DE102013213168A1 - Method for controlling a proton beam - Google Patents

Method for controlling a proton beam

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Publication number
DE102013213168A1
DE102013213168A1 DE201310213168 DE102013213168A DE102013213168A1 DE 102013213168 A1 DE102013213168 A1 DE 102013213168A1 DE 201310213168 DE201310213168 DE 201310213168 DE 102013213168 A DE102013213168 A DE 102013213168A DE 102013213168 A1 DE102013213168 A1 DE 102013213168A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
beam
proton
packets
f0
method according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE201310213168
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German (de)
Inventor
Janos Gila
Ulrich Hagen
Andreas Hofmann
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Siemens AG
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Siemens AG
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Publication date
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Priority to DE201310213168 priority Critical patent/DE102013213168A1/en
Publication of DE102013213168A1 publication Critical patent/DE102013213168A1/en
Application status is Ceased legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H7/00Details of devices of the types covered by groups H05H9/00, H05H11/00, H05H13/00
    • H05H7/04Magnet systems, e.g. undulators, wigglers; Energisation thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H7/00Details of devices of the types covered by groups H05H9/00, H05H11/00, H05H13/00
    • H05H7/04Magnet systems, e.g. undulators, wigglers; Energisation thereof
    • H05H2007/046Magnet systems, e.g. undulators, wigglers; Energisation thereof for beam deflection

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for controlling a first beam (1) of accelerated protons, wherein the protons in the first beam (1) are present in proton packets (2) and the proton packets (2) in the first beam (1) have a repetition rate have f0. In order to be able to control also proton beams with very high repetition rates f0, it is provided according to the invention that the method comprises the following step: - kicking out in each case n consecutive proton packets from the first beam (1) after one or after every n successive proton packets in the first beam (1), where n is an integer greater than or equal to one.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a method for controlling a first beam of accelerated protons, wherein the protons in the first beam are in proton packets and the proton packets in the first beam have a repetition rate f0.
  • Accelerated particles, in particular accelerated protons, are used both in research and in technology. One application in medicine is the treatment of difficult to access tumors by irradiation with protons. The characteristic of the energy release of the protons in the tissue, which does not take place uniformly over the irradiated tissue, but mainly in the desired tissue depth, advantageously has an effect here.
  • The protons are in the beam in packets, i. There are spatial areas in the beam with a high proton density, and gaps between them are without protons. This sequence is regular or repeated, so that the proton packets in the beam have a certain repetition rate. The duration of the treatment depends on this repetition rate, i. how quickly the proton packets can be formed in rapid succession and deposited in the diseased tissue to be irradiated. For a higher throughput rate, the repetition rate must be increased accordingly. On the other hand, of course, the proton packages must be deflected very precisely to avoid collateral damage in healthy tissue. The possibility of precise deflection must be present in principle, since the tumor to be irradiated usually has a certain lateral dimension and therefore the proton beam must be controlled over this lateral area in order to irradiate the entire tumor.
  • These two constraints require that the control of the proton beam or the deflection of the proton packets of the beam must be extremely fast and with very high precision. For deflection, a so-called intensity modulator is usually used, whereby today repetition rates of a maximum of 75 MHz can be handled. This maximum frequency is due to the currently available deflection electronics and limits the achievable throughput rate in the treatments. The problem here is that for the deflection of protons voltages of typically several hundred volts are needed. That The deflection electronics must work on the one hand with relatively high voltages and on the other hand with relatively high frequencies.
  • It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method by means of which proton beams, which have proton packets with a high repetition rate, are precisely controllable, whereby currently available deflection electronics can be used.
  • The core of the invention is the recognition that the temporal or spatial distance between proton packets in a preferably rectilinear beam must be increased in order to allow a precise deflection of the proton packets with currently available deflection electronics. If the existing temporal or spatial gaps between the proton packets at a repetition rate f0, which is for example twice as high as currently common repetition rates, are too small for this, sufficiently large gaps must be created between the proton packets. This is done according to the invention in that individual proton packets are herausgekickt from the beam. The kicking out is done with a high deflection voltage, which, however, does not have to be very precise, since initially it is all about removing the proton packets from the beam. Typically, the deflection of the ejected proton packets is significantly more than 0.5 °, preferably more than 2 °.
  • Accordingly, in a method for controlling a first beam of accelerated protons, wherein the protons in the first beam are in proton packets and the proton packets in the first beam have a repetition rate f0, according to the invention, the method comprises the following step:
    • Kicking out in each case n consecutive proton packets from the first beam after one or every n consecutive proton packets in the first beam, where n is an integer greater than or equal to 1.
  • It is thus possible, after one proton packet in each case, to kick out several, for example two or three, proton packets from the first beam so as to create correspondingly large gaps between the individual proton packets remaining in the beam. In this way, in particular the ratio between a temporal or spatial length of the remaining in the first beam proton packets and the gaps can be advantageously adjusted to ensure a high-precision deflection of the remaining in the first beam individual proton packets.
  • Alternatively, a "symmetric" kicking out is possible, in which a certain number n of proton packets is transmitted in each case and then the same number n of proton packets is ejected. Trains of n proton packets remain in the first beam, whereby the trains are separated by correspondingly large gaps are separated. The gaps between the proton packets within a train will generally be too small for a different deflection of these proton packets to be precisely possible. However, all proton packets of a train can be equally deflected with the desired precision.
  • After this, there will be enough time to ensure a different, precise deflection of all proton packets of the next move.
  • In order to divert individual proton packets differently but with high precision and at the same time not to let the throughput rate become too low, it is provided in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that exactly every second proton packet is ejected from the first beam. This corresponds to the above-mentioned special case of symmetrical kicking out with n = 1, so that the proton packets remaining in the first beam have a repetition rate of f0 / 2.
  • The individual proton packets or the trains of proton packets remaining in the first beam can now be precisely deflected to a first target with currently available deflection electronics, the first target generally being not punctiform but representing a first target area. The deflection angles in this case are typically significantly less than 2 °, preferably less than 0.5 °, the angular resolution being 0.001 ° or less. Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention, it is provided that the proton packets remaining in the first beam at a repetition rate of less than f0, preferably at a repetition rate equal to f0 / 2, are deflected to a first target.
  • The proton packets kicked out of the first beam form a preferably rectilinear second beam, which may be directed to a dummy target to dispose of these proton packets. Alternatively, the second beam may be used to irradiate a second target, where the second target is generally not punctiform but represents a second target region.
  • To increase the throughput rate of single tumor irradiation, this second target will generally be near the first target. In this case, the proton packets kicked out of the first beam are first kicked back in a direction substantially parallel to the direction of the first beam. Like the kicking out, the return kicking takes place with a correspondingly high deflection tension, which need not be particularly precise. Only then are the proton packets of the second beam precisely deflected to the second target - analogous to the precise deflection of the proton packets remaining in the first beam. Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention, it is provided that a second beam is formed from the proton packets kicked out of the first beam, in which the proton packets have a repetition rate smaller than f0, preferably equal to f0 / 2, and that the Proton packets of the second beam are deflected to a second target.
  • In order to specifically irradiate a site or a narrow region of the tumor with a particularly high throughput rate, it is provided in a particularly preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that the second target coincides with the first target. Preferably, therefore, the first target area and the second target area are identical.
  • Due to the described multiple patterns for kicking out the proton packets from the first beam, the repetition rate of the proton packets originally present in the first beam may be in a very wide range. The inventive method allows the handling or control of these proton beams. Accordingly, it is provided in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that 50 MHz ≦ f0 ≦ 500 MHz, preferably 100 MHz ≦ f0 ≦ 200 MHz, particularly preferably 148 MHz ≦ f0 ≦ 152 MHz applies.
  • From the repetition rate, the reciprocal of the time interval of the proton packets. At given speed, the spatial distance of the proton packets, which is composed of the spatial length of a proton packet and the spatial length of the gap between the proton packets, is multiplied. Usually, the proton packages have energy optimized to damage as much as possible only the tumor tissue and not the surrounding healthy tissue. To set this energy, a corresponding speed of the proton packets is selected. Such a typical velocity is 1.384 x 10 6 m / s, so that relativistic effects can be neglected.
  • Kicking out the proton packets from the first beam changes only the repetition rate of the proton packets but not their spatial length, the spatial length of a proton packet being the spatial extent along its direction of motion. This spatial extent is such that it contains 99% of all protons in the proton package, with a proton package typically containing between 1200 and 1500. Accordingly, it is in a preferred embodiment of the invention Provided method that the spatial extent of a single proton packet in its direction of movement between 3 mm and 5 mm, preferably between 3.7 mm and 4.3 mm, particularly preferably 4 mm.
  • The kicking out of the proton packets from the first beam is usually done with baffles to which a voltage signal is applied. As described above, it depends mainly on the signal strength, and not so much on the precision. Accordingly, it is provided in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that the kicking out of the proton packets from the first beam by means of first deflection plates, to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal is a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225V.
  • The above-mentioned return kick of the proton packets of the second beam takes place in an analogous manner with further first deflection plates.
  • In order to direct the remaining in the first beam proton packets to the first target, baffle plates are preferably used again, which are arranged as seen in the direction of the first beam behind the first baffles. However, a voltage signal with high precision must be applied to these in order to realize the desired accuracy in the deflection. Therefore, it is provided in a preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that the deflection of the remaining in the first beam proton packets by means of second deflection plates, to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal is a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225 V and wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than or equal to one thousandth of its maximum voltage.
  • The same applies to the precise deflection of the proton packets of the second beam to the second target. Therefore, it is provided in a particularly preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention that the deflection of the proton packets in the second beam by means of further second baffles, to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal is a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225 V, and wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than or equal to one thousandth of its maximum voltage
  • The invention will now be explained in more detail with reference to exemplary embodiments. The drawings are exemplary and are intended to illustrate the inventive idea, but in no way restrict it or even reproduce it.
  • Showing:
  • 1 a diagram of a model of a density distribution of protons in a first beam, wherein the protons are present in packets at a repetition rate f0
  • 2 a diagram analogous to 1 after proton packets have been kicked out of the first beam
  • 3 a schematic representation of an arrangement for kicking and deflecting proton packets according to a variant of the method according to the invention
  • 4 a schematic representation of the possibilities for the deflection of the remaining in the first beam proton packets
  • 1 shows a diagram of a model of a density distribution of protons in a first beam 1 (see. 3 ), where the protons are in proton packets 2 with a repetition rate f0. Accordingly, the abscissa represents the spatial extent and the ordinate represents the density distribution. The density distribution in a proton package 2 is modeled by means of a Gaussian bell curve. A length 3 a single proton packet 2 or its spatial extent along its direction of movement 9 is defined as 99% of all protons in the proton package 2 within this length 3 are located. Between two consecutive proton packets 2 is a gap, so that a "wavelength" or a distance 4 results. The distance 4 can be conveniently from the maximum of the density distribution of a proton packet 2 to the maximum of the density distribution of the subsequent proton packet 2 be measured.
  • At a repetition rate f0 = 150 MHz and a speed of the proton packets 2 of 1,384 · 10 6 m / s, the distance results 4 to 9.2 mm, which corresponds to a time of about 6.6 ns. In the illustrated embodiment of the 1 this is a length 3 of a proton packet 2 of 4 mm, which corresponds to a time length of about 2.9 ns.
  • To bridge the gap between two consecutive proton packets 2 or the distance 4 to enlarge and so a precise deflection of the individual proton packets 2 to enable, according to one embodiment of the method according to the invention every second proton packet 2 from the first ray 1 kicked out. This is preferably done by applying a (temporally) rectangular voltage signal to first baffles 6 (see. 3 ), wherein the maximum magnitude of the voltage signal is between 100V and 500V, typically 270V. The precision of the voltage signal is of minor importance for kicking out. It is crucial that a sufficiently large deflection takes place, which is typically greater than 0.5 °, preferably greater than 2 °.
  • The spatial length of the first baffles 6 must be correspondingly small to target a single proton packet 2 without being able to kick it out without the subsequent proton package 2 being affected. In the embodiment shown, the first baffles 6 For example, be 3 mm to 4 mm long.
  • The density distribution of the first beam 1 remaining proton packets 2 is in 2 shown. The gap between these proton packets 2 is correspondingly larger, and the distance 4 is now 18.4 mm, which corresponds to a time length of about 13.3 ns. The repetition rate of the first beam 1 remaining proton packets 2 is in the illustrated embodiment f0 / 2 = 75 MHz.
  • For precise deflection of the first beam 1 remaining proton packets 2 now become second baffles 7 used the proton packets 2 on a first goal 11 to direct, cf. 3 , The greater distance 4 allows a greater length of the second baffles 7 (compared to the length of the first baffles 6 ). For example, the second baffles may have a length of 8 mm. The greater length of the second baffles 7 causes the proton packets 2 over a greater spatial distance or over a longer period of time they are exposed to a deflecting electric field. This also allows that to the second baffles 7 applied voltage signals may have a lower maximum voltage than that of the first baffles 6 the case is. The decisive factor, however, is that the voltage signal which is applied to the second deflection plates 7 is applied, is very precise, wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than or equal to one thousandth of its maximum voltage. Accordingly, a very precise deflection with an angular resolution of less than or equal to 0.001 ° can be realized, with deflection angles of typically up to 0.5 °, preferably up to 2 °, with the second deflection plates 7 be set.
  • 4 that actually illustrates every single proton package 2 can be deflected individually with the desired precision. Thus, for example, to irradiate a certain lateral area of a tumor, each individual proton package 2 into your own first destination 11 or deflected into a separate first target area, with all first goals 11 or all first target areas cover the intended lateral area of the tumor. Accordingly, the directions of movement can 9 the deflected proton packets 2 differ from each other.
  • The from the first ray 1 herausgekickten proton packets 2 basically form a second beam 5 who is aiming for a second 12 or a second target area can be addressed. To increase the throughput rate of single tumor irradiation, the second goal will be 12 generally near the first target 11 lie. In this case, those from the first beam 1 herausgekickten proton packets 2 Initially kicked back in one direction, which is essentially parallel to the direction of the first beam 1 runs. As in 3 is illustrated, come for the return kick more first baffles 10 for use. Like the kicking out, the return kicking takes place with a correspondingly high deflection tension, which need not be particularly precise. That is also the other first baffles 10 a voltage signal is applied which has a maximum voltage between 100V and 500V, typically 275V.
  • Only then will the proton packets 2 of the second beam 5 by means of further second baffles 8th precisely to the second goal 12 distracted. Analogous to the above-described precise deflection of the first beam 1 remaining proton packets 2 by means of the second baffles 7 , also applies to the other second baffles 8th a voltage signal is applied, which in principle may have a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V. It is crucial that the voltage signal, which is connected to the other second baffles 8th is applied, is very precise, wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than or equal to one thousandth of its maximum voltage. Accordingly, a very precise deflection can be realized with an angular resolution of less than or equal to 0.001 °, with deflection angles of typically up to 0.5 °, preferably up to 2 °, with the further second deflection plates 8th be set.
  • In the illustrated embodiment of the 3 So all proton packets can 2 of the first proton beam 1 Although the repetition rate f0 is twice as high as previously practicable repetition rates.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    First proton beam
    2
    Proton Package
    3
    Length of a proton packet
    4
    Distance between two consecutive proton packets
    5
    Second proton beam
    6
    First baffles
    7
    Second baffles
    8th
    Further second baffles
    9
    Direction of movement of a proton packet
    10
    More first baffles
    11
    First goal
    12
    Second goal

Claims (10)

  1. Method for controlling a first beam ( 1 ) of accelerated protons, the protons in the first beam ( 1 ) in proton packages ( 2 ) and the proton packets ( 2 ) in the first beam ( 1 ) have a repetition rate f0, characterized in that the method comprises the following step: - kicking out in each case n consecutive proton packets from the first beam ( 1 ) after one or every n successive proton packets in the first beam ( 1 ), where n is an integer greater than or equal to 1.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that exactly every second proton packet ( 2 ) from the first beam ( 1 ) is kicked out.
  3. Method according to one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that in the first beam ( 1 ) with a repetition rate of less than f0, preferably with a repetition rate equal to f0 / 2 remaining proton packets ( 2 ) to a first destination ( 11 ) to get distracted.
  4. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that from the first beam ( 1 ) proton packets ( 2 ) a second beam ( 5 ) in which the proton packets ( 2 ) have a repetition rate less than f0, preferably equal to f0 / 2, and that the proton packets ( 2 ) of the second beam ( 5 ) to a second destination ( 12 ) to get distracted.
  5. Method according to claim 4, characterized in that the second target ( 12 ) with the first objective ( 11 ) matches.
  6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that 50 MHz ≤ f0 ≤ 500 MHz, preferably 100 MHz ≤ f0 ≤ 200 MHz, particularly preferably 148 MHz ≤ f0 ≤ 152 MHz applies.
  7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the spatial extent ( 3 ) of a single proton packet ( 2 ) in its direction of movement ( 9 ) is between 3 mm and 5 mm, preferably between 3.7 mm and 4.3 mm, particularly preferably 4 mm.
  8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the kicking out of the proton packets ( 2 ) from the first beam ( 1 ) by means of first baffles ( 6 ), to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal has a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225 V.
  9. Method according to one of claims 3 to 8, characterized in that the deflection of the in the first beam ( 1 ) remaining proton packets ( 2 ) by means of second baffles ( 7 ), to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal has a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225 V and wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than one thousandth of its maximum voltage.
  10. Method according to one of claims 4 to 9, characterized in that the deflection of the proton packets ( 2 ) in the second beam ( 5 ) by means of further second baffles ( 8th ), to which a voltage signal is applied, wherein the voltage signal has a maximum voltage between 100 V and 500 V, preferably between 175 V and 225 V, and wherein the resolution of the voltage signal is less than one thousandth of its maximum voltage.
DE201310213168 2013-07-04 2013-07-04 Method for controlling a proton beam Ceased DE102013213168A1 (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1539847A1 (en) * 1965-12-27 1969-12-18 Csf Device for division of beams produced by particle accelerators
US4172236A (en) * 1978-06-16 1979-10-23 The United States As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Loss-free method of charging accumulator rings
DE3735278A1 (en) * 1987-10-17 1989-06-08 Kernforschungsanlage Juelich Deflection device for ion packets
US6444990B1 (en) * 1998-11-05 2002-09-03 Advanced Molecular Imaging Systems, Inc. Multiple target, multiple energy radioisotope production
US20090236545A1 (en) * 2008-03-20 2009-09-24 Accel Instruments Gmbh Non-continuous particle beam irradiation method and apparatus
DE102010009020A1 (en) * 2010-02-24 2011-08-25 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, 80333 Apparatus and method for injecting charged particles into a particle accelerator and accelerator device

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1539847A1 (en) * 1965-12-27 1969-12-18 Csf Device for division of beams produced by particle accelerators
US4172236A (en) * 1978-06-16 1979-10-23 The United States As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Loss-free method of charging accumulator rings
DE3735278A1 (en) * 1987-10-17 1989-06-08 Kernforschungsanlage Juelich Deflection device for ion packets
US6444990B1 (en) * 1998-11-05 2002-09-03 Advanced Molecular Imaging Systems, Inc. Multiple target, multiple energy radioisotope production
US20090236545A1 (en) * 2008-03-20 2009-09-24 Accel Instruments Gmbh Non-continuous particle beam irradiation method and apparatus
DE102010009020A1 (en) * 2010-02-24 2011-08-25 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, 80333 Apparatus and method for injecting charged particles into a particle accelerator and accelerator device

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