DE102013222339A1 - Device for producing a three-dimensional object - Google Patents

Device for producing a three-dimensional object

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Publication number
DE102013222339A1
DE102013222339A1 DE201310222339 DE102013222339A DE102013222339A1 DE 102013222339 A1 DE102013222339 A1 DE 102013222339A1 DE 201310222339 DE201310222339 DE 201310222339 DE 102013222339 A DE102013222339 A DE 102013222339A DE 102013222339 A1 DE102013222339 A1 DE 102013222339A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
characterized
device
vertical drive
device according
provided
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE201310222339
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German (de)
Inventor
Thomas Halder
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems
Original Assignee
EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems filed Critical EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems
Priority to DE201310222339 priority Critical patent/DE102013222339A1/en
Publication of DE102013222339A1 publication Critical patent/DE102013222339A1/en
Application status is Ceased legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/005Loading or unloading powder metal objects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency by increasing the energy efficiency of the process
    • Y02P10/29Additive manufacturing
    • Y02P10/295Additive manufacturing of metals

Abstract

There is provided an apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object by sequentially layering solidifying a solidifiable material at locations corresponding to the cross-section of the object. The device has a construction space (3) in which a swap body (10) with a platform (7) is provided, in which the object can be produced, and the platform (7) by means of a support device (11) to a vertical drive (12) fixed, wherein the space (3) and the vertical drive (12) by a wall (13) are separated from each other.

Description

  • The invention relates to a device for producing a three-dimensional object by solidifying a building material by means of energy input.
  • Known machines for the additive production of three-dimensional objects by stratified solidification of a solidifiable material have a space in which the object to be produced is produced on a platform. The material to be consolidated is applied as a layer on the platform and solidified by means of energy input at the cross section of the object corresponding points. Then the platform is lowered by one layer thickness and the next layer is applied and solidified and this process is repeated until the object is completely finished.
  • Such a device is known from EP 1 037 739 B2 known. The device comprises a swap body, in which the object is produced and which can be removed from the machine immediately after completion of the object with this. A vertical drive for lowering the platform is here, as well as the swap body, in the space, whereby he is exposed to elevated temperatures caused by the energy input to solidify the material in the space. This can be detrimental in several ways:
    Vertical drive components exposed to elevated temperatures age faster. Temperature differences in the installation space can lead to a delay of the vertical drive. Furthermore, increased contamination by condensates can occur. The increasing heating during the construction process can also cause mechanical fluctuations.
  • From the EP 1 896 246 B1 a device is known in which the swap body is designed as an inner container. Heating elements in the wall of the surrounding outer container allow targeted and thus effective heating of the solidified material located in the swap body without the entire installation space having to be heated. Another disadvantage here is that at the high temperatures occurring heating of the components of the vertical drive, for example by convection or thermal radiation, can not be prevented.
  • Furthermore, from the WO 2010/043280 A2 a device is known in which a removable frame is disclosed with different heating zones and which is insulated by glass ceramic plates. Following the construction progress, individual heating zones can be switched on so that an excessive thermal load on the vertical drive can be avoided. The disadvantage here, however, affect the high cost of such a swap body. Furthermore, the swap body is open at its top to ensure the energy input, whereby a heating of the components of the vertical drive, also can not be excluded.
  • In a heatable removable container, such as from the EP 1 896 246 31 , as well as from the WO 2010/043280 A2 is known that occur for the invention of EP 1 037 739 32 mentioned adversely affecting phenomena to an even greater extent, as can occur by heating the swap body higher temperatures in the space.
  • The object of the present invention is to provide an apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object in which the heat load of the vertical drive can be reduced. The object is achieved by a device according to claim 1.
  • Since severe heating of the vertical drive is avoided in a device according to the present invention, the material requirements for the vertical drive are not as high as in a comparable device according to the prior art.
  • According to the invention, the space in which the vertical drive is located is delimited from the installation space. With the thermal decoupling according to the invention a local cooling of the swap body is avoided, which would occur where the vertical drive is mounted on the support device.
  • A further advantage of the invention is that the vertical drive can be removed as a whole from the laser sintering machine, whereby the construction of the machine modular and thus the replacement and cleaning are facilitated.
  • From the figures show:
  • 1 a schematic lateral cross section of the device according to the invention using the example of a laser sintering machine with swap body
  • 2 a schematic plan view of the space and the chamber in which the vertical drive is arranged in a device according to the present invention
  • 3 a schematic perspective view of a portion of the device according to the invention
  • 4 a schematic detail view of the device according to the invention
  • 1 shows a schematic cross section of an apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object according to the present invention, which is formed in the embodiment as a laser sintering device or laser melting device with interchangeable container.
  • The illustrated laser sintering device 1 has a machine housing 2 in which a space 3 is housed. In the upper area of the installation space 3 is a deflection device 4 a laser 5 arranged to the laser beam 6 distract and onto the platform 7 or powdered material layered thereon 8th to focus, layered on the platform 7 through a coater 9 is applied. The sintered material 8th becomes the coater 9 fed from a reservoir, not shown. The powdered material 8th may be, for example, a plastic powder, a metal powder, a ceramic powder or a powder of plastic-coated sands. However, all other solidifiable powdery materials are possible.
  • In the installation space 3 is a swap body 10 can be used, its bottom through the platform 7 is formed. To the height mobility of the platform 7 to ensure is a carrier device 11 provided in the swap body 10 can intervene and on which the platform 7 is fastened. Furthermore, a vertical drive 12 provided with the over the carrier device 11 the vertical position of the platform 7 is adjustable.
  • At the in 1 embodiment shown are two positions of the platform 7 shown: the top position of the platform 7 inside the swap body 10 at the beginning of the sintering process and the lowest position of the platform 7 inside the swap body 10 after complete completion of the three-dimensional object.
  • In the device according to the invention is further a wall 13 provided that the vertical drive 12 from the installation space 3 separates. The wall 13 is designed so that it has an energy exchange by convection and / or thermal radiation between the space 3 and the vertical drive 12 essentially inhibits. As a result, the heat flow from the installation space 3 for vertical drive 12 diminished.
  • The term "wall" refers not only to a rigidly designed device for separation, but a separation in the general sense, which may also consist of a film or the like (for example, a shutter). Furthermore, the wall may also have openings, provided that the energy transfer between the space 3 and the vertical drive 12 can be sufficiently prevented.
  • 2 shows a schematic plan view of the space 3 and a chamber in which the vertical drive 12 is arranged in a device according to the invention according to 1 in which only the essential elements are shown. The in the space 3 arranged swap bodies 10 is with a heater 21 heated. The heating system 21 is in the embodiment shown in the wall of the interchangeable container 10 provided, but it can also be attached elsewhere. The heating system 21 For example, it can be designed as a radiation and / or convection heater and at a suitable location in the installation space 21 be educated. The wall 13 that the installation space 3 with the swap body 10 from the vertical drive 12 separates, extends over the entire width and the entire height of the installation space 3 so that the vertical drive 12 is located in a separate chamber from the space. It should be noted that the wall 13 does not necessarily lead to the formation of a chamber separated from the space. In individual cases, a protective wall between swap bodies 10 and vertical drive 12 be sufficient, whose width is less than that of the interchangeable container 10 ,
  • In a preferred embodiment, the wall includes 13 a in 2 not shown in detail thermally insulating material. This thermally insulating material reduces the heat flow from the installation space 3 for vertical drive 12 additionally. Such material may be, for example, ceramic, teflon, rockwool, mineral fiber plates or the like. Furthermore, in the wall 13 also be provided one or more column in which there is a vacuum or which are filled with air or other gas. A gap is not limited to a parallel shape, but may have any shape. This also includes cavities in the general sense.
  • In particular, the thickness of such a gap may vary. The wall 13 may also be composed of several such devices for demarcation.
  • The inventive device according to the in 2 embodiment shown is not limited to a heatable removable container, but also refers to a swap body, which is not heated.
  • 3 shows a schematic spatial representation of a part of the device according to the present invention. The platform 7 is on the carrier device 11 fastened, which in turn with the vertical drive 12 connected is. The vertical drive 12 is according to the invention through the wall 13 from the installation space 3 separated. To a vertical movement of the support device 11 and thus the platform 7 to allow are in the wall 13 two longitudinal slots 14 provided in which the carrier device 11 can be moved up and down.
  • The number of longitudinal slots 14 is not limited to the number two; According to the invention, at least one longitudinal slot is provided 14 in the wall 13 , The wall 13 but can also have more than two longitudinal slots 14 exhibit.
  • In a preferred embodiment is in at least one longitudinal slot 14 one in 3 not shown seal provided, the vertical drive 12 mechanically and / or thermally and / or gastight with respect to the installation space 3 seals. The seal may be formed for example as a rubber lip. For example, two at the opposite slot edges of a longitudinal slot 14 be provided attached rubber lips. The seal is formed so that the vertical movement of the support device 14 is not obstructed by the seal as possible.
  • 4 shows a schematic detail view of the device with inventive thermal decoupling. From the vertical drive 12 are a drive spindle 15 , as well as a spindle cover 16 shown. At the spindle cover 16 on the one hand is the carrier device 11 attached and on the other hand, a guide carriage 17 , in turn, on a guide rail 18 is attached.
  • Further shows 4 the fastening device 19 with which the carrier device 11 on the vertical drive 12 is fastened. As the fastening device 19 usually a thermal bridge from the installation space 3 for vertical drive 12 represents, it is inventively designed so that it has a high thermal resistance. In this embodiment, it is with a gap filled with air 20 provided so that only one or more point connections via the fastening device 19 between the carrier device 11 and the vertical drive 12 consist. The fastening device 19 can be formed for example with bolts, screws or the like.
  • In a further preferred embodiment, an in 4 Not shown layer of a thermally insulating material provided, at least part of the air-filled gap 20 fills. The gap 20 may also be completely filled with the thermally insulating material. Furthermore, the gap does not have to be linear, but can e.g. B. be L-shaped or wavy or assume any other shape. In particular, the thickness of the gap may vary. The gap may also be formed as a cavity. It can also be provided several such column. Such a gap or cavity may also be filled with other gas or contain a vacuum in addition to air.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the drive spindle 15 attached to two bearings, one of which is a fixed bearing and the other is a variable in height and thus flexible bearing. This has the advantageous effect that the height of the flexible bearing is variable, so that a caused by temperature fluctuations change in length of the vertical drive can be compensated.
  • In operation during the additive production of a three-dimensional object by layer-wise solidification of a solidifiable material, heating of the installation space occurs due to the energy input of the energy source, and, if appropriate, heating of the interchangeable container. The wall 13 separates the space from the chamber in the vertical drive 12 is arranged and thus essentially prevents an energy exchange by convection and / or thermal radiation between the space 3 and the vertical drive 12 ,
  • A delay of the vertical drive 12 Although this is significantly reduced due to temperature fluctuations, it can nevertheless occur to a small extent. If such a small change in length of the vertical drive 12 occurs, finds a height adjustment of the flexible bearing of the drive spindle 15 instead, so that the change in length is compensated.
  • Modifications of the described device and method are possible. Thus, the present invention is not limited to a laser sintering apparatus or laser melting apparatus 1 limited. For example, the present invention is applicable to an electron beam sintering device or electron beam melting device, mask sintering devices which provide an extended light source and an exposure mask, line exposure machines in which, for example, an array of laser diodes is provided, and 3-D printers. The invention is thus applicable to all devices in which an object is built up or produced in layers by a generative layer-building process of a solidifiable material.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • EP 1037739 B2 [0003]
    • EP 1896246 B1 [0004]
    • WO 2010/043280 A2 [0005, 0006]
    • EP 189624631 [0006]
    • EP 103773932 [0006]

Claims (13)

  1. Device for producing a three-dimensional object by successive layer-wise solidification of a solidifiable material at points corresponding to the cross section of the object, the device having a construction space ( 3 ), in which a swap body ( 10 ) with a platform ( 7 ) is provided, in which the object can be produced, wherein the platform ( 7 ) by means of a carrier device ( 11 ) to a vertical drive ( 12 ), characterized in that the installation space ( 3 ) with the swap body ( 10 ) and the vertical drive ( 12 ) through a wall ( 13 ) are separated from each other.
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall ( 13 ) includes a thermally insulating material.
  3. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in the wall ( 13 ) at least one longitudinal slot ( 14 ) is provided, in which the carrier device ( 11 ) is movable up and down.
  4. Apparatus according to claim 3, characterized in that in at least one longitudinal slot ( 14 ) A seal is provided.
  5. Apparatus according to claim 4, characterized in that the seal is a rubber lip.
  6. Device according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the carrier device ( 11 ) via a fastening device ( 19 ) is attached to the vertical drive, wherein the fastening device ( 19 ) at least one gap ( 20 ) or cavity.
  7. Device according to claim 6, characterized in that the gap ( 20 ) is designed as a parallel gap.
  8. Device according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the gap ( 20 ) or cavity is filled with air.
  9. Device according to one of claims 6 to 8, characterized in that a thermally insulating material is provided, the at least a part of the gap ( 20 ) or cavity fills.
  10. Device according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the vertical drive ( 12 ) each having a fixed bearing and a flexible bearing.
  11. Device according to one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the swap body ( 10 ) is heated.
  12. Apparatus according to claim 11, characterized in that as heating ( 21 ) for the swap body ( 10 ) A radiant heater and / or a convection heater is provided.
  13. Device according to one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the vertical drive ( 12 ) in one through the wall ( 13 ) is arranged from the space separate chamber.
DE201310222339 2013-11-04 2013-11-04 Device for producing a three-dimensional object Ceased DE102013222339A1 (en)

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DE102013222339A1 true DE102013222339A1 (en) 2015-05-07

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2017008892A1 (en) * 2015-07-10 2017-01-19 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Device and method for producing a three-dimensional object
WO2017075285A1 (en) * 2015-10-30 2017-05-04 Seurat Technologies, Inc. Chamber systems for additive manufacturing
DE102017124424A1 (en) * 2017-10-19 2019-04-25 Trumpf Laser- Und Systemtechnik Gmbh Lifting device for a construction cylinder in a machine, machine for the production of three-dimensional components with a lifting device and method for controlling the lifting device

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040104515A1 (en) * 1999-06-23 2004-06-03 Stratasys, Inc. High-Temperature modeling method
EP1037739B2 (en) 1998-10-09 2008-03-12 EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Device for producing a three-dimensional object, especially a laser sintering machine
EP1896246B1 (en) 2005-07-01 2010-03-17 EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Device for producing a three-dimensional object
WO2010043280A2 (en) 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Frame for a device for producing a three-dimensional object, and device having such a frame for producing a three-dimensional object

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1037739B2 (en) 1998-10-09 2008-03-12 EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Device for producing a three-dimensional object, especially a laser sintering machine
US20040104515A1 (en) * 1999-06-23 2004-06-03 Stratasys, Inc. High-Temperature modeling method
EP1896246B1 (en) 2005-07-01 2010-03-17 EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Device for producing a three-dimensional object
WO2010043280A2 (en) 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Frame for a device for producing a three-dimensional object, and device having such a frame for producing a three-dimensional object
US20100101490A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Frame for a device for manufacturing a three-dimensional object and device for manufacturing a three-dimensional object by such a frame

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2017008892A1 (en) * 2015-07-10 2017-01-19 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Device and method for producing a three-dimensional object
WO2017075285A1 (en) * 2015-10-30 2017-05-04 Seurat Technologies, Inc. Chamber systems for additive manufacturing
DE102017124424A1 (en) * 2017-10-19 2019-04-25 Trumpf Laser- Und Systemtechnik Gmbh Lifting device for a construction cylinder in a machine, machine for the production of three-dimensional components with a lifting device and method for controlling the lifting device

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