DE102014000816A1 - Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems - Google Patents

Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems

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Publication number
DE102014000816A1
DE102014000816A1 DE102014000816.9A DE102014000816A DE102014000816A1 DE 102014000816 A1 DE102014000816 A1 DE 102014000816A1 DE 102014000816 A DE102014000816 A DE 102014000816A DE 102014000816 A1 DE102014000816 A1 DE 102014000816A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
cylinder
chamber system
ecosystems
analysis
transparent
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE102014000816.9A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Cornelius Oertel
Erik Börner
Heike Kempe
Jörg Matschullat
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg
Original Assignee
Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg filed Critical Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg
Priority to DE102014000816.9A priority Critical patent/DE102014000816A1/en
Publication of DE102014000816A1 publication Critical patent/DE102014000816A1/en
Application status is Ceased legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/0004Gaseous mixtures, e.g. polluted air
    • G01N33/0009General constructional details of gas analysers, e.g. portable test equipment
    • G01N33/0011Sample conditioning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D11/00Component parts of measuring arrangements not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D11/24Housings ; Casings for instruments
    • G01D11/245Housings for sensors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/22Devices for withdrawing samples in the gaseous state
    • G01N1/2294Sampling soil gases or the like
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/22Devices for withdrawing samples in the gaseous state
    • G01N1/2226Sampling from a closed space, e.g. food package, head space
    • G01N2001/2241Sampling from a closed space, e.g. food package, head space purpose-built sampling enclosure for emissions

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of measuring soil degassing by means of a chamber system. The object of the invention is to develop a chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems that can be transported by a person and works reliably to be able to determine the emission of greenhouse gases from soils correctly and with high resolution, thereby allowing a transparent and non-transparent mode. According to the invention the object is achieved in that a chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems consists of an attachable by means of an annular impact ring on the floor transparent cylinder and the in-cylinder gas sensor and that the cylinder coat side with an easily removable, flexible, the lateral surface completely enclosing insulating mat and is covered on the upper cover plate of the cylinder with a likewise removable cover made of the same insulating material.

Description

  • The invention relates to the field of measuring soil degassing by means of a chamber system.
  • Soils of all kinds emit a variety of gaseous components. This can microbially reacted substances from shallow depth, z. As greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, nitrogen oxides) or derived from deeper underground hydrocarbons. It is particularly easy and direct to measure carbon dioxide online and with very high sensitivity. Here, either the net ecosystem exchange (CO 2 - respiration - CO 2 uptake (photosynthesis)) or the ecosystem respiration can be analyzed. For all gases except CO 2 , a subsequent analysis by gas chromatography is necessary. Many other gases are possible and can be reliably sampled with the system and then analyzed.
  • There is a whole range of commercial and non-commercial systems that basically want to solve the same or very similar questions. The method is that each gas emitted from the bottom is accumulated in a downwardly open cylinder. The resulting increase or decrease in the concentration of the respective gas is u. a. analyzed by the use of IR spectrometers or gas chromatographs. These sensors are either located directly in the measuring chamber or samples to be analyzed are pumped to the analyzer. If the analyzers can not be operated directly in the field, the gas samples are collected and then analyzed in the laboratory. After each measurement, the measuring chamber must be ventilated before another measurement can be started. This is done either manually by the sampler or automated by mechanical solutions.
  • In the magazine Environmental Earth Sciences, doi: 10.1007 / s12665-011-1456-3 , a field and laboratory measuring device will be presented which allows an analysis of NO emissions from soils. For this purpose, the transparent cylinder of the chamber system can be placed on the floor by means of an impact ring. The cylinder houses the gas sensor and is connected to the analyzer via a gas line and intervening valve.
  • Previous chamber systems are designed either for transparent or non-transparent measuring operation, either to integrate the photosynthesis activity or quasi-shut down and to register only the respiratory processes. This always requires two systems if both processes are to be analyzed. This leads to an increased transport and storage costs. In addition, spontaneous changes of the measurement task in the field can not be made.
  • The invention has for its object to develop a chamber system for analyzing carbon dioxide flows of ecosystems that can be transported by a person, works reliably to be able to determine the emission of greenhouse gases from soils correctly and with high resolution, while allowing a transparent and non-transparent mode ,
  • According to the invention, the object is achieved in that a chamber system for the analysis of gas flow flows of ecosystems consists of an attachable by means of an annular impact ring on the floor transparent cylinder and the in-cylinder gas sensor and that the cylinder shell side with an easily removable, flexible, the lateral surface completely enclosing insulating mat and is covered on the upper cover plate of the cylinder with a likewise removable cover made of the same insulating material. The measuring chamber surface facing away from the insulating mat and the cover of the same insulating material are provided with a reflective coating. In addition, the insulating mat has fastening straps which press the casing completely circumferentially on the cylinder surface.
  • The highly mobile chamber system has a suitable size to sensitively detect soil degassing while at the same time being large enough to integrate smaller plants. Representative degassing measurements can be carried out in a short time and monitoring and long-term measurements are possible with appropriate battery charging. In addition, the main meteorological parameters are determined both inside and outside the chamber in parallel and how the CO 2 data is recorded and visualized on site (sensors inside and outside: air temperature, humidity, air pressure, outside: photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, soil moisture, inside: CO 2 sensor). A simple mechanical interface, which is also suitable for chamber ventilation, is provided for the safe removal of gas samples for any external analysis. Alternatively, a mobile gas chromatograph can also be docked. The system is weather resistant. In the embodiment of the invention, the bottom deaeration of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O as well as the net ecosystem exchange can be analyzed.
  • The removable insulation mat allows both types of CO 2 flow measurements to be made with one system through minor alterations. This has the advantage of switching back and forth in the field between the two types of measurement can. This can be dispensed with the construction of a second system.
  • In addition to the applications in the foreground for the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from soils of different land use, unusual soils (anthroposols, bogs, mangrove forests, shallow sediments) can be sampled. Apart from greenhouse gases, any other gases released by soils or dumps can be detected. When using mobile gas analyzers (eg gas chromatograph), the samples can be analyzed directly on site. Otherwise, the collected samples are later examined in the laboratory. Under these conditions, for example, the exploration of hydrocarbons in the terrestrial area, including the detection of leaks in underground gas pipelines, gas station tanks, etc., simple and robust and with very high spatial resolution possible.
  • embodiment
  • The invention will be explained in more detail in the following embodiment.
  • In is the chamber system for the determination of gas flows of ecosystems in transparent mode. It consists of a transparent cylinder, also called measuring bell ( 6 ), of polymethylmethacrylate, containing the gas sensor ( 7 ) for analysis of CO 2 fluxes. The cylinder ( 6 ) is underside with an annular ring ( 1 ) Mistake. This impact ring ( 1 ) serves to delineate the floor element and for easy placement of the cylinder ( 6 ). Within the impact ring ( 1 ) sensors can be installed for the measurement of soil temperature and soil moisture. The respective measurement is started by placing the measuring bell on the ground.
  • In is the chamber system for determining gas flows of ecosystems in non-transparent mode. Again, the chamber system consists of transparent cylinder (analogous to the transparent mode). 6 ) with impact ring ( 1 ) and gas sensor ( 7 ). The cylindrical measuring chamber is equipped with an approximately 5 mm thick, opaque insulating mat ( 2 ), here designed as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam casing. This insulating mat ( 2 ) is flexible, so it can be easily placed around the chamber system. The top of the insulating mat ( 2 ) is provided with a reflective coating, which is designed here as aluminum coating. In the upper and lower part of the insulating mat ( 2 ) are each a rubber band ( 3 and 4 ), whose length is 1/3 of the shell circumference attached. The insulating mat ( 2 ) encloses the cylindrical measuring system completely and at the top is a cover ( 5 ) is applied from the same foam material.
  • Foam sheathing results in chamber systems of transparent material, such as polymethyl methacrylate, having an opaque surface. The foam is used for thermal insulation, which prevents heating of the interior of the chamber system from the outside air. The reflection coating is designed as an aluminum coating and is used for additional reflection of the external heat radiation, whereby in the present embodiment, the thickness of the foam could be reduced to only 5 mm. This increase the durability of this composite material, its manageability and thus the field capability of the overall apparatus. By attached to the Schaumstoffummantelung rubber bands this is attached with a few simple steps to the chamber system and also dismantled quickly. In the non-transparent state of the measuring apparatus, plants that are inside the chamber system no longer undergo photosynthesis during the daytime. Thus, the ecosystem respiration, consisting of soil (respiration of plant roots and microorganisms) and plant respiration, can be analyzed. By removing the foam sheath, the chamber system can be used in transparent mode. Solar radiation can thus reach the interior of the chamber system. In this mode it is possible to measure the net ecosystem exchange, consisting of ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis rate. You can switch easily between the two modes in less than 5 minutes, making this change possible even in the field.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    wrapping ring
    2
    Isoliermatte
    3
    upper fastening strap
    4
    lower fastening strap
    5
    cover plate
    6
    transparent cylinder
    7
    gas sensor
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • Environmental Earth Sciences, doi: 10.1007 / s12665-011-1456-3 [0004]

Claims (3)

  1. Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems, consisting of a ring-shaped impact ring ( 1 ) can be placed on the floor transparent cylinder ( 6 ) and in the cylinder ( 6 ) located gas sensor ( 7 ), characterized in that the cylinder ( 6 ) shell side with an easily removable, flexible, the outer surface completely enclosing opaque insulating mat ( 2 ) and on the upper cover plate of the cylinder with a likewise removable cover plate ( 5 ) is covered by the same insulating material.
  2. Chamber system according to claim 1, characterized in that the side facing away from the measuring chamber surface of the insulating mat ( 2 ) and the cover ( 5 ) are provided with a reflective coating.
  3. Chamber system according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the insulating mat ( 2 ) peripherally by the sheath enclosing fastening straps ( 3 . 4 ) is stabilized.
DE102014000816.9A 2014-01-22 2014-01-22 Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems Ceased DE102014000816A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102014000816.9A DE102014000816A1 (en) 2014-01-22 2014-01-22 Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102014000816.9A DE102014000816A1 (en) 2014-01-22 2014-01-22 Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102014000816A1 true DE102014000816A1 (en) 2015-07-23

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DE102014000816.9A Ceased DE102014000816A1 (en) 2014-01-22 2014-01-22 Chamber system for the analysis of gas flows of ecosystems

Country Status (1)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102014000816A1 (en)

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1598855A1 (en) * 1965-01-28 1970-05-06 North American Rockwell Method and apparatus for indicating toxic substances
DE3887644T2 (en) * 1987-11-17 1994-09-15 Katsuo Ehara Device and method for the identification of odors.
DE69421469T2 (en) * 1993-08-09 2000-08-03 Johnson & Johnson Medical Self-contained biological indicator
WO2000044876A2 (en) * 1999-01-29 2000-08-03 Institut für Chemo- und Biosensorik Münster E.V. Method, vessel and device for monitoring metabolic activity of cell cultures in liquid media
DE10158964A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2003-08-07 Digi Plan Gmbh Planungsgesells Detecting the presence of living cells and the like, in a solid, liquid or gas medium, comprises isolated cells from a sample, cultivating them in a chamber under light, and taking optical images from a sensor for evaluation
DE202007005399U1 (en) * 2006-05-11 2007-07-19 Respironics Novametrix, LLC, Wallingford Disposable bioreactor with sensor arrangement
DE202011108681U1 (en) * 2011-12-03 2012-01-24 Ech Elektrochemie Halle Gmbh Miniaturized bioreactor
US8399839B2 (en) * 2009-08-05 2013-03-19 Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA Infrared optical gas-measuring device
DE202010017957U1 (en) * 2009-06-19 2013-04-10 University Of Maryland Baltimore County Non-invasive sensor of bioprocess parameters
DE102011118619A1 (en) * 2011-11-16 2013-05-16 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Apparatus and method for detecting growth processes and simultaneous measurement of chemical-physical parameters

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1598855A1 (en) * 1965-01-28 1970-05-06 North American Rockwell Method and apparatus for indicating toxic substances
DE3887644T2 (en) * 1987-11-17 1994-09-15 Katsuo Ehara Device and method for the identification of odors.
DE69421469T2 (en) * 1993-08-09 2000-08-03 Johnson & Johnson Medical Self-contained biological indicator
WO2000044876A2 (en) * 1999-01-29 2000-08-03 Institut für Chemo- und Biosensorik Münster E.V. Method, vessel and device for monitoring metabolic activity of cell cultures in liquid media
DE10158964A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2003-08-07 Digi Plan Gmbh Planungsgesells Detecting the presence of living cells and the like, in a solid, liquid or gas medium, comprises isolated cells from a sample, cultivating them in a chamber under light, and taking optical images from a sensor for evaluation
DE202007005399U1 (en) * 2006-05-11 2007-07-19 Respironics Novametrix, LLC, Wallingford Disposable bioreactor with sensor arrangement
DE202010017957U1 (en) * 2009-06-19 2013-04-10 University Of Maryland Baltimore County Non-invasive sensor of bioprocess parameters
US8399839B2 (en) * 2009-08-05 2013-03-19 Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA Infrared optical gas-measuring device
DE102011118619A1 (en) * 2011-11-16 2013-05-16 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Apparatus and method for detecting growth processes and simultaneous measurement of chemical-physical parameters
DE202011108681U1 (en) * 2011-12-03 2012-01-24 Ech Elektrochemie Halle Gmbh Miniaturized bioreactor

Non-Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
ADC BioScientific Ltd. Soil Respiration Chamber For LCi and LCpro+ portable photosynthesis systems 18.10.2010 http://www.adc.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Soil_chamber_MkII_2.pdf [rech. 18.5.2015] *
Environmental Earth Sciences, doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-1456-3
Kitzler, B., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., Holtermann, C., Skiba, U., and Butterbach-Bahl, K.: Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads, Biogeosciences, 3, 293-310, doi:10.5194/bg-3-293-2006, 2006. *
M. Riederer, A. Serafimovich, T. Foken: Net ecosystem CO 2 exchange measurements by the closed chamber method and the eddy covariance technique and their dependence on atmospheric conditions – a case study, http://www.bayceer.uni-bayreuth.de/mm/de/pub/pub/118446/Riederer_etal_2013.pdf [rech. 18.5.2015]
M. Riederer, A. Serafimovich, T. Foken: Net ecosystem CO 2 exchange measurements by the closed chamber method and the eddy covariance technique and their dependence on atmospheric conditions - a case study, http://www.bayceer.uni-bayreuth.de/mm/de/pub/pub/118446/Riederer_etal_2013.pdf [rech. 18.5.2015] *
PUMPANEN, Jukka [et al.]: Comparison of different chamber techniques for measuring soil CO2 efflux. In: Agricultural and forest meteorology, Vol. 123, 2004, No. 3-4, S. 159-176. - ISSN 0168-1923 *
Vaisala CARBOCAP Carbon Dioxide Probe GMP343: Diffusion-based Soil Respiration Chamber Measurements 3.1.2006 http://www.ttorch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/GMP343-soil-chamber-measurements1.pdf [rech. 18.5.2015] *

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