filed by Semikron Elektronik GmbH and Co KG, Semikron GmbH and Co KG filed Critical Semikron Elektronik GmbH and Co KG
Priority to DE102015111207.8A priority Critical patent/DE102015111207A1/en
Publication of DE102015111207A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015111207A1/en
Ceased legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M1/08Circuits specially adapted for the generation of control voltages for semiconductor devices incorporated in static converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03KPULSE TECHNIQUE
    • H03K17/00Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making and –breaking
    • H03K17/04Modifications for accelerating switching
    • H03K17/042Modifications for accelerating switching by feedback from the output circuit to the control circuit

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for driving an IGBT (T1) having as terminals a collector (C), an emitter (S) and a gate (G), wherein for driving the IGBT (T1) a drive voltage (Ua) between the Gate (G) and the emitter (E) of the IGBT is generated by a drive device (2), wherein upon receiving a turn-off command for turning off the IGBTs of the drive means (2), the drive voltage of a voltage value of at least + 8V is to a voltage value of is reduced to -3V, wherein after the lowering of the driving voltage (Ua), the driving voltage (Ua) of the driving device (2) to an intermediate voltage value which is between -1V and + 3V, is increased after the increase Drive voltage (Ua) to the intermediate voltage value, upon receipt of a switch-on command for switching on the IGBT, from the drive device (2) is the drive voltage to a voltage value of at least + 8V , is increased. Furthermore, the invention relates to a related control device (2).

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for driving an IGBT and a related drive means.
  • Technically customary drive devices for driving an IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor), such as from the DE 10 2013 106 801 A1 As is known, to drive the IGBT, a drive voltage is generated between the gate and emitter terminals of the IGBT in response to a drive signal supplied to the drive as an input. If the drive signal is in the form of a switch-off command, the drive device generates a drive voltage which has a relatively low negative voltage value, for example -8 V, which causes the IGBT to be switched off. If the drive signal is present in the form of a switch-on command, the drive device generates a drive voltage which has a relatively high positive voltage value, for example 15V, which causes the IGBT to be switched on. The driving voltage is thus increased to turn on the IGBT from a relatively low negative voltage value to a relatively high positive voltage value, which, since it must be reloaded the gate-emitter capacitance of the IGBT, takes a relatively long time. Thus, a relatively long time delay arises between receipt of the turn-on command from the driver and the actual turn-on of the IGBT.
  • The object of the invention is to reduce the time delay between receipt of a switch-on command for switching on an IGBT and switching on the IGBT.
  • This object is achieved by a method for driving an IGBT having as terminals a collector, an emitter and a gate, wherein for driving the IGBTs a drive voltage between the gate and the emitter of the IGBT is generated by a drive device,
    wherein, upon receipt of a turn-off command for turning off the IGBT from the drive means, the drive voltage is lowered from a voltage value of at least + 8V to a maximum voltage value of -3V,
    wherein after the drive voltage is lowered, the drive voltage from the driver is increased to an intermediate voltage value that is between -1V and + 3V,
    wherein, after the drive voltage is increased to the intermediate voltage value upon receipt of a turn-on command to turn on the IGBT, the drive voltage is increased to a voltage value of at least + 8V by the drive means.
  • Furthermore, this object is achieved by a drive device which is designed to generate a drive voltage between the terminals gate and emitter of an IGBT for driving the IGBTs,
    wherein the drive means is adapted to decrease upon receipt of a turn-off command for turning off the IGBT, the drive voltage being from a voltage value of at least + 8V to a maximum voltage value of -3V,
    wherein the drive device is designed to increase the drive voltage to an intermediate voltage value which is between -1 V and + 3 V after a reduction of the drive voltage which it carries out;
    wherein the drive means is adapted to increase after an increase in the drive voltage to the intermediate voltage value before it is received, upon receipt of a turn-on command for turning on the IGBT, the drive voltage to a voltage value of at least + 8V.
  • Advantageous embodiments of the drive device result analogously to advantageous embodiments of the method and vice versa.
  • Advantageous embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims.
  • It proves to be advantageous if, after lowering the drive voltage, the drive voltage from the drive means is increased to an intermediate voltage value which is between -0.5V and + 0.5V, since voltage values between -0.5V and + 0.5V can be generated by the drive device with high voltage accuracy.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if, after the drive voltage has been lowered, the drive voltage is increased by the drive device to an intermediate voltage value of 0 V, since a voltage value of 0 V can be generated by the drive device with very high voltage accuracy and stability.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if, upon receipt of the switch-off command for switching off the IGBTs of the drive, the drive voltage of a voltage value of at least + 10V is a maximum -3V, is lowered and after the lowering of the drive voltage, upon receipt of a Startup command for turning on the IGBT, the drive device, the drive voltage to a voltage value of at least + 10V is increased, since then the IGBT is driven with a high signal to noise ratio.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if, on receipt of the switch-off command for switching off the IGBTs from the control device, the drive voltage of a voltage value of at least + 10V is a maximum voltage value of -5V, is lowered and after the lowering of the drive voltage, upon receipt of a Start command for turning on the IGBTs, the drive of the drive voltage to a voltage value of at least + 10V is increased, since then the IGBT is driven with a very high signal to noise ratio.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if, after the lowering of the drive voltage, at least 1 μs passes before the drive voltage is increased by the drive device to the intermediate voltage value. Since, during a turn-off operation of an IGBT, high capacitive voltage responses from the collector or from the emitter of the IGBT to the gate of the IGBT can occur, which in the extreme case can lead to an unwanted short-term reconnection of the IGBT, it is advantageous if the drive voltage only after a certain minimum period of time is increased by the control device to the intermediate voltage value and thus an unwanted momentary reconnection of the IGBT is avoided with high reliability even under extreme operating conditions.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if switching on and off commands repeat alternately, wherein the time period between a switch-on and directly following the turn-on command switch-off in a time range from a minimum first time period to a maximum second time duration varies, wherein the increase of the drive voltage from the drive means to the intermediate voltage value at the earliest after expiration of 80% of the first time period, since then the IGBT in the off state is driven for a long time with a low voltage before the drive voltage is increased to the intermediate voltage value and thus for a long time a high signal to noise ratio against unintentional short-term reconnection of the IGBT, eg in the case of EMC interference, is present.
  • Furthermore, it proves to be advantageous if, after the lowering of the drive voltage, the drive voltage is increased to the intermediate voltage value upon receipt of a voltage increase signal from the drive device. This makes it possible, if the time of turning on the IGBT is known in advance or can be determined, to control the increase of the drive voltage to the intermediate voltage value of external. As a result, the increase of the drive voltage to the intermediate voltage value can take place at a time optimized for the respective concrete operation.
  • Furthermore, it is advantageous if after a defined period of time, after receiving the switch-off command, the drive voltage Ua is increased to the intermediate voltage value, wherein the fixed time duration is greater than the decrease of the drive voltage lasts, since then the time of increase of the drive voltage is particularly simple, eg can be defined by means of a parameter stored in the drive device.
  • Furthermore, a power semiconductor circuit with an IGBT and with a drive device according to the invention, which is electrically connected to the gate and the emitter of the IGBT, proves to be advantageous since then with a plurality of power semiconductor circuits in a simple manner. a power converter, e.g. can be realized for DC and inversion of electrical voltages.
  • An embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the figures and will be explained in more detail below. Showing:
  • 1 a power semiconductor circuit with an IGBT and with a drive device according to the invention and
  • 2 a schematic voltage waveform of the drive voltage.
  • In 1 is a power semiconductor circuit 1 with an IGBT T1 and with a drive device according to the invention 2 shown. The drive device 2 is electrically connected to the gate G and emitter E terminals of the IGBT T1. The drive device 2 generates for driving the IGBTs T1, a drive voltage Ua between the gate G and the emitter E of the IGBTs T1.
  • It should be noted that in the present invention, when the IGBT T1 is formed as an n-channel IGBT, the driving voltage Ua is related to the emitter of the IGBT T1 (see FIG 1 ).
  • It should also be noted that in the present invention, when the IGBT T1 is formed as a p-channel IGBT, the driving voltage Ua is related to the gate of the IGBT T1. When in 1 Thus, if the IGBT T1 were not formed as an n-channel IGBT as illustrated, but as a p-channel IGBT, then the arrow direction of the arrow indicating the reference or counting direction of the drive voltage Ua would be opposite to the arrow direction of the in 1 opposite arrow.
  • The drive device 2 generated in response to a control signal A, which is generated for example by a control device (not shown), the applied between the gate G and the emitter E of the IGBT T1 drive voltage Ua. The IGBT T1 turns on and off depending on the level of the respective drive voltage Ua. The control signal A is in the form of a switch-on command (for example in the form of a at the input of the control device 2 pending logical '' 1 '') before, that of the control device 2 signals that the IGBT 1 is to be turned on, or in the form of a switch-off (eg in the form of a at the input of the respective control device 2 pending logical '' 0 ''), that of the control device 2 signals that the IGBT T1 should be turned off. In the switched-on state of the IGBT T1, the IGBT T1 has a low electrical resistance between its collector and emitter while it has a very high electrical resistance when switched off.
  • The drive device 2 decreases, upon receipt of a turn-off command to turn off the IGBTs T1, the drive voltage Ua from a voltage value of at least + 8V is to a voltage value of -3V maximum. Preferably, upon receipt of a turn-off command to turn off the IGBT T1 from the drive means 2 the drive voltage Ua of a voltage value of at least + 10V is a voltage value of the maximum -3V and in particular maximum -5V is reduced. In the embodiment, the drive voltage Ua, as in 2 initially, a voltage of 15V, so that the IGBT T1 is initially turned on. The drive device 2 At time t1, it receives a turn-off command to turn off the IGBT T1 and, as a result, lowers drive voltage Ua to a voltage value of -8V, which lasts until time t2, since the gate-emitter capacitance of the IGBT T1 from the driver 2 must be reloaded. At the time t2, the driving voltage Ua reaches a voltage value of -8V and the lowering of the driving voltage Ua is completed. The drive voltage Ua, in the exemplary embodiment when sinking at a certain voltage between 8V and 15V a so-called Millerplatau, ie a short approximately horizontal course. At the time t2 or shortly after the time t2, the IGBT T1 is turned off at the latest.
  • It should be noted that the voltage value, upon receipt of a turn-off command to turn off the IGBT, is the driver 2 the drive voltage Ua is lowered, preferably unchangeable, so that in the case of successive switch-off commands, the drive voltage Ua is always lowered to the same voltage value (of, for example, -8V in the exemplary embodiment).
  • After the lowering of the drive voltage Ua, the drive voltage Ua of the drive device 2 to an intermediate voltage value which is between -1V and + 3V, preferably between 0.5V and + 0.5V, and preferably in particular 0V increases. In the embodiment, starting at time t3, the driving voltage Ua from the driving device 2 increased to an intermediate voltage value of 0V, which is reached at time t4.
  • Preferably, after the lowering of the drive voltage Ua, ie in the exemplary embodiment from time t2, at least 1 μs, in particular at least 5 μs, in particular at least 20 μs pass before the drive voltage Ua from the drive device 2 is increased to the intermediate voltage value. Since, during a turn-off operation of an IGBT, high capacitive voltage responses from the collector C or from the emitter E of the IGBT to the gate of the IGBT can occur, which in the extreme case can lead to an unwanted short-term reconnection of the IGBT, the drive voltage Ua is preferably as described above only after a certain minimum period of time after the lowering of the drive voltage Ua from the drive device 2 increased to the intermediate voltage value and thus avoided even with extreme operating conditions, an unwanted momentary reconnection of the IGBTs T1 with high reliability.
  • The drive device 2 For example, after a predetermined period of time after receiving the switch-off command, the drive voltage Ua may increase to the intermediate voltage value, the fixed time duration being greater than the decrease of the drive voltage Ua.
  • Alternatively, the drive voltage 2 Also be designed so that it increases the drive voltage Ua to the intermediate voltage value after the decrease of the drive voltage Ua, upon receiving a voltage increase signal S. In 1 is the voltage increase signal S, for example, by a control device (not shown) can be generated, shown in dashed lines. The voltage increase signal S is preferably generated by the control device, for example, under the assumption that the control device knows in advance the time of generation of the next switch-on command for switching on the IGBT T1 at such a time that the drive device 2 the drive voltage Ua short in time, for example a maximum of 50μs, increased to the intermediate voltage value before the switch-on. The drive voltage Ua thus has only briefly, eg a maximum of 50 μs, before the switch-on command the intermediate voltage value.
  • If the ON and OFF commands for turning on and off the IGBT repeats alternately, and the time between a turn-on command and the turn-off command immediately following the turn-on command varies in a time range from a minimum first time to a maximum second time duration, then the driver may 2 Also be designed such that the increase in the drive voltage Ua to the intermediate voltage value occurs at the earliest after expiration of 80% of the first period of time. The drive voltage Ua thus has the intermediate voltage value at the earliest after expiration of 80% of the first time duration.
  • After the drive voltage Ua has been increased to the intermediate voltage value, upon receiving a turn-on command to turn on the IGBT T1, the drive device will turn on 2 the drive voltage Ua is increased to a voltage value of at least 8V, preferably at least 10V, and thereby the IGBT T1 is turned on.
  • In the embodiment, the drive device receives 2 at the time t5, a turn-on command for turning on the IGBT T1 and increases due to the drive voltage Ua from the intermediate voltage value of 0V to a voltage value of 15V, which lasts until what until the time t6, since the gate-emitter capacitance of the IGBTs T1 from the drive means 2 must be charged. At the time t6, the drive voltage Ua reaches a voltage value of 15V and the increase of the drive voltage Ua is completed. The drive voltage Ua has in the embodiment, when rising at a certain voltage between 8V and 15V a so-called Millerplatau, ie a short approximately horizontal course on.
  • While in conventional drive devices, upon receiving a turn-on signal to turn on the IGBT, the drive voltage for turning on the IGBT is limited to a relatively low negative voltage value of, e.g. -8V, which is also used to turn off the IGBT, to a relatively high positive voltage value of e.g. 15V, in the present invention, before turning on the IGBT, the drive voltage is increased from the relatively low negative voltage value to an intermediate voltage value at which the IGBT is not turned on, and to turn on the IGBT, the drive voltage from the intermediate voltage value to a relatively high one positive voltage value increased. The voltage swing which the drive device must generate for switching on the IGBT upon receipt of a switch-on signal is thus much lower in the invention than in the case of customary actuators, so that the time delay between receipt of a switch-on command for switching on the IGBT until actually switching on the IGBT in the invention is reduced compared to conventional technology control devices, since the control device according to the invention, eg In the embodiment, less time is required to charge the gate-emitter capacitance of the IGBT from 0V to 15V than to recharge from -8V to 15V as is conventional in the art.
  • It should be noted that one or more further IGBTs can be electrically connected in parallel with the IGBT T1, which should be switched on or off as far as possible at the same time, so that in the ideal case they behave like a single IGBT with high current carrying capacity. The problem here is that the electrically parallel IGBTs in their turn-on, e.g. due to component tolerances, always something different and thus even with a time-synchronous control of the IGBTs, the IGBTs turn on at slightly different times. In this case, the use of the invention is advantageous, because the fact that the gates of the IGBTs electrically connected in parallel for switching on the IGBTs are increased on the basis of the intermediate voltage value, a different electrical behavior of the IGBTs for voltage values of the drive voltage between the relatively low negative voltage value the IGBTs are turned off and irrelevant to the intermediate voltage value. The electrically parallel IGBTs can thus be switched on by means of the invention with a very high time synchronization.
  • It should also be noted that, of course, features of various embodiments of the invention, as long as the features are not mutually exclusive, can be combined as desired.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102013106801 A1 [0002]

Claims (11)

  1. A method for driving an IGBT (T1) having as terminals a collector (C), an emitter (S) and a gate (G), wherein for driving the IGBT (T1) a drive voltage (Ua) between the gate (G) and the emitter (E) of the IGBT (T1) from a drive device ( 2 ) is generated, upon receipt of a switch-off command for switching off the IGBT (T1) from the drive device ( 2 ) the drive voltage (Ua) is reduced from a voltage value of at least + 8V to a maximum voltage value of -3 V, wherein after the drive voltage (Ua) has been reduced, the drive voltage (Ua) is reduced by the drive device (Ua). 2 ) is increased to an intermediate voltage value which is between -1V and + 3V, wherein after the drive voltage (Ua) has been increased to the intermediate voltage value, upon receipt of a turn-on command for turning on the IGBT (T1), the drive means ( 2 ) the drive voltage (Ua) is increased to a voltage value of at least + 8V.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the lowering of the drive voltage (Ua), the drive voltage (Ua) of the drive means to an intermediate voltage value which is between -0.5V and + 0.5V is increased.
  3. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after the lowering of the drive voltage (Ua), the drive voltage (Ua) from the drive device ( 2 ) is increased to an intermediate voltage value of 0V.
  4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that upon receipt of the switch-off command for switching off the IGBT (T1) from the drive device ( 2 ) is the drive voltage (Ua) of a voltage value of at least + 10V is a maximum value of -3V, is lowered and that after the lowering of the drive voltage (Ua), upon receipt of a turn on command for turning on the IGBTs (T1) of the Control device ( 2 ) the drive voltage (Ua) is increased to a voltage value of at least + 10V.
  5. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that, on receipt of the switch-off command for switching off the IGBT (T1), the drive voltage (Ua) is reduced from a voltage value of at least + 10V to a maximum voltage value of -5V and, after the drive voltage (Ua) has been lowered, upon receiving a switch-on command for switching on the IGBT (T1), the drive device (U) 2 ) the drive voltage (Ua) is increased to a voltage value of at least + 10V.
  6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after the lowering of the driving voltage (Ua) at least 1us elapses before the drive voltage (Ua) (of the driving means 2 ) is increased to the intermediate voltage value.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that switching on and off commands repeat alternately, wherein the time period between a switch-on and directly following the turn-on command switch-off in a time range from a minimum first time period to a maximum second time period varies, the Increase of the control voltage (Ua) from the control device ( 2 ) to the intermediate voltage value at the earliest after expiration of 80% of the first period of time.
  8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that after the lowering of the drive voltage (Ua), upon receipt of a voltage increase signal (S) from the drive means ( 2 ) the drive voltage (Ua) is increased to the intermediate voltage value.
  9. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that after a predetermined period of time after receiving the switch-off command, the drive voltage (Ua) is increased to the intermediate voltage value, wherein the fixed time duration is greater than the decrease of the drive voltage (Ua) takes.
  10. A drive device which is designed to generate a drive voltage (Ua) between the terminals gate (G) and emitter (E) of an IGBT (T1) for driving the IGBT (T1), wherein the drive device (U) 2 ) is adapted, upon receipt of a switch-off command for switching off the IGBT (T1), the drive voltage (Ua) from a voltage value of at least + 8V is to a maximum voltage value of -3V, the drive means ( 2 ) is adapted to increase the drive voltage (Ua) to an intermediate voltage value which is between -1V and + 3V after a reduction of the drive voltage (Ua) which it carries out, the drive means ( 2 ) is adapted, after an increase in the drive voltage (Ua) carried out before it to the intermediate voltage value, upon receiving a switch-on command for switching on the IGBT (T1), the drive voltage (Ua) to a voltage value of at least + 8V is to increase.
  11. Power semiconductor circuit with an IGBT (T1) and with a drive device ( 2 ) according to claim 10, which is electrically connected to the gate (G) and the emitter (E) of the IGBT (T1).
DE102015111207.8A 2015-07-10 2015-07-10 Method for driving an IGBT and drive device Ceased DE102015111207A1 (en)

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DE102015111207.8A DE102015111207A1 (en) 2015-07-10 2015-07-10 Method for driving an IGBT and drive device

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DE102015111207.8A DE102015111207A1 (en) 2015-07-10 2015-07-10 Method for driving an IGBT and drive device

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4511815A (en) * 1983-08-15 1985-04-16 International Rectifier Corporation Transformer-isolated power MOSFET driver circuit
US20100141304A1 (en) * 2007-07-03 2010-06-10 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Drive circuit for power element
WO2014068352A2 (en) * 2012-10-31 2014-05-08 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Method and apparatus for driving a power transistor gate
DE102013106801A1 (en) 2013-06-28 2014-12-31 Semikron Elektronik Gmbh & Co. Kg Power semiconductor circuit

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4511815A (en) * 1983-08-15 1985-04-16 International Rectifier Corporation Transformer-isolated power MOSFET driver circuit
US20100141304A1 (en) * 2007-07-03 2010-06-10 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Drive circuit for power element
WO2014068352A2 (en) * 2012-10-31 2014-05-08 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Method and apparatus for driving a power transistor gate
DE102013106801A1 (en) 2013-06-28 2014-12-31 Semikron Elektronik Gmbh & Co. Kg Power semiconductor circuit

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