DE102014215315B4 - Adjustable compliance drive device for a musculoskeletal system, method of controlling such and musculoskeletal system - Google Patents

Adjustable compliance drive device for a musculoskeletal system, method of controlling such and musculoskeletal system

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Publication number
DE102014215315B4
DE102014215315B4 DE102014215315.8A DE102014215315A DE102014215315B4 DE 102014215315 B4 DE102014215315 B4 DE 102014215315B4 DE 102014215315 A DE102014215315 A DE 102014215315A DE 102014215315 B4 DE102014215315 B4 DE 102014215315B4
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Germany
Prior art keywords
movement
fluid
spring element
drive device
drive
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DE102014215315.8A
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German (de)
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DE102014215315A1 (en
Inventor
Oleg Ivlev
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Fwbi Friedrich-Wilhelm-Bessel-Institut Forschungsgesellschaft Bremen mbH
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Fwbi Friedrich-Wilhelm-Bessel-Institut Forschungsgesellschaft Bremen mbH
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Publication of DE102014215315A1 publication Critical patent/DE102014215315A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J19/00Accessories fitted to manipulators, e.g. for monitoring, for viewing; Safety devices combined with or specially adapted for use in connection with manipulators
    • B25J19/06Safety devices
    • B25J19/068Actuating means with variable stiffness
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F15/00Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion
    • F16F15/10Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system
    • F16F15/16Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system using a fluid or pasty material

Abstract

The invention relates to a drive device (1) for a musculoskeletal system for producing a movement between two components (211, 212), comprising a drive (2) for generating a movement between the two components (211, 212) and a fluidic spring element (6). with an elasticity that can be adjusted by means of a supply and discharge of a fluid and / or flexibility that can be set between the two components (211, 212), wherein the fluidic spring element (6) has a first and a second base body, and at least one fluid chamber (426, 428) or a plurality of fluid chambers (426, 428) arranged functionally parallel to one another between the two base bodies (418, 419) for producing a relative movement of the base bodies (418, 419) relative to one another by respectively supplying or discharging the fluid to and from the at least one fluid chamber ( 426, 428), wherein each one of the fluid chambers (426, 428) is formed by a tube section.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a drive apparatus for a musculoskeletal system, in particular for a movement-therapeutic apparatus, which may also be a robot. Furthermore, the present invention relates to a method for controlling such a drive device and the present invention relates to a musculoskeletal system, in particular a motion therapy apparatus or corresponding robot.
  • Drives with inherent compliance, also called soft drives, find applications in automation technology, in robotics, especially service and assistance robotics as well as in medical technology, eg. As in motor orthotics and / or therapeutic training devices - ie wherever there is a physical interaction between the mechanism and the environment or people.
  • Such drives can be realized both on the basis of electric motors and of fluidic, ie pneumatic and / or hydraulic actuators. An important feature of such drives, which is essential for effective and safe interaction, both with humans and with their environment, is the adjustable compliance of the drive.
  • The following solutions are known:
    In electromechanical drives, the compliance is realized mechanically by means of adjustable spring elements, various design solutions are possible and some of them are described in the documents EP 2 444 207 A1 and WO 2014/001585 A1 , The disadvantage here is the complex mechanics, and that a second motor is required.
  • In fluidic drives with antagonistically arranged fixed working chambers, such. As pneumatic cylinder, the compressibility of the working medium can be changed artificially, z. By admixing a second fluid, which US 2013/0047596 A1 describes. The stiffness of the drive then changes as the pressure level changes, the base pressure. The disadvantage here is that the practical realization is difficult or even questionable.
  • In fluidic drives with antagonistically arranged flexible working chambers, for example fluidic muscles or REC drives (rotary elastic chambers), the compliance can also be adjusted independently of the movement by changes in the pressure level, ie base pressure, without using a mixing fluid. The disadvantage here is that the motion design requires large amounts of the working medium, such as oil, compressed air, etc., whose production, especially the compression or compression, is often characterized by low energy efficiency, and is usually loud and poorly suited for mobile application.
  • Movement-therapeutic apparatus are known in this respect and will be explained in more detail here as an example. They are used, for example, for the rehabilitation of patients who train movements due to an injury, surgery or other reasons, in particular to relearn movements that are self-evident for many people and for the affected person was often taken for granted.
  • For this purpose, the patient uses a musculoskeletal system, to which the body part to be trained, such as a leg, is attached to a corresponding movement mechanism. The leg, in order to stay in this example, then performs a bending movement, for example, repeatedly supported by the musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system has a corresponding drive and thus moves the leg in the described movement.
  • It is important in this case that during movement by the musculoskeletal system, a certain elasticity or flexibility is present to keep loads on the body part to be trained low.
  • For such or similar musculoskeletal system shows the German patent DE 10 2008 060 900 B4 a device with fluidic soft-pivot drive. Also for such or similar musculoskeletal system shows the patent DE 10 2009 008 128 B4 a fluidic soft rotary drive. This is in particular a rotational movement initiated, which allows elasticity or compliance. The publication DE 10 2011 081 727 A1 shows a fluidic soft-drive element, which can also find application in a said or similar musculoskeletal system. This soft drive element initiates the correspondingly necessary movement in that a hose is arranged between a first and a second cover and thereby forms an elastic hollow chamber or hollow body. A filling of this hollow chamber with fluid leads to a correspondingly expanding movement and thus corresponding movement of the two covers to each other. Draining the fluid basically results in the opposite movement. In particular, the filling with air is proposed there, which also benefits the desired elasticity or flexibility.
  • However, such a fluidic soft drive element has the disadvantage that for each movement the hollow body must be filled with the fluid and this must be drained again for the counter-movement. Although such a process leads to the desired movement, even with the desired elasticity or compliance, but is very expensive especially in continuous operation. As a result, a comparatively high pumping capacity is required for the fluid.
  • The publication DE 10 2013 204 588 A1 discloses a torque transmitting device having an inner ring and an outer ring, which are arranged rotatably to each other. Also revealed EP 2 500 150 A2 a compliance device. The pressure within the compliance device is monitored to prevent damage to a robotic arm by stopping movement of the arm when pressure in the compliance device is exceeded.
  • The present invention is therefore based on the object, at least one of o. G. To address problems. In particular, a solution for a drive device of the type described above is to be found, which can achieve an elasticity or compliance in a simple and reliable manner. At least an alternative solution compared to the previous solutions should be proposed.
  • According to the invention, a drive device according to claim 1 is proposed, namely a musculoskeletal system for generating a movement between two components
    • A drive for generating a movement between the two components and
    • A fluidic spring element with an elasticity which can be adjusted by means of supply and discharge of a fluid and / or flexibility which can be adjusted between the two components, the fluidic spring element having a first and a second base body, and at least one fluid chamber or a plurality of fluid chambers arranged functionally parallel to one another between the two two base bodies for generating a relative movement of the base body to each other by appropriately supplying or discharging the fluid to and from the at least one fluid chamber, wherein each one of the fluid chambers is formed by a tube section.
  • Such a drive device is thus provided for a musculoskeletal system, namely in particular for a movement-therapeutic apparatus. It is thus designed to initiate a corresponding movement, such as, for example, a bending movement for a leg relative to the knee joint, to give only an illustrative example, and has an advantageous compliance or elasticity. The movement is generated between two components. With these two components then each body part is directly or indirectly connected. For example. Thus, the one component is assigned to a lower leg and the other component to a thigh to pick up the example above.
  • Incidentally, the drive device may also be provided for a robot which is used, for example, in industrial manufacturing processes and, for example, in a gripping portion requires elasticity or flexibility in order, for example, to firmly grasp an object, but without it being too strong Access to destroy or damage. This too is only an example.
  • The drive device then correspondingly comprises a drive for generating a movement between the two components. In addition, it comprises a fluidic spring element, which can be synonymously also referred to as elasticity element and / or compliance element. The fluidic spring element can be adjusted in its elasticity and / or compliance by supplying or discharging a fluid. Expressed in simple terms, the fluidic spring element becomes more rigid, and thus less flexible or less elastic, particularly by the supply of a fluid, that is to say the filling with a fluid. When draining the fluid, the effect is reversed accordingly.
  • A force acting externally on the drive device, in particular on one of the two components, thus results in the corresponding component being able to yield to such an external action. How much is yielded in this case, how much so that the relevant component identifies this external action can be adjusted by the supply or the discharge of a fluid.
  • This yielding or dodging can be completely reversible, so that then there is an elastic yielding. In this case, the fluidic spring element has an elasticity, namely that is adjustable. In particular, the use of a compressible gas as a fluid, such as. Air, supports such elastic, ie reversible behavior.
  • Insofar as the yielding or yielding takes place irreversibly, the fluidic spring element has a compliance, which can be adjusted by means of supply and discharge of the fluid. Such an irreversible or at least temporarily non-reversible behavior can be caused for example by a plastic deformation of a receiving body for receiving the fluid. For example, a chamber wall could be compressed. But this does not exclude that Upsetting, for example, can be reversed by appropriate filling with the fluid again.
  • But there may also be a combination of elastic and plastic behavior. Preferably, an elastic behavior should be present. The elastic behavior can be superimposed but a plastic behavior.
  • The drive device that is proposed thus has a drive that can initiate the movement, and it has the fluidic spring element, which can provide the elasticity or compliance. The elasticity or compliance can be adjusted via the supply or removal of fluid. As a result, this adjustability can be achieved in a simple manner. In particular, the use of a gas, in particular air as a fluid can already achieve the desired elasticity by the property of this gas, namely that it is compressible. However, but it is avoided that the entire movement is initiated by this supply or discharge of the fluid. It is thus the effort, in particular the pumping effort, reduced to supply and discharge of the fluid to a minimum.
  • As a drive can then be used in particular a conventional drive such as an electric motor, which can seduce the desired movement, without requiring a pumping effort for a fluid is needed. Only the advantageous adjustment of the elasticity or compliance is achieved via the supply or discharge of the fluid. The adjustability of the elasticity or compliance is thus carried out in a simple manner, while the pumping effort can be kept to a minimum.
  • According to one embodiment, the fluidic spring element is connected to the drive functionally in series and forms with the drive a common axis of rotation. In other words, there is then functionally the fluidic spring element and the drive between the two components and the two components are rotated during operation or upon actuation of the drive device against each other, namely about this axis of rotation. The functional series connection is to be understood to the extent that the total torsion angle between the two components composed of the rotation angle of the drive and the angle of rotation of the fluidic spring element. In principle, however, such a series connection can also be considered if an intermediate element would also be interposed in relation to one or both of the components.
  • In this series connection thus ultimately forms the fluidic spring element itself also an element that can perform a rotational movement, at least to a lesser extent, this can at least transmit.
  • In principle, however, the proposed functional series connection can also be used for movements other than rotary movements.
  • According to another embodiment, the fluidic spring element and the drive are functionally connected in series, but without having a common axis of rotation. For example. In this case, a rotational movement can be initiated by the drive and forwarded with the fluidic spring element in a different direction.
  • Alternatively, the drive element could also perform a translational movement and transmit it further via the fluidic spring element.
  • Preferably, the drive is designed as an electric drive, in particular as an electric motor. As a result, a commercially available or at least basically known electric motor including a known control can be used. By the electric motor, the movement can be implemented to a large extent simple, direct and fast and accurate.
  • The fluidic spring element is also or alternatively provided so that it has a first and a second base body, and one or more functionally parallel to each other arranged fluid chambers between these base bodies, so that a relative movement of the base body to each other by appropriately supplying or discharging the fluid to or from which at least one fluid chamber can be achieved. Particular preference is given to using air as the fluid here. In each case one of the fluid chambers is formed by a tube section, which is particularly proposed for the use of air, but also for other fluids. The fluid chambers can thereby be formed in a simple manner by using only one section of a hose, that is, for example, needs to be cut out. This results in a fluidic spring element which can be produced easily and which can achieve the desired, adjustable elasticity or compliance by filling this hose section or hose sections.
  • The drive device is then in particular a combination of the electric motor and a fluidic spring element with at least one hose section. By way of the electric motor, a large part of the movement can be generated in the desired manner, whereas the fluidic spring element produces the desired elasticity and flexibility and can also adjust this situation-dependent. The adjustment of this elasticity or compliance is achieved by the supply and removal of the fluid. That requires one corresponding pumping power for the fluid. However, this pumping power for the fluid is limited to said setting. Accordingly, initiating much of the movement does not require pump power due to the use of the electric motor. The adjustment of the elasticity or resilience of the fluidic spring element and the associated possibility of movement of this fluidic spring element are thus limited to a minimum. Thus, the advantageous effect of this fluidic spring element can thus achieve with minimal pumping power of the corresponding fluid.
  • Preferably, a drive device is proposed, which is characterized in that
    • Two or the two base bodies of the fluidic spring element are arranged rotatably relative to one another, in particular are mounted rotatably relative to one another about a common axis,
    • - First and second each forming a fluid chamber tube sections between the base bodies are arranged so that
    • The first tube sections produce or support a first movement by supplying one or more fluids and
    • - The second tube sections by supplying one or the fluid to create or support a second, the first movement opposite movement.
  • Thus, these two mutually rotatable base body are coupled together via two tube sections, so that the one tube section can initiate a relative rotational movement in one direction and the other in the other direction. For each direction in each case a plurality of tube sections may be provided, that is, a plurality of first and / or a plurality of second tube sections. Preferably, these two base bodies are rotatably mounted to each other about the same axis. Depending on the configuration with the tube sections used, it may be possible to dispense with such storage. This is especially true if the arrangement of the tube sections, especially with correspondingly short tube sections, as such already provides sufficient guidance between the two base bodies.
  • This embodiment of the mutually rotatably arranged and optionally mounted base body allows particularly well a series circuit of a functional nature with an electric motor, especially when it initiates a rotation about the same axis. This rotational movement can then be initiated by the electric motor and supplemented and / or transmitted by the fluidic spring element. The result is a total of a rotational movement with simultaneous provision of an adjustable elasticity or compliance.
  • For an advantageous embodiment, it is proposed that the first tube sections differ in shape, length, size and / or number from the second tube sections. It can thereby be achieved in a simple manner an asymmetry. The asymmetry may relate in particular to the strength of the initiatable movement or adjustable elasticity or compliance. The fluidic spring element can thus be stronger or stronger in one direction than in the other. If the drive device and thus also the fluidic spring element, for example, to pick up the example from above, used for the bending and stretching of a human leg, it could be provided for stretching a greater elasticity and compliance, as for bending. This can be achieved, for example, by an overall more elastic tube, or by using fewer tubes in one direction than in the other direction. A higher elasticity can also be achieved by more hoses, if they are filled under lower pressure.
  • Although the length of the actual movement can not be different in the opposite direction, finally, the movements go back and forth, but it can set different effective ways. In one direction so could the elastic spring element over the entire way completely unfold its effect, whereas in the opposite direction, the effect is pronounced only in some areas.
  • Especially for the proposed use of tube sections such a variation can be achieved for both opposite directions of movement by correspondingly differently configured tube sections. It can therefore be used thicker, thinner, longer or shorter or more or less elastic hose sections. Even with the use of an output tube can be achieved by the appropriate cutting of the tube sections, the said variation, ie z. B. by cutting different lengths sections.
  • Another embodiment proposes that the tube sections in shape, length, size, type and / or number do not differ from each other. As a result, a corresponding symmetrical mode of action, that is to say the same mode of action for both directions of movement, can be achieved in a targeted manner, if the corresponding application requires this.
  • According to one embodiment, it is proposed that a hose has a plurality of hose sections and thus a plurality of fluid chambers connected in series. This particularly concerns a hose, which in the end also itself an end and Must have beginning, that can be cut off from an even longer hose, but which is particularly divided by a pinching or clamping at one or more locations in several fluid chambers. Again, the use of a hose for producing the fluidic spring element unfolds its advantageous effects, which are deliberately still exploited here. It can thus be provided in a very simple manner, a plurality of fluid chambers, in which the hose is simply clamped in the appropriate places. In addition to an attachment, only one corresponding connection per fluid chamber for supplying and discharging the fluid needs to be provided.
  • According to one embodiment, it is proposed that the spring element be formed as a rotationally elastic actuator, in particular with rotationally elastic chambers, which initiate an elastic rotational movement by supplying a fluid. The spring element, which can adjust its elasticity or compliance by supplying or discharging a fluid, is thus designed so that it can thereby carry out a movement itself, that is, it is itself an actuator. The supply or discharge of the fluid thus leads to a rotational movement that performs this spring element. The direction of rotation depends on which of the chambers the fluid is to and from which it is discharged at the moment.
  • Preferably, however, makes the movement of the fluidic spring element only a small proportion of the movement of the components of the drive device as a whole to one another. The fluidic spring element thus acts as an actuator, but the drive, in particular the proposed electric motor but make up a large part of the movement. In comparison of the movement of the base body of the fluidic spring element to each other in comparison to the total movement of the drive device, namely in particular the movement of the two components to each other, the proportion of movement of the fluidic element in a range of not more than 20%, in particular not more than 10% , It is particularly preferred that the movement is only up to 2% of an angle of a pivoting movement or a path of a translational movement.
  • The fluidic spring element acts or works as an actuator, but unfolds most of its effect as an adjustable spring element.
  • It is proposed according to an embodiment that the tube sections of the fluidic spring element are made of fabric tube, in particular of commercially available fabric tube. You can z. B. be cut out of the fabric tube. As a result, the advantage is achieved that fabric hoses have a high stability and can be manufactured at the same time cost or are. By appropriate cutting commercial fabric hoses can be used, whose properties and longevity have been tested for many years.
  • According to the invention, a drive device according to claim 10 is also proposed. This drive device is also provided for a musculoskeletal system, in particular a movement-therapeutic apparatus or a robot, in order to generate a movement between two components. The drive device comprises
    • - A plurality of fluidically arranged in series fluidic spring elements, in particular for generating a bending movement, or trunk movement, wherein the fluidic spring elements
    • - Have a first and a second base body, and
    • A plurality of tube sections functionally parallel to one another between the two base bodies for producing a relative movement of the base bodies to one another by correspondingly feeding or discharging fluid, in particular air, to and from the tube sections,
    wherein the base body are mechanically connected only via the tube sections, in particular, that the base bodies are connected to each other without joints.
  • Thus, several fluidic spring elements are connected in series. If each spring element performs a small bend in the same direction, results for the plurality of series-connected or arranged spring elements a greater bending movement, such. B. in the trunk of an elephant.
  • For this purpose, the drive device is constructed in such a way that the spring elements have a first and a second base body and in each case a plurality of hose sections connected in parallel to one another. The result is a bending movement between two base bodies which depends on which of these parallel connected hose sections as is acted upon with fluid. Several such units of two base bodies and tubing sections therebetween may serially form the proboscis-like element described. In this case, it is proposed that the base bodies are connected to one another mechanically only via the tube sections, that is, in particular, no mechanical joints are provided. The tube sections between two base bodies thus not only move the base bodies to each other, but also hold them.
  • Namely, it has been recognized that with appropriate selection and dimensioning of the tube sections, if these are in particular not too long, they can achieve a high level of leadership or leadership stability.
  • Preferably, therefore, it is proposed that each hose section has a length which, when filled with fluid, which may also be referred to as an expanded state, corresponds at most to twice the average diameter of the hose section. In particular, it is proposed that the length and the average diameter are approximately equal. It is therefore proposed to provide the hose sections comparatively short, so that they apply the described property for independently holding the base body to each other in addition to initiating the movement. As a result, a mechanical joint, so in particular a hinge or the like can be avoided. This has u. a. the advantage that the base body without such joints and thus can be formed in a simple manner. At the same time, the flexibility of the overall arrangement increases because the movement is no longer guided by a hinge and thus restricted by the hinge. Accordingly, stresses on a hinge are avoided by movements that do not correspond exactly to the movement that tries to allow the hinge.
  • For this described drive device, which can generate a bending or trunking movement, it is proposed to use fabric tubes, in particular conventional or commercially available fabric tubes. In addition to the above-mentioned advantages of using such hoses comes here also that such fabric tubes can muster the stability that makes it possible to avoid the hinges.
  • Preferably, the first base body of a fluidic spring element is mechanically fixed to the second base body of another. As a result, these two fluidic spring element are coupled and can perform the described complex bending movement. In this sense, a plurality of fluidic spring elements can be coupled together. So then there are two base body together and to reduce the effort in the production is proposed to replace two such base body by a common. Accordingly, a double body results, which receives on one side the tube sections of a fluidic spring element and on the other the tube sections of the other fluidic spring element.
  • Such and other fluidic spring elements can also be understood as fluidic soft drive elements and be called synonymous as fluidic soft drive elements.
  • According to a further embodiment, it is proposed that each base body has a peripheral groove for each tube section to be received in order to sealingly receive in each case a peripheral edge of the tube section. This sealing recording can be done in particular by gluing. This combination with bonding in the circumferential groove can thus create a solid, fluid-tight and durable connection. In principle, a fluidic spring element according to one of the embodiments described above can also be used for the drive device which is provided for generating a bending movement, in particular a tooth-shaped movement, and has been described above.
  • Furthermore, a method for controlling a drive device according to one of the preceding embodiments, which have a drive and an elastic spring element proposed. For this, the drive is driven to perform a desired movement. The elastic spring element is controlled to control the elasticity and / or compliance of the fluidic spring element and thereby controls the elasticity and / or compliance of the movement as a whole. This results in an overall movement which can be initiated on the one hand in a simple manner, namely by driving the drive on the one hand and the fluidic spring element on the other hand, and with a comparatively low energy consumption, in particular with low pump power, a large overall movement with simultaneously adjustable elasticity or Can perform compliance.
  • Preferably, the driving of the fluidic spring element takes place as a function of the driving of the drive. In addition or alternatively, the driving of the fluidic spring element can take place in dependence on the movement performed by the drive. It is therefore made a coupling of these two elements, which can be achieved in particular that the elasticity or compliance is adapted to the movement.
  • In order to recapture the above example of the musculoskeletal apparatus for flexing a leg, one possibility would be to soften the elasticity, particularly in the end regions, that is, in the fully stretched and / or fully flexed leg, to name just one illustrative example. Instead of evaluating the exact movement of the apparatus, it may be sufficient, as suggested, the control of drive and fluidic Couple spring element accordingly. When the spring element is actuated, the pressure of the fluid supplied or present in the fluidic spring element can be used as the control variable. Especially on this the elasticity or compliance can be adjusted.
  • Preferably, a control device is proposed, which can perform a control method according to at least one of the embodiments explained above.
  • In addition, a musculoskeletal system, in particular a movement therapeutic apparatus or a robot is proposed, which has at least one drive device according to one of the embodiments described above and / or a control device explained above.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to exemplary embodiments with reference to the accompanying figures.
  • 1 shows a proposed drive device in a schematic block diagram.
  • 2 shows a further embodiment of a drive device in a perspective view schematically.
  • 3 shows a still further embodiment of a drive device in a perspective view schematically.
  • 4a shows a side view of a fluidic spring element for a drive device with a common axis of rotation for the fluidic spring element and a drive, without representation of fluid chambers, and
  • 4b to d show in three axial views the fluidic spring element with different fluid chambers.
  • 5a shows in a side view of a fluidic spring element for use in a drive device with a common axis of rotation for the drive and the fluidic spring element, wherein no fluid chamber is shown, and
  • 5b to d show in three axial views, the fluidic spring element with different fluid chambers, each of which is different in each direction of rotation, so in total each have asymmetrical fluid chambers.
  • 6 and 7 show for the fluidic spring element according to 4c different embodiments in which a plurality of fluid chambers are made of a continuous hose.
  • 8th shows a side view of a fluidic spring element for use in a drive device with non-common axes of rotation between the fluidic spring element and the drive.
  • 9 shows a fluidic spring element without fixed axis of rotation.
  • 10 shows a side view of the series connection of two fluidic spring elements according to 9 ,
  • 11 shows a side view of the series connection of two fluid-safe spring elements according to 10 ,
  • 1 illustrates one of the drive device 1 underlying structure. Accordingly, a drive 2 , which may be formed as an electric motor, preferably with gear, a load 4 drives. In between is a fluidic spring element 6 , which may also be referred to as a fluidic resilient element, arranged on the elasticity or compliance between the drive 2 and the load 4 can be influenced. There is a pressure supply for this 8th provided, which is the fluidic spring element 6 can influence to set about the elasticity or compliance. It can be seen that the pressure supply only needs to take these concerns of the fluidic spring element into account. The energy expenditure for this pressure supply 8th can thus be kept low because of the drive 2 , especially electric motor has its own supply and the pressure supply 8th accordingly does not take.
  • 1 also shows that between the drive 2 and the fluidic spring element 6 a mechanical connection M is present, in particular in the form of a torque transmitting shaft. The same applies to the connection of fluidic spring element 6 to the load 4 , Again, a mechanical connection M is present, which can also be designed here as a torque transmitting shaft.
  • The pressure supply 8th or fluid pressure control 8th acts on the fluidic spring element 6 via a fluidic (ie pneumatic and / or hydraulic) connection F. The fluidic spring element 6 is thus supplied via this pneumatic connection F eg. Via compressed air and thus controlled.
  • The pressure supply 8th or the fluid pressure control 8th is from a parent drive device 10 controlled via an electrical signal connection E. The higher-level control device 10 also controls a motor control 12 , Again, a signal transmission takes place electrical means, which is also indicated by the letter E and allows a coordinated control of the torque and the elasticity (compliance).
  • The engine control 12 in turn controls the electric motor 2 and thus controls this engine control 12 also essentially the desired movement of the load 4 , The elasticity or compliance is but by the fluid control 8th by acting on the fluidic spring element 6 controlled. The engine control 12 also leads by electrical means a control of the electric motor 2 by. This can be done in particular so that the corresponding electrical supply current is supplied to the electric motor. Here comes, for example, a power controller into consideration, or a frequency converter for targeted control of the electric motor 2 , Of course, the chosen engine control depends 12 also from the chosen electric motor 2 from.
  • 2 shows in the schematic perspective view of a drive device 201 that is a movement between the first component 211 and the second component 212 generated. This is a drive 202 with the first component 211 attached and transmits over a shaft 214 a movement on the fluidic spring element 206 that with the second component 212 connected to which the movement is thus transferred in total. The drive 202 and the fluidic spring element 206 are on the same axis of rotation 216 arranged and the described movement is a rotation about this common axis of rotation 216 ,
  • Incidentally, could, for example, the first component 211 in a movement-therapeutic apparatus for connection with a thigh and the second component 212 be provided in the movement-therapeutic apparatus for connection to a lower leg. The rotation around this common axis of rotation 216 would then correspond to a stretching or bending of a knee joint, to put it simply. In addition, this second component 212 in that sense as a burden 204 be considered.
  • 3 shows a drive device 301 , in which also a movement of a first component 311 to a second component 312 is transmitted. The drive 302 turns for a rotation axis 316 , The movement is from a wave 314 continue to a base body 318 of the fluidic spring element 306 transfer. The movement is from the base body 318 over the elastic section 320 of the fluidic spring element 306 and a second base body 319 on the second component 312 or the load 304 transfer. The transmission via the fluidic spring element 306 thus does not take place along the axis of rotation 316 but basically across it. Otherwise, the principle of force or motion transmission between these two embodiments of 2 and 3 similar, especially so that over the drive 202 respectively. 302 a large proportion of the movement is generated, the fluidic spring elements 206 respectively. 306 have an adjustable elasticity, but also can generate movements to a small extent themselves.
  • Incidentally, also has the elastic spring element 206 of the 2 a first base body 218 and a second base body 219 on, between which an elastic section 220 is arranged.
  • 4 illustrated first in the subfigure 4a in a side view, a fluidic spring element 406 , the example. In a drive device 201 according to 2 as there fluidic spring element 206 could be used. In addition to a common axis of rotation 416 is a first base body 418 and a second base body 419 shown around the common axis of rotation 416 are rotatable against each other. This twisting can be initiated by fluid chambers and ways to do so are in the subfigures 4b to 4d described. All of these three figures show an axial view in one direction from the second base body 419 on the first base body 418 , In the 4b is the second base body 419 only a wedge section 422 shown. The first base body 418 also has a wedge section 421 on. Between these two wedge sections 422 and 421 is a first fluid chamber 426 and a second fluid chamber 428 arranged. A filling of the first fluid chamber 426 with a fluid correspondingly leads to a rotational movement of the second base body 419 with a counterclockwise rotational movement, whereas a filling of the second fluid chamber 428 with a medium to a rightward rotational movement of the second base body 419 leads. The two fluid chambers 426 and 428 are approximately hose-shaped with a curved, widened in the middle hose.
  • The variant according to 4c shows in each case three alternating wedge sections for each base body, namely the three wedge sections 421 for the first base body 418 and the three wedge sections 422 for the second base body 419 , The design of these wedge sections and thus base body according to 4c differs minimally to the embodiment according to 4b but with the same reference numerals being used for the sake of clarity. The same applies to the 4d ,
  • Likewise 4b Tubular fluid chambers are also provided here, namely in each case between a first wedge portion 421 of the first base body 418 and a second wedge portion 422 of the second base body 419 , Thus, a total of three first fluid chambers 426c provided, which achieve a left-handed rotational movement during filling, and three second fluid chambers 428c which initiate a movement in the opposite direction when filling.
  • In addition to the number, these first fluid chambers differ 426c or second fluid chambers 428c of which the 4b in that they are each about V-shaped, so have a kink each.
  • The embodiment according to 4d also shows three wedge sections 421 respectively. 422 , Accordingly, three fluid chambers are also depending on the direction of rotation 426d respectively. 428d intended. The operation is quite similar to the variant according to 4c but where the fluid chambers 426d respectively. 428d are basically very short tube sections, which have a larger diameter than their average length. Here, the pressure of a supplied fluid can also be applied directly to the wedge sections concerned 421 and 422 impact. This is in comparison to 4c basically a higher amount of air for the same movement necessary, which may mean a little more effort, but should allow for a higher force application.
  • 5 is similar to that 4 , or the 5a to 5d are similar to the 4a to 4d except for the differences explained below. In that regard, the same reference numerals are used for simplicity. This in 5a shown is identical to that in 4a shown. Otherwise, the differences are that each of the first fluid chambers 426 . 426c and 426d are larger than the second fluid chambers 428 . 428c respectively. 428d , Thus, especially in the one direction of rotation, namely according to the example chosen here left around, a greater force can be exercised than for the right to be initiated movement. Accordingly, it is possible to vary the elasticity or resilience differently for the different directions of movement.
  • The 6 shows a further variation for execution according to 4c , which, however, could also apply to the execution according to 5c , In that regard, the reference numerals of 4c used to illustrate the similarity. The difference now is that the first and second fluid chambers 426c and 428c be formed by a total of the same tube. This entire hose 630 is always around the wedge sections 421 and 422 nevertheless, a total of six fluid chambers are created, between which no fluid exchange takes place, namely three first fluid chambers 426c and three second fluid chambers 428c , The exchange of fluid between these fluid chambers is made by appropriately clamping or otherwise closing, especially in the Abklemmbereich 632 reached. Due to this version with the continuous hose 630 can both the first wedge section 421 as well as the second wedge section 422 adapted thereto, namely in the Abklemmbereich 632 , For better clarity, however, the reference numerals for the first and second wedge portion 421 respectively. 422 been maintained.
  • The basic design according to the 6 namely, the use of a continuous tube 630 , can also provide for different sized fluid chambers, as the embodiment according to 5c shows. There are then simply different sized areas of the continuous hose 630 between the corresponding wedge sections 421 and 422 provide and the hose 630 in appropriate places in the Abklemmbereich 632 so disconnect or prepare that a fluid exchange between the fluid chambers is prevented.
  • 7 shows a similar configuration as the 6 , with the main difference being that the wedge sections 421 respectively. 422 , which could be referred to here and in the other embodiments, in principle, as a rotary wing, by round rods 734a to 734c respectively. 736a to 736c is designed. This is particularly advantageous for weight reduction and to simplify production. Accordingly, the round rods 734a to 734c respectively. 736a to 736c different diameters.
  • The 4 to 7 thus show different embodiments of a fluidic spring element 406 . 506 . 606 respectively. 706 ,
  • 8th shows a fluidic spring element 806 that is a movement between the first base body 818 and the second base body 819 can reach. These two base bodies 818 and 819 are about a swivel 838 connected to each other and thus it can thus be achieved basically a rocking motion between these two basic bodies. This is initiated by a first fluid chamber 826 for the one direction and a second fluid chamber 828 for the other direction. The fluid chambers are each actuated by filling the corresponding fluid chamber. Incidentally, this filling by a fluid can in principle also be referred to as supplying the fluid, which applies not only to this embodiment but also to the other embodiments and the invention as a whole. When a fluid chamber or chambers are filled with fluid for movement in a first direction, the fluid is preferably drained from the fluid chamber for the opposite direction. Corresponding control valves in connection are shown here but nothing. In this respect, standard connections and connections for corresponding fluid materials, quantities and pressures can be used. So for example in pneumatics known connections and connections.
  • The fluidic spring element 906 of the 9 may also basically a rocking motion between the first base body 918 and the second base body 919 perform. However, there is no swivel provided. The first fluid chamber 926 as well as the second fluid chamber 928 are designed as short tube sections. The mean diameter here corresponds approximately to the mean length of the respective tube section, ie the respective fluid chamber. As a result, and in particular by using a commercially available textile tube, a stability between the first and second base body 918 . 919 be achieved. The swivel joint 938 according to the embodiment of the 8th is unnecessary. As a result, the production cost can be reduced, including the weight. Incidentally, there are also more degrees of freedom.
  • In addition, the representation of the 9 also an illustration and shows the fluidic spring element 906 in a side view schematic. Other embodiments may instead of the two fluid chambers 926 and 928 So instead of these two tube sections also provide several tube sections, such as, for example, three or four tube sections. This can then be achieved depending on the control of the respective fluid chambers and a more complex movement. Even with three tube sections or fluid chambers can be tilted by appropriate supply of the fluid or discharge of the fluid tilting of the two base body 918 and 919 control each other in every direction.
  • The 10 illustrates the assembly of two fluidic spring elements 806 according to 8th to a spring element group 1040 , This spring element group 1040 can thus achieve a total bending movement, similar to a trunk section, but only in through the two swivel joints 838 fixed directions. This is the first base body 818 the upper fluidic spring element 806 with the second base body 819 the lower fluidic spring element 806 firmly connected. These two base bodies 818 and 819 could also be formed in one piece.
  • 11 shows a combination of two fluidic spring elements 906 according to the 9 to a spring element group 1140 , Again, a bending movement for this section can be achieved, namely in particular between the first base body 918 the lower fluidic spring element 906 , and the second base body 919 the upper fluidic spring element 906 , Again, the two middle base body instead of the associated embodiment of 11 also be formed in one piece.
  • The spring element group 1140 has thus by the omission of hinges a very high degree of freedom. This is especially true in the event that every single fluidic spring element 906 a plurality of fluid chambers, in particular at least three fluid chambers. So it is a very high degree of freedom achievable and the spring element group 1140 can basically perform movements like the trunk of an elephant.
  • Incidentally, the 10 and 11 also illustrative of the possibility of more than two fluidic spring elements 806 respectively. 906 to combine. For example. can also have 10 fluidic spring elements 806 respectively. 906 be combined, namely arranged in particular in series or switched to get to the vividly described trunk design.
  • To achieve an object of the invention is thus proposed that from a total movement, the large movements, ie a large part of the movement is performed by an electric motor and the compliance can be adjusted by a fluidic element. The fluidic element, which can be designed in particular as an REC spring (spring, designed as a rotary elastic chamber or rotationally elastic chamber), and can be regulated by means of pressure regulation, such as 1 schematically describes. The REC spring consists of two moving parts connected by elastic fluidic chambers (RECs). A mechanical connection (axis) is optional. As a RECs can especially fluidic working chambers after DE 10 2008 060 900 B4 . DE 10 2009 008 128 B4 . DE 10 2011 081 727 A1 be used.

Claims (19)

  1. Drive device ( 1 ) for a musculoskeletal system, for generating a movement between two components ( 211 . 212 ), comprising - a drive ( 2 ) for generating a movement between the two components ( 211 . 212 ) and - a fluidic spring element ( 6 ) with an elasticity which can be adjusted by means of supply and discharge of a fluid and / or flexibility which can be set between the two components ( 211 . 212 ), wherein the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) has a first and a second base body, and at least one fluid chamber ( 426 . 428 ) or several functionally parallel fluid chambers ( 426 . 428 ) between the two basic bodies ( 418 . 419 ) for generating a relative movement of Base body ( 418 . 419 ) to each other by appropriate supply or discharge of the fluid to or from the at least one fluid chamber ( 426 . 428 ), wherein in each case one of the fluid chambers ( 426 . 428 ) is formed by a tube section.
  2. Drive device ( 1 ) according to claim 1, characterized in that the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) to the drive ( 2 ) is functionally connected in series and with the drive ( 2 ) a common axis of rotation ( 16 ), or that the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) to the drive ( 2 ) is functionally connected in series without having a common axis of rotation.
  3. Drive device ( 1 ) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the drive ( 2 ) as an electric drive ( 2 ) is trained.
  4. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that - two or the two base bodies ( 418 . 419 ) of the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) rotatable relative to each other about a common axis ( 16 ) are stored, - first and second each a fluid chamber ( 426 . 428 ) are arranged between the base bodies such that the first tube sections generate or assist a first movement by supplying one or the fluid and the second tube sections generate or support a second movement opposite to the first movement by supplying one or the fluid.
  5. Drive device ( 1 ) according to claim 4, characterized in that - the first tube sections differ in shape, length, size, type and / or number of the second tube sections, so that the first and second movement of different sizes and / or different strength can be performed or in that - the first tube sections in the form, length, size, type and / or number correspond to the second tube sections, so that the first and second movements can be made the same size and / or equally strong.
  6. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a hose has a plurality of hose sections and thus a plurality of fluid chambers ( 426 . 428 ) having.
  7. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the fluidic spring element as a rotationally elastic actuator with rotationally elastic chambers ( 426 . 428 ), which initiate elastic rotational movement by supplying a fluid.
  8. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the movement of the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) only a small proportion of the movement of the components ( 211 . 212 ) to each other, preferably only up to 20%, preferably only up to 10% and preferably only up to 2% of an angle of a pivoting movement or a path of a translational movement.
  9. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that hose sections or the hose sections of the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) are made of fabric tube, wherein the tube sections are cut out of the fabric tube.
  10. Drive device ( 1 ) for a musculoskeletal system for producing a movement between two components ( 211 . 212 ), comprising - a plurality of fluidically arranged in series fluidic spring elements ( 6 ) for generating a bending movement or trunk movement, wherein the fluidic spring elements ( 6 ) - have a first and a second base body, and - a plurality, between the two base bodies functionally parallel to each other arranged tube sections for generating a relative movement of the base body to each other by supplying or discharging fluid to or from the tube sections, said Base body are mechanically connected only via the tube sections.
  11. Drive device ( 1 ) according to claim 10, characterized in that the first base body of at least one of the fluidic spring elements ( 6 ) with the second base body of another of the fluidic spring elements ( 6 ) is mechanically firmly connected, in particular that these two base body are integrally formed as a double body.
  12. Drive device ( 1 ) according to claim 10 or 11, characterized in that each tube section has a length which corresponds to a maximum of twice the mean diameter of the tube section in the state filled with fluid.
  13. Drive device ( 1 ) according to any one of claims 10 to 12, characterized in that each base body for each male tube section has a circumferential groove to receive therein each sealing a peripheral edge of the tube portion.
  14. Drive device ( 1 ) according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the drive ( 2 ) is formed as a drive device according to one of claims 10 to 13.
  15. Method for controlling a drive device ( 1 ) according to one of the preceding claims, comprising the steps: - driving the drive ( 2 ) for carrying out a desired movement and - driving the elastic spring element ( 6 ) for controlling the elasticity and / or compliance of the fluidic spring element ( 6 ) and / or the elasticity and / or compliance of the movement.
  16. A method according to claim 15, characterized in that the driving of the spring element ( 6 ) via a supply and / or discharge of fluid and / or by controlling a pressure of the respective fluid, wherein the pressure in at least one of the tube sections is controlled.
  17. A method according to claim 15 or 16, characterized in that the driving of the fluidic spring element ( 6 ), in particular the control of at least one pressure of a fluid, depending on the driving of the drive and / or in dependence on the drive ( 2 ) carried out movement.
  18. Control device for carrying out a control method according to one of Claims 15 to 17 and / or for controlling a drive device ( 1 ) according to one of claims 1 to 14.
  19. Musculoskeletal system comprising at least one drive device according to one of claims 1 to 14 and / or a control device according to claim 18.
DE102014215315.8A 2014-08-04 2014-08-04 Adjustable compliance drive device for a musculoskeletal system, method of controlling such and musculoskeletal system Expired - Fee Related DE102014215315B4 (en)

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EP2444207A1 (en) * 2010-10-21 2012-04-25 Università di Pisa Variable stiffness actuator
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WO2014001585A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-03 Universidad De Almería Actuator including a mechanism having variable stiffness and a threshold torque
DE102013204588A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Torque transmission device, actuator, robot

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ITGE20110096A1 (en) 2011-08-26 2013-02-27 Bo Han Actuator variable stiffness and method for the adjustment of the stiffness

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060207419A1 (en) * 2003-09-22 2006-09-21 Yasunao Okazaki Apparatus and method for controlling elastic actuator
EP2500150A2 (en) * 2008-08-29 2012-09-19 ABB Research Ltd. Compliant apparatus for the tool at the end of an arm of an industrial robot
DE102008060900B4 (en) * 2008-12-09 2013-09-19 FWBI Friedrich-Wilhelm-Bessel-Institut Forschungsgesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Device with fluidic soft-pivot drive
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EP2444207A1 (en) * 2010-10-21 2012-04-25 Università di Pisa Variable stiffness actuator
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WO2014001585A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-03 Universidad De Almería Actuator including a mechanism having variable stiffness and a threshold torque
DE102013204588A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Torque transmission device, actuator, robot

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