DE102015006708A1 - Metal complexes - Google Patents

Metal complexes

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DE102015006708A1
DE102015006708A1 DE102015006708.7A DE102015006708A DE102015006708A1 DE 102015006708 A1 DE102015006708 A1 DE 102015006708A1 DE 102015006708 A DE102015006708 A DE 102015006708A DE 102015006708 A1 DE102015006708 A1 DE 102015006708A1
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atoms
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Lars Wesemann
Melanie Hassold
Hermann August Mayer
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Merck Patent GmbH
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Merck Patent GmbH
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    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07FACYCLIC, CARBOCYCLIC OR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OTHER THAN CARBON, HYDROGEN, HALOGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR, SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM
    • C07F15/00Compounds containing elements of Groups 8, 9, 10 or 18 of the Periodic System
    • C07F15/0006Compounds containing elements of Groups 8, 9, 10 or 18 of the Periodic System compounds of the platinum group
    • C07F15/0073Rhodium compounds
    • C07F15/008Rhodium compounds without a metal-carbon linkage
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    • C07FACYCLIC, CARBOCYCLIC OR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OTHER THAN CARBON, HYDROGEN, HALOGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR, SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM
    • C07F15/00Compounds containing elements of Groups 8, 9, 10 or 18 of the Periodic System
    • C07F15/0006Compounds containing elements of Groups 8, 9, 10 or 18 of the Periodic System compounds of the platinum group
    • C07F15/0033Iridium compounds
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    • C07F9/00Compounds containing elements of Groups 5 or 15 of the Periodic System
    • C07F9/02Phosphorus compounds
    • C07F9/28Phosphorus compounds with one or more P—C bonds
    • C07F9/50Organo-phosphines
    • C07F9/53Organo-phosphine oxides; Organo-phosphine thioxides
    • C07F9/5345Complexes or chelates of phosphine-oxides or thioxides with metallic compounds or metals
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    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/06Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing organic luminescent materials
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    • C09K2211/00Chemical nature of organic luminescent or tenebrescent compounds
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    • C09K2211/00Chemical nature of organic luminescent or tenebrescent compounds
    • C09K2211/10Non-macromolecular compounds
    • C09K2211/1018Heterocyclic compounds
    • C09K2211/1025Heterocyclic compounds characterised by ligands
    • C09K2211/1096Heterocyclic compounds characterised by ligands containing other heteroatoms
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    • C09K2211/00Chemical nature of organic luminescent or tenebrescent compounds
    • C09K2211/18Metal complexes
    • C09K2211/188Metal complexes of other metals not provided for in one of the previous groups

Abstract

The present invention relates to metal complexes and electronic devices, in particular organic electroluminescent devices containing these metal complexes.

Description

  • The present invention relates to metal complexes which are suitable for use as emitters in organic electroluminescent devices, as well as organic electroluminescent devices which contain these metal complexes.
  • The construction of organic electroluminescent devices (OLEDs) in which organic semiconductors are used as functional materials is described, for example, in US Pat US 4539507 . US 5151629 . EP 0676461 and WO 98/27136 described. Frequently used as the emitting materials are organometallic complexes which exhibit phosphorescence instead of fluorescence ( MA Baldo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 1999, 75, 4-6 ) or the singlet harvesting (thermally activated delayed fluorescence) (e.g. WO 2010/006681 ). For quantum mechanical reasons, up to four times energy and power efficiency is possible using such compounds as emitters. In general, there is still room for improvement in OLEDs, especially with regard to efficiency, operating voltage and service life.
  • According to the prior art, iridium and platinum complexes are used in particular as phosphors in phosphorescent OLEDs. The object of the present invention is therefore to provide new metal complexes based on iridium or platinum, which are suitable as emitters for use in OLEDs, so as to allow the skilled person a greater choice of materials for the production of OLEDs. Furthermore, it is the object of the present invention to provide metal complexes based on metals other than iridium or platinum, which are suitable for use in OLEDs and there lead to advantageous properties.
  • Surprisingly, it has been found that certain metal chelate complexes described in more detail below solve this problem and lead to very good properties of the organic electroluminescent device. These metal complexes and organic electroluminescent devices containing these complexes are therefore the subject of the present invention.
  • In Organometallics 2014, 33, 692 describes the synthesis of two Pd complexes with P (= S) -NP ligands. In J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692, 4129 describe the synthesis and the catalytic properties of two Rh complexes with P (= O) -NP ligands. The use of such complexes in OLEDs or the luminescence properties of these complexes are not disclosed.
  • The invention thus relates to a compound according to formula (1), M (L) n (L ') m formula (1), containing a partial structure of the following formula (2),
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0002
    Formula (2) where the symbols and indices used are:
    M is Cu, Ag, Au, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, Zn or Al;
    Y is the same or different CR 2 or N at each occurrence;
    E is the same or different O, S or NR 3 at each occurrence;
    A is a neutral group which coordinates to M and which may be substituted or unsubstituted;
    R 1 , R 2 , R 3 are each the same or different at each occurrence H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N (R 4 ) 2 , P (R 4 ) 2 , CN, NO 2 , OH, COOH, C (= O) N (R 4 ) 2 , Si (R 4 ) 3 , B (OR 4 ) 2 , C (= O) R 4 , P (= O) (R 4 ) 2 , S (= O) R 4 , S (= O) 2 R 4 , OSO 2 R 4 , a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 20 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 20 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 20 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH 2 groups is replaced by R 4 C = CR 4 , C≡C , Si (R 4 ) 2 , C = O, NR 4 , O, S or CONR 4 may be replaced and wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or a aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 , or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more R 4 , or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having from 5 to 40 aromatic ring atoms which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having from 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; two radicals R 1 which bind to the same phosphorus atom may also together form a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or aliphatic ring system;
    R 4 is the same or different at each instance selected from the group consisting of H, D, F, CN, an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 carbon atoms or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, in which one or a plurality of H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN and which may be substituted by one or more alkyl groups each having 1 to 4 carbon atoms; two or more adjacent substituents R 4 may together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system;
    L 'is the same or different at each occurrence a coligand;
    n is 1, 2 or 3;
    m is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;
    the following compounds are excluded from the invention:
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0003
  • The ligand L is a monoanionic ligand because the two coordinating groups, P = E and A, are neutral groups and the group Y linking these two groups is negatively charged.
  • An aryl group for the purposes of this invention contains 6 to 40 carbon atoms; For the purposes of this invention, a heteroaryl group contains 2 to 40 C atoms and at least one heteroatom, with the proviso that the sum of C atoms and heteroatoms gives at least 5. The heteroatoms are preferably selected from N, O and / or S. Here, an aryl group or heteroaryl group is either a simple aromatic cycle, ie benzene, or a simple heteroaromatic cycle, for example pyridine, pyrimidine, thiophene, etc., or a fused aryl or heteroaryl group, for example, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, quinoline, isoquinoline, etc. understood.
  • An aromatic ring system in the sense of this invention contains 6 to 60 carbon atoms in the ring system. A heteroaromatic ring system in the sense of this invention contains 1 to 60 C atoms and at least one heteroatom in the ring system, with the proviso that the sum of C atoms and heteroatoms gives at least 5. The heteroatoms are preferably selected from N, O and / or S. An aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system in the sense of this invention is to be understood as meaning a system which does not necessarily contain only aryl or heteroaryl groups but in which also several aryl or heteroaryl groups a non-aromatic moiety (preferably less than 10% of the atoms other than H), such as e.g. As a C, N or O atom or a carbonyl group, may be interrupted. For example, systems such as 9,9'-spirobifluorene, 9,9-diarylfluorene, triarylamine, diaryl ethers, stilbene, etc. are to be understood as aromatic ring systems in the context of this invention, and also systems in which two or more aryl groups, for example by a linear or cyclic alkyl group or interrupted by a silyl group. Furthermore, systems in which two or more aryl or heteroaryl groups are bonded directly to each other, such as. As biphenyl or terphenyl, also be understood as an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system.
  • For the purposes of this invention, a cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group is understood as meaning a monocyclic, a bicyclic or a polycyclic group.
  • In the context of the present invention, a C 1 -C 20 -alkyl group in which individual H atoms or CH 2 groups may also be substituted by the abovementioned groups, for example the radicals methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i Propyl, cyclopropyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, s-butyl, t-butyl, cyclobutyl, 2-methylbutyl, n-pentyl, s-pentyl, tert-pentyl, 2-pentyl, neo-pentyl, cyclopentyl, n -Hexyl, s -hexyl, tert-hexyl, 2-hexyl, 3-hexyl, neo-hexyl, cyclohexyl, 1-methylcyclopentyl, 2-methylpentyl, n-heptyl, 2-heptyl, 3-heptyl, 4-heptyl, cycloheptyl , 1-methylcyclohexyl, n-octyl, 2-ethylhexyl, cyclooctyl, 1-bicyclo [2,2,2] octyl, 2-bicyclo [2,2,2] octyl, 2- (2,6-dimethyl) octyl, 3- (3,7-dimethyl) octyl, adamantyl, trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl or 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl understood. An alkenyl group is understood as meaning, for example, ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, cyclopentenyl, hexenyl, cyclohexenyl, heptenyl, cycloheptenyl, octenyl, cyclooctenyl or cyclooctadienyl. By an alkynyl group is meant, for example, ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, pentynyl, hexynyl, heptynyl or octynyl. A C 1 - to C 20 -alkoxy group is understood as meaning, for example, methoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, i-propoxy, n-butoxy, i-butoxy, s-butoxy, t-butoxy or 2-methylbutoxy.
  • By an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system with 5-60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted in each case with the abovementioned radicals R and which may be linked via any position on the aromatic or heteroaromatic, are understood as meaning, for example, groups which are derived from benzene, Naphthalene, anthracene, benzanthracene, phenanthrene, benzophenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, perylene, fluoranthene, benzfluoranthene, naphthacene, pentacene, benzpyrene, biphenyl, biphenylene, terphenyl, terphenylene, fluorene, spirobifluorene, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydropyrene, tetrahydropyrene, cis- or trans-indenofluorene , cis or trans monobenzoindenofluorene, cis or trans dibenzoindenofluorene, truxene, isotruxene, spirotruxene, spiroisotruxene, furan, benzofuran, isobenzofuran, dibenzofuran, thiophene, benzothiophene, isobenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, pyrrole, indole, isoindole, carbazole, indolocarbazole, indenocarbazole , Pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, acridine, phenanthr idin, benzo-5,6-quinoline, benzo-6,7-quinoline, benzo-7,8-quinoline, phenothiazine, phenoxazine, pyrazole, indazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, naphthimidazole, phenanthrimidazole, pyrimididazole, pyrazine imidazole, quinoxaline imidazole, oxazole, Benzoxazole, naphthoxazole, anthroxazole, phenanthroxazole, isoxazole, 1,2-thiazole, 1,3-thiazole, benzothiazole, pyridazine, benzopyridazine, pyrimidine, benzpyrimidine, quinoxaline, 1,5-diazaanthracene, 2,7-diazapyrene, 2,3- Diazapyrene, 1,6-diazapyrene, 1,8-diazapyrene, 4,5-diazapyrene, 4,5,9,10-tetraazaperylene, pyrazine, phenazine, phenoxazine, phenothiazine, fluorubin, naphthyridine, azacarbazole, benzocarboline, phenanthroline, 1, 2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole, 1,2,3-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,5-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1, 2,3-thiadiazole, 1,2,4-thiadiazole, 1,2,5-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,5-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, 1,2, 3-triazine, tetrazole, 1,2,4,5-tetrazine, 1,2,3,4-tetrazine, 1,2,3,5-tetrazine, purine, pteridine, indolizine and benzothiadiazole.
  • Preferred are compounds according to formula (1), characterized in that they are not charged, d. H. electrically neutral, are. This is achieved in a simple way by selecting the charges of the ligands L and L 'in such a way that they compensate for the charge of the complexed metal atom M. As described above, the ligand L is monoanionic according to the invention.
  • In this case, the indices n and m are chosen such that the coordination number on the metal M corresponds in total to the usual coordination number for this metal. This is usually the coordination number 2, 3, 4 or 6 for the metals of the present invention. It is generally known that metal coordination compounds have different coordination numbers depending on the metal and on the oxidation state of the metal, ie bind a different number of ligands. Since the preferred coordination numbers of metals or metal ions in different oxidation states belong to the general expertise of those skilled in the field of organometallic chemistry or coordination chemistry, it is easy for the skilled person, depending on the metal and its oxidation state and the exact structure of the ligand L 'to use a suitable number of ligands and thus to choose the indices n and m suitable.
  • In a preferred embodiment, M is selected from the group consisting of Cu (I), Ag (I), Au (I), Rh (I), Rh (III), Ir (I), Ir (III), Pd (II ), Pt (II), Zn (II) and Al (III), more preferably Cu (I) or Ir (III). The coordination number of Cu (I) or Ag (I) is usually 4, of Au (I) 2, of Rh (I) or Ir (I) 4, of Rh (III) or Ir (III) 6 , of Pd (II) or Pt (II) 4, of Zn (II) 4 or 6 and of Al (III) 6.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, M is a tetracoordinate metal, and the subscript n is 1 or 2. When the index n = 1, there are still one bidentate or two monodentate ligands L ', preferably a bidentate ligand L', on M coordinated. If the index is n = 2, the index m = 0.
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, M is a hexacoordinated metal, and the subscript n is 1, 2 or 3. If the index n = 1, there are still two bidentate or four monodentates or a bidentate and two monodentate ligands L ', preferably two bidentate ligands L ', coordinated to M. When the index n = 2, one more bidentate or two monodentate ligand L ', preferably a bidentate ligand L', is coordinated to M. If the index is n = 3, the index m = 0.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the group Y is CR 2 , ie a singly substituted, negatively charged carbon atom.
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the group E is O or S, particularly preferably O.
  • A preferred structure of the formula (2) is therefore the structure of the formula (2a)
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0004
    Formula (2a) wherein R 1 , R 2 , A, M and n have the abovementioned meanings and E is O or S.
  • A particularly preferred structure of the formula (2) is the structure of the formula (2b)
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0005
    Formula (2b) wherein R 1 , R 2 , A, M and n have the abovementioned meanings.
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, A stands for a neutral coordinating group, so that the ligand L spans a five-membered ring or a six-membered ring, preferably a five-membered ring.
  • Preferred groups A, with which a five-membered ring is spanned, are -P (R 1 ) 2 , -N (R 5 ) 2 , -OR 5 and -N = CR 5 , where R 1 has the abovementioned meanings and R 5 is the has the same meaning as R 1 to R 3 .
  • Preferred groups A, with which a six-membered ring is spanned, are heteroaryl groups having 5 to 10 aromatic ring atoms, which coordinate to M via a neutral heteroatom and which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 2 , such as, for example, 2-thienyl, 2-pyridyl , 1-quinolin-2-yl, 2-quinonlin-1-yl, etc.
  • A particularly preferred group A is -P (R 1 ) 2 , where R 1 has the abovementioned meanings.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, each occurrence of R 1 is identically or differently selected from the group consisting of F, N (R 4 ) 2 , a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl or alkoxy group having 3 to 10 carbon atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D or F, or one aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; in this case, two radicals R 1 , which bind to the same phosphorus atom, also together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, each occurrence of R 1 is identically or differently selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably having 1 to 4 C atoms, or a branched or cyclic one Alkyl or alkoxy group having 3 to 10 carbon atoms, preferably having 3 to 6 carbon atoms, each of which may be substituted with one or more radicals R 4 , but is preferably unsubstituted, or an aryl or heteroarly group having 5 to 10 aromatic Ring atoms, preferably with 6 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; in this case, two radicals R 1 , which bind to the same phosphorus atom, also together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system.
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the substituents R 2 which are bonded in the group Y when Y is CR 2 , identical or different in each occurrence, are selected from the group consisting of H, D, F, N (R 4 ) 2 , CN, P (R 4 ) 2 , C (= O) R 4 , a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D or F, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, each by one or more several radicals R 4 may be substituted. With particular preference, these radicals R 2 on each occurrence are identically or differently selected from the group consisting of H, F, CN, P (R 4 ) 2 , a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably 1 to 4 C atoms. Atoms, or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 carbon atoms, preferably having 3 to 6 carbon atoms, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, preferably having 5 to 12 aromatic ring atoms, each by a or more radicals R 4 may be substituted.
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the substituents R 3 which are bonded in the group E when E is NR 3 are identical or different at each occurrence and are selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, one or more H atoms being replaced by D or F. can, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 . With particular preference, these radicals R 3 are identically or differently selected on each occurrence from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably having 1 to 4 C atoms, or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C -Atomen, preferably having 3 to 6 carbon atoms, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, preferably having 6 to 12 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 .
  • In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the substituents R 5 which are bonded in the group A when A is N (R 5 ) 2 , OR 5 or N = CR 5 are the same or different at each occurrence selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D or F; In this case, two radicals R 5 , which bind to the same nitrogen atom, also together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system. With particular preference, these radicals R on each occurrence are identically or differently selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably having 1 to 4 C atoms, or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms. Atoms, preferably with 3 to 6 carbon atoms.
  • In the following, preferred ligands L 'are described, as they occur in formula (1), when the index m> 0.
  • The ligands L 'are preferably neutral or monoanionic ligands. They may be monodentate or bidentate and are preferably bidentate, so preferably have two coordination sites.
  • Preferred neutral, monodentate ligands L 'are selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, alkyl cyanides, such as. For example, acetonitrile, aryl cyanides, such as. B. benzonitrile, alkyl isocyanides, such as. For example, methylisononitrile, aryl isocyanides, such as. B. benzoisonitrile, amines, such as. For example, trimethylamine, triethylamine, morpholine, phosphines, in particular halogenophosphines, trialkylphosphines, triarylphosphines or alkylarylphosphines, such as. B. trifluorophosphine, trimethylphosphine, tricyclohexylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine, triphenylphosphine, tris (pentafluorophenyl) phosphine, dimethylphenylphosphine, methyldiphenylphosphine, bis (tert-butyl) phenylphosphine, phosphites, such as. For example, trimethyl phosphite, triethyl phosphite, arsines, such as. Trifluorarsine, trimethylarsine, tricyclohexylarsine, tri-tert-butylarsine, triphenylarsine, tris (pentafluorophenyl) arsine, stibines, such as. Trifluorostibine, trimethylstibine, tricyclohexylstibine, tri-tert-butylstibine, triphenylstibine, tris (pentafluorophenyl) stibine, nitrogen-containing heterocycles, such as. As pyridine, pyridazine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, triazine, carbenes, in particular Arduengo carbenes, ethers, thioethers and O- or S-containing heteroaromatic compounds, such as. Furan, benzofuran, thiophene or benzothiophene.
  • Preferred monoanionic monodentate ligands L 'are selected from hydride, deuteride, the halides F - , Cl - , Br - and I - , alkyl acetylides, such as. As methyl-C≡C - , tert-butyl-C≡C - , arylacetylidene, such as. As phenyl-C≡C - , cyanide, cyanate, isocyanate, thiocyanate, isothiocyanate, aliphatic or aromatic alcoholates, such as. For example, methanolate, ethanolate, propoxide, iso-propanolate, tert-butylate, phenolate, aliphatic or aromatic thioalcoholates such. As methanethiolate, ethanethiolate, propanethiolate, iso-propanethiolate, tert-thiobutylate, thiophenolate, amides, such as. For example, dimethylamide, diethylamide, di-iso-propylamide, morpholide, carboxylates, such as. For example, acetate, trifluoroacetate, propionate, benzoate, aryl groups, such as. Phenyl, naphthyl, and anionic nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as pyrrolidine, imidazolide, pyrazolide. The alkyl groups in these groups are preferably C 1 -C 20 -alkyl groups, particularly preferably C 1 -C 10 -alkyl groups, very particularly preferably C 1 -C 4 -alkyl groups. An aryl group is also understood to mean heteroaryl groups. These groups are as defined above.
  • Preferred neutral or monoanionic, bidentate ligands L 'are selected from diamines, such as. Ethylenediamine, N, N, N ', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, propylenediamine, N, N, N', N'-tetramethylpropylenediamine, cis- or trans -diaminocyclohexane, cis- or trans-N, N, N ', N '-Tetramethyldiaminocyclohexan, imines, such as. B. 2- [1- (phenylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (2-methylphenylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (2,6-di-iso -propylphenylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (Methylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (ethylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (iso -propylimino) ethyl] pyridine, 2- [1- (tert -butylimino) ethyl] pyridine , Diimines, such as. B. 1,2-bis (methylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (ethylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (iso-propylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (tert-butylimino) ethane, 2,3- Bis (methylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (ethylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (iso-propylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (tert-butylimino) butane, 1,2-bis (phenylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (2-methylphenylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (2,6-di-iso-propylphenylimino) ethane, 1,2-bis (2,6-di-tert-butylphenylimino) ethane, 2, 3-bis (phenylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (2-methylphenylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (2,6-di-iso-propylphenylimino) butane, 2,3-bis (2,6-bis) tert-butylphenylimino) butane, heterocycles containing two nitrogen atoms, such as. B. 2,2'-bipyridine, o-phenanthroline, diphosphines, such as. Bis (diphenylphosphino) methane, bis (diphenylphosphino) ethane, bis (diphenylphosphino) propane, bis (diphenylphosphino) butane, bis (dimethylphosphino) methane, bis (dimethylphosphino) ethane, bis (dimethylphosphino) propane, bis (diethylphosphino) methane, Bis (diethylphosphino) ethane, bis (diethylphosphino) propane, bis (di-tert-butylphosphino) methane, bis (di-tert-butylphosphino) ethane, bis (tert-butylphosphino) propane, 1,3-diketonates derived from 1.3 -Diketonen, such as. For example, acetylacetone, benzoylacetone, 1,5-diphenylacetylacetone, dibenzoylmethane, bis (1,1,1-trifluoroacetyl) methane, 3-ketonates derived from 3-keto esters, such as. For example, ethyl acetoacetate, carboxylates derived from aminocarboxylic acids, such as. As pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, glycine, N, N-dimethylglycine, alanine, N, N-dimethylaminoalanine, salicyliminates derived from salicylimines, such as. As methylsalicylimine, ethylsalicylimine, phenylsalicylimine, dialcoholates derived from dialcohols, such as. As ethylene glycol, 1,3-propylene glycol and dithiolates derived from dithiols, such as. For example, 1,2-ethylenedithiol, 1,3-propylenedithiol.
  • In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the ligands L 'are neutral, bidentate ligands, in particular diphosphines.
  • In a further particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the ligands L 'are monoanionic, bidentate ligands which bind to M via a neutral nitrogen atom and a negatively charged carbon atom or via a neutral carbon atom and a negatively charged carbon atom. This is especially true when M is selected from the group consisting of Rh, Ir, Pd and Pt. It is preferred that the ligands L 'with M form a cyclometallierten five-membered or six-membered ring, in particular a cyclometallierten five-membered ring. These are, in particular, ligands such as are generally used in the field of phosphorescent metal complexes for organic electroluminescent devices, ie ligands of the phenylpyridine, naphthylpyridine, phenylquinoline, phenylisoquinoline, etc. type, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 6 radicals. In this case, R 6 has the same meanings as defined above for R 1 to R 3 . The skilled worker in the field of phosphorescent electroluminescent devices, a plurality of such ligands is known, and he can without inventive step further such ligands L 'for compounds according to formula (1) select. In general, the combination of two groups, as represented by the following formulas (3) to (26), is particularly suitable for this purpose, one group bonding via a neutral nitrogen atom or a carbene carbon atom and the other group preferably bonding via a negatively charged carbon atom. The ligand L 'can then be formed from the groups of the formulas (3) to (26) by each of these groups bonding to each other at the position indicated by #. The position at which the groups coordinate to M are indicated by *.
  • Figure DE102015006708A1_0006
  • Figure DE102015006708A1_0007
  • R 4 has the abovementioned meanings and applies to the other symbols used:
    X is the same or different CR 6 or N at each occurrence, with a maximum of three groups X per cycle for N;
    W is the same or different at each occurrence, S, O or NR 6 ;
    R 6 is the same or different at each occurrence as H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N (R 4 ) 2 , P (R 4 ) 2 , CN, NO 2 , OH, COOH, C (= O) N (R 4 ) 2 , Si (R 4 ) 3 , B (OR 4 ) 2 , C (= O) R 4 , P (= O) (R 4 ) 2 , S (= O) R 4 , S (= O) 2 R 4 , OSO 2 R 4 , a straight-chain alkyl, Alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 20 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 20 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 20 C atoms, each containing one or more Radicals R 4 may be substituted, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH 2 groups replaced by R 4 C = CR 4 , C≡C, Si (R 4 ) 2 , C = O, NR 4 , O, S or CONR 4 and wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, each substituted by one or more R 4 radicals may, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 may, or a diarylamino group, Dih eteroarylamino or Arylheteroarylaminogruppe having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; two radicals R 6 may also together form a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or aliphatic ring system.
  • Preferably, a maximum of two symbols X in each group stand for N, more preferably at most one symbol X in each group stands for N, very particularly preferably all symbols X stand for CR.
  • When two R 6 's in the ligand L' which are bonded to two different cycles of the above formulas (3) to (26) form an aromatic ring system with each other, ligands may be formed which as a whole constitute a single larger heteroaryl group such as Benzo [h] quinoline, etc. Preferred ligands which are formed by ring formation of two radicals R at the different cycles are the structures of the formulas (27) to (31) listed below,
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0008
    wherein the symbols used have the meanings given above.
  • Preferred radicals R 6 in the abovementioned structures of L 'are identically or differently selected on each occurrence from the group consisting of H, D, F, Br, N (R 4 ) 2 , CN, a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 10 C Atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, one or more H atoms being substituted by D or F may be replaced, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 14 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; two or more adjacent radicals R 6 may also together form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and / or benzoannellated ring system. Particularly preferred radicals R 6 are the same or different selected on each occurrence from the group consisting of H, D, F, CN, a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, particularly preferably having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, in particular methyl, or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 6 C atoms, in particular isopropyl, tert-butyl or cyclohexyl, where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D or F, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 12 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; two or more radicals R 6 may also together form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and / or benzoannellated ring system.
  • The abovementioned preferred embodiments can be combined with one another as desired. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the abovementioned preferred embodiments apply simultaneously.
  • Examples of metal complexes according to the invention are the structures listed in the following table:
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0009
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0010
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0011
  • Another object of the present invention is a process for preparing the compounds of formula (1) by reacting the corresponding free ligands L, optionally in deprotonated form, and optionally further ligands L 'with suitable metal salts or metal complexes. The deprotonation reaction of the ligand can be done either in situ, for example when a metal salt with a basic anion is used, or from the protonated ligand, the corresponding anion is prepared by the deprotonation before the reaction with the metal.
  • For the preparation of iridium complexes which contain ortho-metallated ligands L ', which are composed, for example, of the abovementioned groups of the formulas (3) to (26), the chloro-bridged dimers of the general formula [(L ') 2 IrCl] 2 , which can be converted by reaction with a silver salt and the ligand L in the presence of a base to the compounds of the invention.
  • If the deprotonation of the ligand takes place in situ, for example, a metal complex with a basic ligand, which preferably has a little nucleophilic character after its protonation, is used. Suitable copper starting materials are, for example, copper mesityl, various copper amides, copper phosphides, copper alkoxides, copper acetate, Cu 2 O, etc. Suitable silver starting materials are, for example, silver mesityl, various silver amides, silver Phosphides, silver alkoxides, Ag 2 O, etc. Suitable gold starting materials include, for example, gold mesityl, various gold amides, gold phosphides, gold alkoxides, etc.
  • If the deprotonation of the ligand takes place before the reaction with the metal M, preference is given to using an alkali metal salt having a basic anion which, after its protonation, preferably has a low nucleophilic character and is particularly preferably a protonated form of a volatile compound. This produces the corresponding alkali salt of the ligand, which is then reacted with a metal salt (eg, [Cu (MeCN) 4 ] [BF 4 ]) to form the metal complex. Suitable salts for the deprotonation are, for example, sodium tert-butoxide, potassium tert-butoxide, lithium piperidide, lithium pyrrolidide, bis (trimethylsilyl) amides (eg K [N (SiMe 3 ) 2 ]), etc. ,
  • The synthesis can be activated, for example, thermally, photochemically and / or by microwave radiation. Likewise, the synthesis can be carried out in an autoclave.
  • By these methods, optionally followed by purification, such. As recrystallization, sublimation or, if necessary, chromatography, the compounds of the invention according to formula (1) can be obtained in high purity, preferably more than 99% (determined by 1 H-NMR and / or HPLC).
  • The compounds according to the invention can also be made soluble by suitable substitution, for example by longer alkyl groups (about 4 to 20 C atoms), in particular branched alkyl groups, or optionally substituted aryl groups, for example xylyl, mesityl or branched terphenyl or quaterphenyl groups. Such compounds are then soluble in common organic solvents, such as toluene or xylene at room temperature in sufficient concentration to process the complexes from solution can. These soluble compounds are particularly suitable for processing from solution, for example by printing processes.
  • For the processing of the compounds according to the invention from the liquid phase, for example by spin coating or by printing processes, formulations of the compounds according to the invention are required. These formulations may be, for example, solutions, dispersions or emulsions. It may be preferable to use mixtures of two or more solvents for this purpose. Suitable and preferred solvents are, for example, toluene, anisole, o-, m- or p-xylene, methyl benzoate, mesitylene, tetralin, veratrol, THF, methyl THF, THP, chlorobenzene, dioxane, phenoxytoluene, in particular 3-phenoxytoluene, (-) -Fenchone, 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylbenzothiazole, 2-phenoxyethanol, 2-pyrrolidinone, 3-methylanisole, 4-methylanisole, 3,4 Dimethylanisole, 3,5-dimethylanisole, acetophenone, α-terpineol, benzothiazole, butylbenzoate, cumene, cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, cyclohexylbenzene, decalin, dodecylbenzene, ethylbenzoate, indane, methylbenzoate, NMP, p-cymene, phenetole, 1,4-diisopropylbenzene , Dibenzyl ether, diethylene glycol butyl methyl ether, triethylene glycol butyl methyl ether, diethylene glycol dibutyl ether, triethylene glycol dimethyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, tripropylene glycol dimethyl ether, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, 2-isopropylnaphthalene, pentylbenzene, hexylbenzene, heptylbenzene, octylbenzene, 1,1-bis (3,4-dimethylphe nyl) ethane, hexamethylindane or mixtures of these solvents.
  • A further subject of the present invention is therefore a formulation containing a compound according to the invention and at least one further compound. The further compound may be for example a solvent, in particular one of the abovementioned solvents or a mixture of these solvents. However, the further compound can also be a further organic or inorganic compound which is likewise used in the electronic device, for example a matrix material. Suitable matrix materials are listed in the background in the context of the organic electroluminescent device. This further compound may also be polymeric.
  • The above-described complexes of the formula (1) and the above-mentioned preferred embodiments can be used in the electronic device as the active component. Another object of the present invention is therefore the use of the compounds of the invention in an electronic device.
  • Yet another object of the present invention is an electronic device containing at least one compound of the invention.
  • An electronic device is understood to mean a device which contains anode, cathode and at least one layer, this layer containing at least one organic or organometallic compound. The electronic device according to the invention thus contains anode, cathode and at least one layer which contains at least one compound of the above-mentioned formula (1). Preferred electronic devices are selected from the group consisting of organic electroluminescent devices (OLEDs, PLEDs), organic integrated circuits (O-ICs), organic field devices. Effect transistors (O-FETs), organic thin-film transistors (O-TFTs), organic light-emitting transistors (O-LETs), organic solar cells (O-SCs), organic optical detectors, organic photoreceptors, organic field quench devices (O-LETs) FQDs), light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) or organic laser diodes (O-lasers) containing in at least one layer at least one compound according to formula (1) above. Particularly preferred are organic electroluminescent devices. Active components are generally the organic or inorganic materials incorporated between the anode and cathode, for example, charge injection, charge transport or charge blocking materials, but especially emission materials and matrix materials. The compounds according to the invention exhibit particularly good properties as emission material in organic electroluminescent devices. A preferred embodiment of the invention are therefore organic electroluminescent devices.
  • The organic electroluminescent device includes cathode, anode and at least one emitting layer. In addition to these layers, they may also contain further layers, for example one or more hole injection layers, hole transport layers, hole blocking layers, electron transport layers, electron injection layers, exciton blocking layers, electron blocking layers, charge generation layers and / or organic or inorganic p / n junctions. Likewise, interlayers which have, for example, an exciton-blocking function and / or control the charge balance in the electroluminescent device can be introduced between two emitting layers. It should be noted, however, that not necessarily each of these layers must be present.
  • In this case, the organic electroluminescent device may contain an emitting layer, or it may contain a plurality of emitting layers. If several emission layers are present, they preferably have a total of a plurality of emission maxima between 380 nm and 750 nm, so that overall white emission results, ie in the emitting layers different emitting compounds are used, which can fluoresce or phosphoresce. Particular preference is given to three-layer systems, the three layers showing blue, green and orange or red emission (for the basic structure see, for example, US Pat. WO 2005/011013 ) or systems which have more than three emitting layers. It may also be a hybrid system wherein one or more layers fluoresce and one or more other layers phosphoresce.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the organic electroluminescent device contains the compound of the formula (1) or the preferred embodiments listed above as the emitting compound in one or more emitting layers.
  • When the compound of the formula (1) is used as an emitting compound in an emitting layer, it is preferably used in combination with one or more matrix materials. The mixture of the compound according to formula (1) and the matrix material contains between 0.1 and 99% by weight, preferably between 1 and 90% by weight, more preferably between 3 and 40% by weight, in particular between 5 and 15% by weight .-% of the compound according to formula (1) based on the total mixture of emitter and matrix material. Accordingly, the mixture contains between 99.9 and 1 wt .-%, preferably between 99 and 10 wt .-%, particularly preferably between 97 and 60 wt .-%, in particular between 95 and 85 wt .-% of the matrix material based on the total mixture Emitter and matrix material.
  • In general, all materials known in the art as matrix materials for triplet emitters can be used as the matrix material. Preferably, the triplet level of the matrix material is higher than the triplet level of the emitter. This applies regardless of the emission mechanism of the compounds according to the invention, that is, regardless of whether the compounds show phosphorescence, fluorescence or delayed fluorescence.
  • Suitable matrix materials for the compounds according to the invention are ketones, phosphine oxides, sulfoxides and sulfones, for. B. according to WO 2004/013080 . WO 2004/093207 . WO 2006/005627 or WO 2010/006680 , Triarylamines, carbazole derivatives, e.g. B. CBP (N, N-Biscarbazolylbiphenyl), m-CBP or in WO 2005/039246 . US 2005/0069729 . JP 2004/288381 . EP 1205527 . WO 2008/086851 or US 2009/0134784 disclosed carbazole derivatives, indolocarbazole derivatives, e.g. B. according to WO 2007/063754 or WO 2008/056746 , Indenocarbazole derivatives, e.g. B. according to WO 2010/136109 or WO 2011/000455 , Azacarbazoles, e.g. B. according to EP 1617710 . EP 1617711 . EP 1731584 . JP 2005/347160 , bipolar matrix materials, e.g. B. according to WO 2007/137725 , Silane, z. B. according to WO 2005/111172 , Azaborole or Boronester, z. B. according to WO 2006/117052 , Diazasilolderivete, z. B. according to WO 2010/054729 , Diazaphospholderivate, z. B. according to WO 2010/054730 , Triazine derivatives, e.g. B. according to WO 2010/015306 . WO 2007/063754 or WO 2008/056746 , Zinc complexes, e.g. B. according to EP 652273 or WO 2009/062578 , Dibenzofuran derivatives, e.g. B. according to WO 2009/148015 , or bridged carbazole derivatives, e.g. B. according to US 2009/0136779 . WO 2010/050778 . WO 2011/042107 or WO 2011/088877 ,
  • It may also be preferred to use a plurality of different matrix materials as a mixture, in particular at least one electron-conducting matrix material and at least one hole-conducting matrix material. A preferred combination is, for example, the use of an aromatic ketone, a triazine derivative or a phosphine oxide derivative with a triarylamine derivative or a carbazole derivative as a mixed matrix for the metal complex according to the invention. Also preferred is the use of a mixture of a charge-transporting matrix material and an electrically inert matrix material, which is not or not significantly involved in charge transport, such. In WO 2010/108579 described. Further preferred is the use of a mixture of two electron-conducting matrix materials.
  • It is further preferred to use a mixture of a triplet emitter and a compound according to the invention together with a matrix.
  • The compounds according to the invention can also be used in other functions in the electronic device, for example as hole transport material in a hole injection or transport layer, as charge generation material or as electron blocking material.
  • As the cathode, low work function metals, metal alloys or multilayer structures of various metals are preferable, such as alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, main group metals or lanthanides (eg, Ca, Ba, Mg, Al, In, Mg, Yb, Sm, etc.). , Also suitable are alloys of an alkali or alkaline earth metal and silver, for example an alloy of magnesium and silver. In multilayer structures, it is also possible, in addition to the metals mentioned, to use further metals which have a relatively high work function, such as, for example, B. Ag, which then usually combinations of metals, such as Mg / Ag, Ca / Ag or Ba / Ag are used. It may also be preferred to introduce between a metallic cathode and the organic semiconductor a thin intermediate layer of a material with a high dielectric constant. Suitable examples of these are alkali metal or alkaline earth metal fluorides, but also the corresponding oxides or carbonates (eg LiF, Li 2 O, BaF 2 , MgO, NaF, CsF, Cs 2 CO 3 , etc.). Likewise suitable for this purpose are organic alkali metal complexes, for. B. Liq (lithium quinolinate). The layer thickness of this layer is preferably between 0.5 and 5 nm.
  • As the anode, high workfunction materials are preferred. Preferably, the anode has a work function greater than 4.5 eV. Vacuum up. On the one hand, metals with a high redox potential, such as Ag, Pt or Au, are suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, metal / metal oxide electrodes (for example Al / Ni / NiO x , Al / PtO x ) may also be preferred. For some applications, at least one of the electrodes must be transparent or partially transparent to allow either the irradiation of the organic material (O-SC) or the outcoupling of light (OLED / PLED, O-LASER). Preferred anode materials here are conductive mixed metal oxides. Particularly preferred are indium tin oxide (ITO) or indium zinc oxide (IZO). Also preferred are conductive, doped organic materials, in particular conductive doped polymers, for. B. PEDOT, PANI or derivatives of these polymers.
  • In the further layers, it is generally possible to use all materials as used in the prior art for the layers, and the person skilled in the art can combine any of these materials in an electronic device with the inventive materials without inventive step.
  • The device is structured accordingly (depending on the application), contacted and finally hermetically sealed because the life of such devices drastically shortened in the presence of water and / or air.
  • Further preferred is an organic electroluminescent device, characterized in that one or more layers are coated with a sublimation process. The materials are vapor-deposited in vacuum sublimation systems at an initial pressure of usually less than 10 -5 mbar, preferably less than 10 -6 mbar. It is also possible that the initial pressure is even lower or even higher, for example less than 10 -7 mbar.
  • Also preferred is an organic electroluminescent device, characterized in that one or more layers are coated with the OVPD (Organic Vapor Phase Deposition) method or with the aid of a carrier gas sublimation. The materials are applied at a pressure between 10 -5 mbar and 1 bar. A special case of this process is the OVJP (Organic Vapor Jet Printing) process, in which the materials are applied directly through a nozzle and thus structured (eg. MS Arnold et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 92, 053301 ).
  • Further preferred is an organic electroluminescent device, characterized in that one or more layers of solution, such. B. by spin coating, or with any printing process, such. As screen printing, flexographic printing, offset printing or Nozzle printing, but more preferably LITI (Light Induced Thermal Imaging, thermal transfer printing) or ink-jet printing (ink jet printing) can be produced. For this purpose, soluble compounds are necessary, which are obtained for example by suitable substitution.
  • The organic electroluminescent device may also be fabricated as a hybrid system by applying one or more layers of solution and depositing one or more other layers. Thus, for example, it is possible to apply an emitting layer containing a compound of formula (1) and a solution matrix material and then vacuum evaporate a hole blocking layer and / or an electron transport layer.
  • These methods are generally known to the person skilled in the art and can be applied by him without problems to organic electroluminescent devices containing compounds of the formula (1) or the preferred embodiments listed above.
  • The electronic devices according to the invention, in particular organic electroluminescent devices, are distinguished by the following surprising advantages over the prior art:
    • 1. Organic electroluminescent devices containing compounds according to formula (1) as emitting materials have a very good lifetime.
    • 2. Organic electroluminescent devices containing compounds according to formula (1) as emitting materials have a very good efficiency.
    • 3. The complexes of the invention can be realized in particular with copper, rhodium and other metals, which makes it possible to dispense with the rare metals iridium and platinum.
  • These advantages mentioned above are not accompanied by a deterioration of the other electronic properties.
  • The invention is explained in more detail by the following examples without wishing to restrict them thereby. The person skilled in the art can produce further compounds according to the invention from the descriptions without inventive step and thus carry out the invention in the entire claimed range.
  • Examples:
  • Unless stated otherwise, the following syntheses are carried out under an inert gas atmosphere in dried solvents. The metal complexes are additionally handled in the absence of light. The solvents and reagents may, for. B. from Sigma-ALDRICH or ABCR. Example 1: Synthesis of oxo ligand 1
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0012
  • A suspension of 0.63 mg of [(PhCH 2 ) Ph 2 P =O] (2.16 mmol, M = 292.3 g / mol) (commercially obtained) in 25 ml of THF is treated at -78 ° C. with 1.48 ml of butyllithium (1.6 M, 2.37 mmol). Thawing produces a red solution. After stirring for 1 h, 516 mg of CIPPh 2 (2.34 mmol) (purchased commercially) are added, whereupon the reaction mixture decolorizes. The product [(Ph 2 P) PhCHPh 2 P = O] crystallizes from THF in the refrigerator overnight. The product is filtered off, washed with hexane, dried in vacuo and isolated as a colorless solid (0.39 g, M = 476.5 g / mol, 0.82 mmol, 38%). NMR data: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, C 6 D 6 ) 8.15-6.80 (m, 25H, Ph), 4.57 (m, 1H, PhCH). 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, C 6 D 6 ) 28.5 (d, 2 J PP = 58 Hz, 1P, P = O), -5.2 (d, 2 J PP = 58 Hz, 1P, PPh 2 ). Example 2 Synthesis of Sulfur Ligand 2
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0013
  • To a solution of 1100 mg [(PhCH 2 ) Ph 2 P = S] (3.57 mmol, M = 308.4 g mol) (commercially available) in 30 mL THF at -78 ° C 2.45 mL butyllithium (1.6 M, 3.92 mmol ) and stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The deep red reaction mixture is added slowly to a solution of 1048 mg of CIPPh 2 (3.93 mmol) (purchased commercially) with immediate discoloration. The soluble components are removed under high vacuum. LiCl is precipitated with dichloromethane and filtered off and the filtrate concentrated to incipient crystallization. The product [(Ph 2 P) PhCHPh 2 P = S] is precipitated with ethanol, filtered off, washed with hexane and dried in vacuo (1.20 g, M = 492.6 g / mol, 2.43 mmol, 68%). NMR data: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ) 7.90-6.99 (m, 25H, Ph), 4.97 (m, 1H, PhCH). 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ) 47.1 (d, 2 J PP = 83 Hz, 1P, P = S), -7.3 (d, 2 J PP = 83 Hz, 1P, PPh 2 ). Example 3 Synthesis of the Iridium Complex 3
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0014
  • 50 mg (M = 1072.1 g / mol, 0.046 mmol) of [Ir (PhPy) 2 Cl] 2 are suspended in 5 ml of THF and, with the exclusion of light, 18 mg (0.09 mmol) of AgBF 4 are added. After 10 minutes, the precipitated AgCl is filtered off and added to the filtrate with 45 mg (0.094 mmol) of [(Ph 2 P) PhCHPh 2 P =O]. Subsequently, a solution of 7 mg of lithium pyrrolidide (0.091 mmol) in 1 mL of THF is added dropwise to the reaction mixture, which then turns orange. After stirring for 2 days, the precipitate formed is filtered off and the intensively yellow filtrate is covered with hexane for crystallization. Yellow crystals of the composition [Ir {(Ph 2 P) PhCPh 2 P = O} (PhPy) 2 ] are formed. Yield 24 mg (0.025 mmol, 27%) NMR spectroscopy: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, THF) 8.20-570 (m, 41H), 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, THF) 65.3 (d, 2 J PP = 116 Hz, PO), -2.0 (d, 1P, PPh 2 , 2 J PP = 116 Hz). Example 4 Synthesis of the Iridium Complex 4
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0015
  • 50 mg (M = 1072.1 g / mol, 0.046 mmol) of [Ir (PhPy) 2 Cl] 2 are suspended in 5 ml of THF and 18 mg (0.092 mmol) of AgBF 4 are added under exclusion of light. After 10 min, the precipitated AgCl is filtered off and 44 mg (M = 492.6 g / mol, 0.089 mmol) of [(Ph 2 P) PhCHPh 2 P = S] are added to the filtrate. Subsequently, a solution of 8 mg of lithium pyrrolidide (0.10 mmol) in 1 mL of THF is added dropwise to the reaction mixture, which then turns orange. After stirring for 2 days, the precipitate formed is filtered off and the intensively yellow filtrate is covered with hexane for crystallization. Yellow crystals of the composition [Ir {(Ph 2 P) PhCPh 2 P = S} (PhPy) 2 ] are formed. Yield 41 mg (M = 992.2 g / mol, 0.041 mmol, 45%) NMR spectroscopy: 1 H NMR (400.13 MHz, THF) 8.20-570 (m, 41H), 31 P { 1 H} NMR ( 161.98 MHz, THF) 65.3 (d, 2 J PP = 116 Hz, PO), -2.0 (d, 1P, PPh 2 , 2 J PP = 116 Hz). Example 5 Synthesis of Rhodium Complex 5
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0016
  • Rh (PPh 3 ) 3 Cl (100 mg, 0.11 mmol) is dissolved in 5 mL toluene and treated with Li [(Ph 2 P) PhCPh 2 P = O] (53 mg, M = 482.4 g / mol, 0.11 mmol) 3 mL of toluene are added. After about 1 h, the precipitated LiCl is filtered off, the filtrate is concentrated to 1 mL and treated with 20 mL of hexane. After about 2 weeks, orange crystals of 5 are formed. Yield: 38 mg (M = 1103.0 g / mol, 0.035 mmol, 31% of theory). NMR spectroscopy at room temperature: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 7.53-6.27 (m, ar). 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 65.7 (m, 1P, OP-), 52.2 (m, 1P, -PPh 2 ), 34.1 (m, 2P, PPh 3 ).
  • Compound 5 shows orange luminescence both in the solid and in solution. Example 6 Synthesis of Rhodium Complex 6
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0017
  • Rh (PPh 3 ) 3 Cl (100 mg, 0.11 mmol) is dissolved in 5 mL toluene and stirred with 59 mg Li [(Ph 2 P) PhCPh 2 P = S] (M = 498.5 g / mol, 0.12 mmol). added. After 1 h, filter through a syringe filter and add 20 mL of hexane to the red solution. Overnight, the by-products precipitate and are filtered off. The filtrate is concentrated to about 0.5 mL and mixed with 60 mL of hexane. Red needles of 6 ° C crystallize within several weeks at -19 ° C. Yield: 9 mg (M = 1119.0 g / mol, 0.008 mmol, 7% of theory) NMR spectroscopy at room temperature: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 7.90-6.24 (m, ar). 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 53.8 [ddd, 1P, -SPPhHP-, 2 J P, P = 171 Hz, 3 J P, P (cis) = 47 Hz, 3 J P, P (trans) = 6 Hz], 49.5 [dddd, 1P, -SPPhHP-, 2 J P, P (trans) = 320 Hz, 2 J P, P = 171 Hz, 1 J Rh, P = 120 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) 28 Hz], 37.5 [dddd, 1P, -PPh 3 , 1 J Rh, P = 188 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) = 41 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) = 30 Hz, 2 J P, P (trans) = 6 Hz], 32.5 [ddd, 1P, 2 J P, P (trans) = 316 Hz, 1 J Rh, P = 145 Hz, 3 J P , P (cis) = 47 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) = 41 Hz].
  • Compound 6 shows orange-colored luminescence in the solid. Example 7 Synthesis of Rhodium Complex 7
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0018
  • Rh (PPh 3 ) 3 Cl (100 mg, 0.11 mmol) is dissolved in 5 mL THF and slowly added with stirring to a solution of [PhCH (PPh 2 ) 2 ] (47 mg, M = 460.5 g / mol, 0.10 mmol). in 2 mL THF. After about 1 h, the yellow salt Li [(Ph 2 P) PhCPh 2 P = S] (60 mg, M = 498.5 g / mol, 0.12 mmol) is added. The light red solution darkens and with hexane an orange, sticky solid precipitated and filtered off. From the filtrate crystallize after about a week orange crystals of the target compound. Yield: 26 mg (M = 1055.0 g / mol, 0.073 mmol, 25% of theory) NMR spectroscopy at room temperature: 1 H-NMR (400.13 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 8.29-5.82 (m, 30H, ar), 5.86 ppm (m, 1H, PPhHP). 31 P { 1 H} NMR (161.98 MHz, CD 2 Cl 2 ): 50.5 [m, 1P, -SPPHP, 1 J Rh, P = 2 Hz, 2 J P, P = 164 Hz, 3 J P, P (trans) = 8 Hz, 3 J P, P (cis) = 37 Hz], 44.9 [m, 1P, PPhPS, 1 J Rh, P = 117 Hz, 2 J P, P = 164 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) = 23 Hz, 2 J P, P (trans) = 347 Hz], 9.1 (m, 1P, PPhHP trans to PS, 1 J Rh, P = 158 Hz, 2 J P, P = 82 Hz, 2 J P, P (cis) = 23 Hz, 3 J P, P (trans) = 8 Hz), -4.0 (m, 1P, PPhHP cis to PS, 1 J Rh, P = 118 Hz, 2 J P, P (trans) = 347 Hz, 2 J P, P = 82 Hz, 3 J P, P (c sharp) = 37 Hz). Example 8 Synthesis of the Copper Complex 8
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0019
  • 150 mg of [(Ph 2 P) PhCHPh 2 P =S] (492.6 g / mol, 0.31 mmol) are dissolved in 10 ml of toluene and treated at room temperature with 20 mg of the copper amide Cu (NC 4 H 8 ) (synthesized according to S. Gambarotta, M. Bracci, C. Floriani, A. Chiesi-Villa, C. Guastini, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1987, 1883 ) (M = 133.7 g / mol, 0.15 mmol). After three days at 0 ° C., a few yellow crystals are formed, which were characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. These crystals show yellow luminescence at room temperature.
  • Compound 8 shows yellow luminescence in the solid. Example 9 Synthesis of the Copper Complex 10
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0020
  • Synthesis of Ligand 9:
  • To a solution of bis (diphenylphosphino) (phenyl) methane (2.20 g, 4.78 mmol) in THF / toluene (20 mL / 10 mL) at -30 ° C, a solution of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl azide (synthesized according to LP Spencer, R. Altwer, P. Wie, L. Gelmini, J. Gauld, DW Stephan, Organometallics, 2003, 22, 3841 ) (2.33 g, 11.47 mmol) in toluene (10 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was first stirred for 1 h in the cold and overnight at room temperature. The batch is completely concentrated in a high vacuum and the residue is subsequently washed with hexane (4 × 10 ml). 9 is obtained as a pale yellow powder (2.8 g, 4.41 mmol, 92%). Elemental analysis calc. C 43 H 43 NP 2 C 81.24, H 6.82, N 2.20; gef. C 81.27, H 6.64, N 2.24.
  • Synthesis of Complex 10:
  • 119 mg of PN ligand 9 (M = 635.8 g / mol, 0.19 mmol) (synthesis of this ligand is from the diphosphane in reaction with the aryl azide) * in toluene with 25 mg of copper amide (CuNC 4 H 8 ) (M. = 133.7 g / mol, 0.19 mmol) and 84 mg of the chelating phosphine ligand [1,2- (PPh 2 ) 2 C 6 H 4 ] (M = 446.5 mg, 0.19 mmol) were reacted at room temperature. The reaction mixture is stirred for several hours at room temperature and then cooled to -30 ° C for crystallization. After several days, a few crystals have formed which show yellow luminescence. The substance was characterized by single crystal X-ray structure analysis.
  • Compound 10 shows yellow luminescence in the solid.
  • Examples: Production of the OLEDs
  • Solution-processed devices made of soluble functional materials
  • The complexes of the invention may, for. B. be processed from solution. The production of such components is based on the production of polymeric light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), which has already been described many times in the literature (for example in US Pat WO 2004/037887 ). The structure is composed of substrate / ITO / PEDOT (80 nm) / interlayer (80 nm) / emission layer (80 nm) / cathode. For this purpose, substrates from Technoprint (Sodalimeglas) are used, to which the ITO structure (indium tin oxide, a transparent, conductive anode) is applied. The substrates are cleaned in the clean room with DI water and a detergent (Deconex 15 PF) and then activated by a UV / ozone plasma treatment. Thereafter, an 80 nm layer of PEDOT: PSS coated (poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate), referred to as CLEVIOS P VP Al 4083 from Heraeus Precious Metals GmbH Germany, spin-coated from aqueous solution) is likewise used in the clean room as buffer layer Spin coating applied. The required spin rate depends on the degree of dilution and the specific spin coater geometry (typically 80 nm: 4500 rpm). To remove residual water from the layer, the substrates are baked for 10 minutes at 180 ° C on a hot plate. The interlayer used is for hole injection, in this case HIL-012 is used by Merck. Alternatively, the interlayer can also be replaced by one or more layers, which merely have to fulfill the condition that they are not replaced by the downstream processing step of the EML deposition from solution. To produce the emission layer, the emitters according to the invention are dissolved together with the matrix materials in toluene or THF. The typical solids content of such solutions is between 16 and 25 g / L, if, as here, the typical for a device layer thickness of 80 nm is to be achieved by spin coating. The solution-processed devices contain an emission layer of (polystyrene): M1: M2: emitter (25%: 25%: 40%: 10%). The emission layer is spin-coated in an inert gas atmosphere, in this case argon, and baked at 130 ° C. for 30 minutes. Finally, a cathode of barium (5 nm) and then aluminum (100 nm) (high-purity metals from Aldrich, especially barium 99.99% (Order No. 474711), Lesker vapor deposition units, typical vapor deposition pressure 5 × 10 -6 mbar) are vapor-deposited , Optionally, first a lock blocking layer and then an electron transport layer and then only the cathode (eg Al or LiF / Al) can be evaporated in vacuo. To protect the device from air and humidity, the device is finally encapsulated and then characterized. The above-mentioned OLED examples are not yet optimized, Table 3 summarizes the data obtained. Table 1: Results with solution processed materials Ex. emitter EQE (%) 1000 cd / m 2 Voltage (V) 1000 cd / m 2 CIE x / y 1000 cd / m 2 Sol-D1 Example 3 8.9 3.9 0.28 / 12:49 Sol-D2 Example 4 7.3 4.1 0.35 / 0.61 Sol-D3 Example 5 3.1 4.3 0.45 / 12:49 Sol-D4 Example 6 3.5 4.1 0.42 / 12:50 Sol-D5 Example 7 3.6 3.8 0.58 / 12:38 Sol-D6 Ex. 8 6.4 3.7 0.42 / 12:47 Sol-D7 Ex. 10 5.0 3.8 0:41 / 0.44
    Table 2: Structural formulas of the materials used
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0021
  • Description of the figures:
  • 1 : Luminescence spectra of 3 in the solid state (left) and in solution in THF (right).
  • 2 : Structure of 4 in the solid state.
  • 3 : Luminescence spectra of 4, a) in the solid state and b) in solution in THF.
  • 4 : Structure in the Solid State of Compound 5.
  • 5 : Luminescence spectrum of 5 in the solid.
  • 6 : Structure in the Solid State of Compound 7.
  • 7 : Luminescence spectrum of 7 in the solid state.
  • 8th : Result of crystal structure analysis of copper complex 8.
  • 9 : Result of Crystal Structure Analysis of Copper Complex 10.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
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Claims (14)

  1. Compound according to formula (1), M (L) n (L ') m formula (1), containing a partial structure of the following formula (2),
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0022
    Formula (2) where for the symbols and indices used: M is Cu, Ag, Au, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, Zn or Al; Y is the same or different CR 2 or N at each occurrence; E is the same or different O, S or NR 3 at each occurrence; A is a neutral group which coordinates to M and which may be substituted or unsubstituted; R 1 , R 2 , R 3 are each the same or different at each occurrence H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N (R 4 ) 2 , P (R 4 ) 2 , CN, NO 2 , OH, COOH, C (= O) N (R 4 ) 2 , Si (R 4 ) 3 , B (OR 4 ) 2 , C (= O) R 4 , P (= O) (R 4 ) 2 , S (= O) R 4 , S (= O) 2 R 4 , OSO 2 R 4 , a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 20 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 20 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 20 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH 2 groups is replaced by R 4 C = CR 4 , C≡C , Si (R 4 ) 2 , C = O, NR 4 , O, S or CONR 4 may be replaced and wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or a aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 40 aro matic ring atoms which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 , or a Diarylaminogruppe, Diheteroarylaminogruppe or Arylheteroarylaminogruppe 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; two radicals R 1 which bind to the same phosphorus atom may also together form a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or aliphatic ring system; R 4 is the same or different at each instance selected from the group consisting of H, D, F, CN, an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 carbon atoms or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, in which one or a plurality of H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN and which may be substituted by one or more alkyl groups each having 1 to 4 carbon atoms; two or more adjacent substituents R 4 may together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system; L 'is the same or different at each occurrence a coligand; n is 1, 2 or 3; m is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4; the following compounds are excluded from the invention:
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0023
  2. A compound according to claim 1, characterized in that it is not loaded.
  3. A compound according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the structure of the formula (2) is selected from the structures of the formula (2a),
    Figure DE102015006708A1_0024
    Formula (2a) wherein R 1 , R 2 , A, M and n have the meanings mentioned in claim 1 and E is O or S.
  4. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that A stands for a neutral coordinating group, so that the ligand L spans with the metal a five-membered ring or a six-membered ring.
  5. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the group A is selected from -P (R 1 ) 2 , -N (R 5 ) 2 , -OR 5 and -N = CR 5 , wherein R 1 has the meanings given in claim 1 and R 5 has the same meanings as R 1 in claim 1, or the group A is selected from a heteroaryl group having 5 to 10 aromatic ring atoms which coordinates via a neutral heteroatom to M and by one or a plurality of radicals R 2 may be substituted, wherein R 2 has the meanings mentioned in claim 1.
  6. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that R 1 is the same or different selected on each occurrence from the group consisting of F, N (R 4 ) 2 , a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 10 C. Atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl or alkoxy group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more R 4 radicals, one or more H atoms passing through D or F may be replaced, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 ; in this case, two radicals R 1 , which bind to the same phosphorus atom, also together form a mono- or polycyclic aliphatic ring system.
  7. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that R 2 is the same or different at each occurrence selected from the group consisting of H, D, F, N (R 4 ) 2 , CN, P (R 4 ) 2 , C (= O) R 4 , a straight-chain alkyl group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each containing one or more Radicals R 4 may be substituted, wherein one or more H atoms may be replaced by D or F, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R 4 .
  8. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that L 'is a neutral or monoanionic, mono- or bidentate ligand.
  9. Compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that L 'is a neutral, bidentate ligand or that L' is a monoanionic, bidentate ligand having a neutral nitrogen atom and a negatively charged carbon atom or a neutral carbon atom and a negatively charged carbon atom binds to M.
  10. A process for preparing a compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 9 by reacting the free ligand L, optionally in deprotonated form, and optionally further ligands L 'with metal salts or metal complexes.
  11. Formulation containing at least one compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 9 and at least one further compound, in particular a solvent or a matrix material.
  12. Use of a compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 9 in an electronic device.
  13. Electronic device containing a compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 9.
  14. Electronic device according to claim 13, which is an organic electroluminescent device, characterized in that the compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 9 is used as an emitting compound in one or more emitting layers.
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