DE102014208527A1 - Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor - Google Patents

Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor

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Publication number
DE102014208527A1
DE102014208527A1 DE102014208527.6A DE102014208527A DE102014208527A1 DE 102014208527 A1 DE102014208527 A1 DE 102014208527A1 DE 102014208527 A DE102014208527 A DE 102014208527A DE 102014208527 A1 DE102014208527 A1 DE 102014208527A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
electric motor
rotor
stator
measured value
electronically commutated
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102014208527.6A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Werner Wallrafen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Continental Automotive GmbH
Original Assignee
Continental Automotive GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Continental Automotive GmbH filed Critical Continental Automotive GmbH
Priority to DE102014208527.6A priority Critical patent/DE102014208527A1/en
Publication of DE102014208527A1 publication Critical patent/DE102014208527A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/16Circuit arrangements for detecting position
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P29/00Arrangements for regulating or controlling electric motors, appropriate for both AC and DC motors
    • H02P29/02Providing protection against overload without automatic interruption of supply
    • H02P29/024Detecting a fault condition, e.g. short circuit, locked rotor, open circuit or loss of load
    • H02P29/0241Detecting a fault condition, e.g. short circuit, locked rotor, open circuit or loss of load the fault being an overvoltage

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor (1), wherein the electric motor (1) has a rotor with a rotor shaft (3) and a stator (2) with at least two coils (5), wherein the coils (5) operated by a control element (8) actuated electronic switch (9) time-varying with electric current and wherein the electric motor (1) has a single magnetic field sensor (6) which detects the position of the rotor relative to the stator (2) and this first measured value for commutation of the electric motor to a control (8) sends. In order to provide a method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor, in which the electric motor can be controlled failsafe, even without a plurality of position sensors is used, by the movement of the rotor relative to the at a certain time de-energized coil (5) Stator (2) determines generated electromagnetic force, from this electromagnetic force, the position of the rotor relative to the stator (2) is determined and this second measured value is also fed to the control element (8) for commutation of the electric motor (1).

Description

  • The invention relates to methods for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor.
  • Electronically commutated electric motors, such as brushless electronically commutated DC motors, are often used in modern technology because they operate without wearing carbon or contact springs and their speed and also their rotor position can be very precisely regulated. The speed and the rotor position are usually determined by a control that supplies the electronically commutated electric motor using electronic switches time-dependent with electrical power. To operate the electronically commutated electric motors, it is necessary to accurately and reliably detect the position of the rotor of the electric motor relative to its stator and to supply these measured values to a control element for commutation of the electric motor. This usually requires precise and fast angle sensors that detect the rotor position. If the electronically commutated electric motor is to be used in applications where high levels of safety are required (eg ASIL to ISO 26262 ) either very safe and therefore expensive angle sensors are needed, so that a failure of the angle sensor should be unlikely, or there are two independently operating angle sensors used, which in case of failure of one angle sensor still the other angle sensor can be used for the commutation of the electric motor , This redundant design of the angle sensor leads to increased system costs, which should be avoided, especially in the automotive industry.
  • With the increasing electrification of components in the motor vehicle, such. B. electrically assisted or fully electrically driven steering or braking systems or drive units for electric vehicles, it is necessary to ensure high reliability of the electronically commutated electric motor.
  • From the DE 101 51 706 A1 For example, a brushless DC motor is known which has a rotor, a stator and a housing. In addition, the brushless DC motor has a control circuit portion formed integrally with the motor portion and separated from the motor portion by a division. A position detecting device is disposed outside a bearing member with respect to an axial direction. The from the DE 101 51 706 A1 known brushless DC motor also has two Hall devices, which are integrated to detect the position of the rotor relative to the stator in the housing of the brushless DC motor. A disadvantage of the prior art solution is the use of a plurality of separate physical angle sensors, which unnecessarily increase the cost of the overall system.
  • An object of the present invention is therefore to provide a method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor, in which the electric motor can be controlled failsafe, even without a plurality of angle sensors is used.
  • The object is achieved by the method disclosed in the independent claim for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor.
  • Characterized in that the electromagnetic force generated by the movement of the rotor relative to the stator is determined by the movement of the rotor relative to the stator, from this electromagnetic force, a second measured value is determined which determines the position of the rotor relative to the stator and this second measured value is also supplied to the control for commutation of the electric motor, it is possible without a further position sensor to improve the safety of the electronically commutated electric motor enormously. The first measured value, which is determined by the angle sensor to commutation of the electronically commutated electric motor, can be compared at any time with the second measured value from the currentless coil. Should the angle sensor fail, with the plausibility check indicating that an error has occurred or one of the angle information has been identified as invalid, the electronically commutated electric motor may still be operated at the second reading. However, according to the method of the invention, only a single position sensor is necessary in order to be able to operate the electronically commutated electric motor with high safety requirements. In addition, two measured values for commutation of the electronically commutated electric motor are used according to the inventive method, which were obtained in completely different ways, which further improves the susceptibility of the electronically commutated electric motor. It would be conceivable, for example, that magnetic or electromagnetic interference fields radiated from outside falsify the measured values of the position sensor. If one were to operate a redundant system with two position sensors of the same type, then the interference fields could falsely distort the measured values of both position sensors, which would result in a malfunction of the electronically commutated electric motor. In the control of an electronically commutated electric motor according to the inventive method the malfunction just described would be excluded.
  • In a further development, the electronically commutated electric motor is intended for use under increased safety requirements.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the commutated electric motor is driven into a safe state if the comparison of the first measured value with the second measured value yields different results for the position of the rotor relative to the stator. As a result, a failure or a fatal malfunction of the commutated electric motor can be prevented. A safe state of the commutated electric motor depends on its application. It may be, for example, that the safe state is a stalled commutated electric motor in a certain position or a certain speed of the commutated electric motor represents a safe state.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, when the single physical angle sensor fails, the commutation of the electric motor takes place with the aid of the position of the rotor determined by the electromagnetic force relative to the stator. This also makes it possible to drive the commutated electric motor in a safe state.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the following figures. This shows:
  • 1 an electronically commutated electric motor 1 According to the state of the art,
  • 2 an electronically commutated electric motor 1 , which is operated by the method according to the invention.
  • 1 shows an electronically commutated electric motor 1 According to the state of the art. The electronically commutated electric motor 1 can z. B. be a brushless DC motor. The electronically commutated electric motor 1 has a rotor with a rotor shaft 3 on. In or on the rotor, at least one permanent magnet 4 be educated. Furthermore, the commutated electric motor 1 a first and a second physical angle sensor 6 . 7 on, which determine the position of the rotor relative to the stator. These two physical angle sensors can operate on a magnetic, inductive, optical or capacitive basis. Two physical angle sensors 6 . 7 are necessary when increased safety requirements are placed on the commutated electric motor. If, for example, the commutated electric motor is used to drive an electric steering, a malfunction of the commutated electric motor could possibly have fatal consequences, which must be prevented by suitable technical measures.
  • The permanent magnet formed on or in the rotor may have a north pole and a south pole. The rotor is on a rotor shaft 3 rotatable within the stator 2 stored. In the stator 2 At least two coils are formed. In the present example, the stator 2 a first coil, a second coil and a third coil. A first magnetic field sensor 6 and a second magnetic field sensor 7 capture the position of the rotor 3 relative to the stator 2 , The first magnetic field sensor 6 and the second magnetic field sensor 7 acquired measured values are transmitted via a first magnetic field sensor line 12 and a second magnetic field sensor 13 the control 8th fed. The control calculates from the position data 8th the commutation of the electronically commutated electric motor 1 , For this purpose, the electronic switches are at certain times 9 , which are generally designed as power transistors, driven, whereby for each predetermined time the first coil and / or the second coil and / or the third coil with electric current from the electrical energy source 10 is supplied. In this way, the electronically commutated electric motor from standstill over a very wide speed range up to a maximum speed can be operated continuously, which z. B. is necessary when driving an electric car to the wheel hub motors.
  • 2 shows an electronically commutated electric motor 1 , which is operated by the method according to the invention. The construction of in 2 shown electronically commutated electric motor corresponds in principle to that of 1 shown electric motor 1 , but with the electronically commutated electric motor 1 from the 2 only a single magnetic field sensor 6 is trained. Although the in 2 shown electronically commutated electric motor only a single magnetic field sensor 6 has, it is possible, with the inventive method disclosed here, the electronically commutated electric motor 1 to use under increased security requirements. The electronically commutated electric motor shown here uses this 1 the so-called gegenelektromotorische force (against-EMF) in the respective de-energized coil by the rotation of the rotor 3 in the stator 2 is produced. The rotating rotor 3 generates in the de-energized first coil or second coil or third coil, a variable magnetic field, which generates an electromotive force and which causes an electrical voltage in the first coil or second coil or third coil. This induced electrical voltage can be via the first back EMF line 14 or the second back EMF line 15 or the third counter-EMF line 16 the control 8th be supplied. This is what the control has 8th both about the position information of the rotor 3 relative to the stator 2 from the single magnetic field sensor 6 as well as from the de-energized coils. Both information can be used to electronically commutate the electric motor 1 safe to operate. This is an element 4 for determining the rotor position, for example in the control unit 8th formed, which calculates the position of the rotor relative to the stator from the signals of the back EMF. This from the element 4 Values calculated to determine the rotor position are then in one element 5 for comparing the positional values of the rotor with the measured values of the magnetic field sensor 6 compared. If the deviation of the two position values from one another reaches a predetermined threshold value 17 , so can the electronically commutated electric motor 1 be driven to a safer state. In this case, the inventive method presented here meets the highest safety requirements, since the determination of the position of the rotor relative to the stator takes place with two independently operating methods. These independent methods are by far superior to the redundant methods known from the prior art with two position sensors of the same type, since the position sensors of the same type can both simultaneously supply incorrect measured values by a single fault. This is when using the method according to the invention for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor 1 excluded, since the orientation of the rotor 3 relative to the stator 2 on the basis of two completely independent systems.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 10151706 A1 [0004, 0004]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • ISO 26262 [0002]

Claims (8)

  1. Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor ( 1 ), wherein the electric motor ( 1 ) a rotor with a rotor shaft ( 3 ) and a stator ( 2 ) with at least two coils ( 5 ), wherein the coils ( 5 ) over from a control ( 8th ) operated electronic switches ( 9 ) are supplied with time-varying electrical power and wherein the electric motor ( 1 ) an angle sensor ( 6 ), which detects the position of the rotor ( 3 ) relative to the stator ( 2 ) and this first measured value for commutation of the electric motor to a control element ( 8th ) transmits, characterized in that the of the at a certain time de-energized coil ( 5 ) by the movement of the rotor ( 3 ) relative to the stator ( 2 ) is measured, wherein from the electromagnetic force, a second measured value is determined, the position of the rotor ( 3 ) relative to the stator ( 2 ) and this second reading is also sent to the control ( 8th ) of the electric motor ( 1 ) is supplied.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first measured value is compared with the second measured value.
  3. Method according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the electronically commutated electric motor ( 1 ) is intended for use under increased safety requirements.
  4. Method according to claim 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that, for a given deviation between the first measured value and the second measured value, the control element ( 8th ) generates a fault diagnosis.
  5. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the commutated electric motor ( 1 ) is moved to a safe state if the comparison of the first measured value with the second measured value exceeds a predetermined deviation from one another.
  6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that in case of failure of the single magnetic field sensor ( 6 ) the commutation of the electric motor ( 1 ) by means of the position of the rotor determined by the electromagnetic force ( 3 ) relative to the stator ( 2 ) he follows.
  7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the electric motor ( 1 ) a single angle sensor ( 6 ), which detects the position of the rotor ( 3 ) relative to the stator ( 2 ) detected.
  8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor has at least one permanent magnet.
DE102014208527.6A 2014-05-07 2014-05-07 Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor Pending DE102014208527A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102014208527.6A DE102014208527A1 (en) 2014-05-07 2014-05-07 Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102014208527.6A DE102014208527A1 (en) 2014-05-07 2014-05-07 Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor
PCT/EP2015/059690 WO2015169731A1 (en) 2014-05-07 2015-05-04 Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102014208527A1 true DE102014208527A1 (en) 2015-11-12

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE102014208527.6A Pending DE102014208527A1 (en) 2014-05-07 2014-05-07 Method for controlling an electronically commutated electric motor

Country Status (2)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102014208527A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2015169731A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102016201074B4 (en) 2016-01-26 2020-07-09 Baumüller Nürnberg GmbH Method for detecting a position of a rotating central element of an electric motor

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002165480A (en) * 2000-11-21 2002-06-07 Sharp Corp Brushless motor controller and inverter washing machine provided with the same
DE10151706A1 (en) 2001-02-23 2002-09-12 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Brushless DC motor
DE10207549A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2003-09-11 Aradex Ag Method and device for operating a synchronous motor
DE10320126A1 (en) * 2002-05-09 2003-12-18 Toyota Motor Co Ltd Control device and control method for an energy converter
US20040046519A1 (en) * 2002-09-11 2004-03-11 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Diagnostic strategy for an electric motor using sensorless control and a position sensor
DE10314696A1 (en) * 2003-03-28 2004-10-21 Robert Bosch Gmbh Device and method for rotor position detection of an electrical machine
DE102005045323A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2006-04-13 General Motors Corp. (N.D.Ges.D. Staates Delaware), Detroit Position sensor fault tolerant control for automotive propulsion system

Family Cites Families (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6906491B2 (en) * 2003-06-20 2005-06-14 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Motor control equipment
US7423396B2 (en) * 2004-06-11 2008-09-09 International Rectifier Corporation Hall sensor alignment for BLDC motor
JP2007209105A (en) * 2006-02-01 2007-08-16 Sawafuji Electric Co Ltd Electric vehicle drive unit
US7679299B2 (en) * 2007-08-02 2010-03-16 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Techniques for redundancy and fault tolerance in high demand machine safety applications
JP5089296B2 (en) * 2007-08-31 2012-12-05 光洋電子工業株式会社 Rotary encoder for elevator apparatus and elevator apparatus

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002165480A (en) * 2000-11-21 2002-06-07 Sharp Corp Brushless motor controller and inverter washing machine provided with the same
DE10151706A1 (en) 2001-02-23 2002-09-12 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Brushless DC motor
DE10207549A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2003-09-11 Aradex Ag Method and device for operating a synchronous motor
DE10320126A1 (en) * 2002-05-09 2003-12-18 Toyota Motor Co Ltd Control device and control method for an energy converter
US20040046519A1 (en) * 2002-09-11 2004-03-11 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Diagnostic strategy for an electric motor using sensorless control and a position sensor
DE10314696A1 (en) * 2003-03-28 2004-10-21 Robert Bosch Gmbh Device and method for rotor position detection of an electrical machine
DE102005045323A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2006-04-13 General Motors Corp. (N.D.Ges.D. Staates Delaware), Detroit Position sensor fault tolerant control for automotive propulsion system

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
ISO 26262

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102016201074B4 (en) 2016-01-26 2020-07-09 Baumüller Nürnberg GmbH Method for detecting a position of a rotating central element of an electric motor

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