DE102013212736A1 - Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging - Google Patents

Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging

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Publication number
DE102013212736A1
DE102013212736A1 DE102013212736.7A DE102013212736A DE102013212736A1 DE 102013212736 A1 DE102013212736 A1 DE 102013212736A1 DE 102013212736 A DE102013212736 A DE 102013212736A DE 102013212736 A1 DE102013212736 A1 DE 102013212736A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
charging
inductive charging
coil
antenna
dielectric
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE102013212736.7A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Andreas Fackelmeier
Fabian Kurz
Dominikus Joachim Müller
Reiner Müller
Robert Nagel
Florian Poprawa
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Priority to DE102013212736.7A priority Critical patent/DE102013212736A1/en
Priority claimed from EP14728116.6A external-priority patent/EP2981980A1/en
Publication of DE102013212736A1 publication Critical patent/DE102013212736A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F38/00Adaptations of transformers or inductances for specific applications or functions
    • H01F38/14Inductive couplings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/12Inductive energy transfer
    • B60L53/126Methods for pairing a vehicle and a charging station, e.g. establishing a one-to-one relation between a wireless power transmitter and a wireless power receiver
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/36Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles by positioning the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/37Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles using optical position determination, e.g. using cameras
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/38Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles specially adapted for charging by inductive energy transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/248Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set provided with an AC/DC converting device, e.g. rectennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/06Waveguide mouths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q7/00Loop antennas with a substantially uniform current distribution around the loop and having a directional radiation pattern in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the loop
    • H01Q7/06Loop antennas with a substantially uniform current distribution around the loop and having a directional radiation pattern in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the loop with core of ferromagnetic material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0485Dielectric resonator antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/16Resonant antennas with feed intermediate between the extremities of the antenna, e.g. centre-fed dipole
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/40Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/70Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the reduction of electric, magnetic or electromagnetic leakage fields
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/80Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the exchange of data, concerning supply or distribution of electric power, between transmitting devices and receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/90Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving detection or optimisation of position, e.g. alignment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • H02J7/022Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter
    • H02J7/025Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
    • Y02T10/7005
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/121
    • Y02T90/122
    • Y02T90/125
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

The inductive charging device has at least one inductive charging coil wound around a coil axis and an electrical or dielectric antenna which is arranged at a location which is displaced parallel to the coil axis with respect to a location of a region of the coil, a location within the at least one coil or a location is between the coils. The electric vehicle and the charging station each have such an inductive charging device. In the method, one or two such inductive charging devices are used, energy being transmitted by means of the inductive charging coils and communication data being transmitted by means of the antennas.

Description

  • The invention relates to an inductive charging device, an electric vehicle, a charging station and a method for inductive charging.
  • In addition to the contact-bound possibilities by means of cable to charge a battery, in particular an electric vehicle, with direct or alternating current (conductive charging), it is known to transfer by means of induction (inductive charging, wireless charging) energy in a battery, such as an electric vehicle.
  • There are three essential parameters, in particular for the inductive charging of electric vehicles, which must be considered equally:
    • The position of the charging coil (s) on the secondary side, ie the position of the charging coil (s) electrically contacted with the battery to be charged, with respect to the position of the charging coil (s) on the primary side, ie the side which requires charging Provides energy, such as a charging station for charging electric vehicles,
    • Clear identification of the primary side, such as the electric vehicle placed above the charging coil (s),
    • - Clear, stable and secure communication between the primary side and the secondary side, such as a charging station and an electric vehicle, during a charging process to prevent the "crosstalk", such as an electric vehicle to a located in the immediate vicinity of the primary side of another charging station.
  • Another parameter to be considered for inductive charging is the monitoring of the air gap between the primary side and the secondary side during the charging process.
  • In order to achieve the highest possible efficiency in the inductive energy transfer, it is desirable to position the respective charging coils of the inductive charging system on the primary side and secondary side as accurately as possible to each other.
  • In addition to the accuracy of the coil placement, a clear, secure communication between infrastructure and vehicle is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient charging process. Since the electric vehicle is not connected to the infrastructure by means of a cable in the case of inductive charging, it is additionally desirable to use a wireless system for the communication. Such a radio-bound system must be protected in this scenario as well as possible against interference from electromagnetic waves.
  • For this purpose, it is known as the inductive charging of electric vehicles to give the driver of the electric vehicle on the way to the charging station navigation assistance. For example, this is an antenna installed on the roof of the electric vehicle. Further, it would be advantageous to control the charging power flow during charging. A reliable communication even during a charging process is therefore desirable.
  • It is in the light of the prior art object of the invention to provide a charging device, by means of which on the one hand positioning of the charging coils to a corresponding charging device is precisely possible. Furthermore, should be possible with the charger reliable communication during charging. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved charging station and an improved electric vehicle. The object of the invention is also to specify an improved method for inductive charging.
  • This object is achieved with a charging device having the features specified in claim 1, with an electric vehicle having the features specified in claim 10, with a charging station with the features specified in claim 11 and with a method for inductive charging with the features specified in claim 12 , Preferred embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the accompanying dependent claims, the following description and the drawings.
  • The charging device according to the invention is an inductive charging device, d. H. a charging device for inductive charging. The inductive charging device has at least one inductive charging coil wound around a coil axis and an electrical or dielectric antenna. The electrical or dielectric antenna is disposed at a location that is parallel to the coil axis displaced from a location in a region of the coil, a location within the at least one coil, or a location between the coils. That is, the electric or dielectric antenna is disposed at a location resulting from a displacement of a location of a region of the coil, a location within the at least one coil, or a location between the coils in a direction parallel to the coil axis.
  • For the purposes of this invention, a coil axis means an imaginary axis, in the case of surface coils the winding plane normal or winding plane normal. In the case of screwed coils is under a coil axis in the context of this invention, the screw longitudinal axis too understand. In general, the coil axis designates the axis about which the windings of the charging coil run almost exclusively peripherally or radially, apart from any corrections that may occur due to the winding width or the winding spacings themselves.
  • For the purposes of this invention, an electric antenna is to be understood in particular to mean an antenna which does not predominantly or exclusively couple to the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field, preferably predominantly and particularly preferably couples it almost exclusively to the electrical component of the electromagnetic field. In particular, an electric antenna is to be understood as an electric dipole antenna. Suitably, the term of the electric antenna is to be distinguished from that of a magnetic antenna, i. H. a frame or coil antenna should not be included in the term of the electrical antenna.
  • By means of the inductive charging device according to the invention, it is possible to additionally build a radio channel for radio communication in the near field with a corresponding charging device by means of the electric or dielectric antenna during the charging process. Because of the arrangement of the electrical or dielectric antenna parallel to the coil axis relative to locations in areas of the at least one coil or within the at least one coil or areas located between the coils, the antenna is arranged in or near the inductive power flow. As soon as the at least one inductive charging coil of the inductive charging device is sufficiently positioned for a charging process, at the same time the antenna is optimally aligned for a communication process with a corresponding charging device. In particular, when using corresponding charging devices according to the invention both on the primary side and on the secondary side, reliable, safe and unambiguous communication can easily be achieved by means of the charging devices according to the invention.
  • Conversely, the communication by means of the antenna can also be used in order to achieve a reliable positioning of the respective charging coils of the charging devices according to the invention relative to each other. Because if the antennas are positioned sufficiently close to each other for reliable communication, due to the spatial arrangement of the antenna and the at least one charging coil of the respective charging device according to the invention a sufficient relative positioning of the charging coils of the charging devices is given to inductive charging.
  • Consequently, a suitable positioning of the antenna of the charging device according to the invention requires a suitable positioning of the at least one charging coil of the charging device and vice versa. Particularly in the case of the inductive charging of electric vehicles by means of a charging station, this circumstance proves to be particularly advantageous: For example, in the event that the electric vehicle is already on an inductive charging station, the electric vehicle can be aligned only in its longitudinal direction without great effort. If, in the electric vehicle, the charging coil and an antenna serving for communication are arbitrarily spaced apart from one another, as is known in the prior art, then reliable, unambiguous and reliable communication for the charging process is not sufficiently ensured and can possibly only be achieved by reorienting the vehicle. If, on the other hand, a good positioning with regard to the communication is given, this does not at the same time require adequate positioning of the charging coils.
  • The inventive design of the antenna as a dielectric or electrical antenna also makes it possible to introduce the antenna in the inductive magnetic charging field of the charging coils. An antenna which strongly couples to the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field, such as a magnetic antenna such as a frame or coil antenna, would be easily damaged or even destroyed by the inductive charging field due to eddy currents in the powers used in inductive charging. Electrical or dielectric antennas, however, can be easily formed non-metallic or loop-free, so that the formation of eddy currents is easily avoided. At the same time can be avoided with such a design of the antenna disturbance of the inductive charging field. The efficiency in inductive charging is therefore not or not necessarily reduced in the charging device according to the invention. In other words, a communication system based on the electrical or dielectric antenna can be embodied so robustly that, despite the strong electromagnetic fields normally used during inductive charging, reliable and unambiguous communication, for example for charge control and / or monitoring of the charging process, is ensured during charging is. In particular, in the case of dielectric antennas, it is possible with the charging device according to the invention to achieve by means of these antennas both a high-frequency dielectric signal transmission (RF signal transmission), wherein the antenna without metallic parts in the power flow between the two charging coils can be realized. Consequently, eddy currents in the antenna can be effectively avoided.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the inductive charging device forms a Primary side of an inductive charging system. Suitably, the inductive charging device has an electrical line contact, by means of which the at least one charging coil of the inductive charging device is electrically contacted or contacted with a power source.
  • Alternatively and also preferably, in an embodiment of the invention, the inductive charging device forms a secondary side of an inductive charging system. Suitably, the inductive charging device has an electrical line contact, by means of which the at least one charging coil of the inductive charging device is electrically contacted or contacted with an energy store.
  • The inductive charging device according to the invention expediently has an electromagnetic field shield. In this case, both the at least one inductive charging coil and the at least one electrical or dielectric antenna of the inductive charging device are arranged on and / or close to the same side of the field shield.
  • Advantageously, in the case of the inductive charging device according to the invention, the electrical or dielectric antenna is arranged at a location which is displaced parallel to the coil axis relative to a location of the geometric center of gravity of the coil interior or regions. That is, the electric or dielectric antenna is disposed at a position which is caused by a displacement of a locus of the geometric center of gravity of the coil inner region (s) in a direction parallel to the coil axis.
  • Suitably, in the case of the inductive charging device according to the invention, the electrical antenna has at least one dipole antenna which comprises at least one or more dipoles. Advantageously, the dipole antenna has one or more electrical dipoles, which are formed in particular by means of extending cable ends. The cable ends do not form loops, so that the formation of eddy currents is effectively avoided.
  • In the case of the inductive charging device according to the invention, the dielectric antenna preferably has at least one, in particular dielectric, waveguide. In this way, the dielectric antenna can be formed completely or predominantly metal-free, so that formation of eddy currents is effectively avoided.
  • In an advantageous development of the inductive charging device according to the invention, the field shield has an opening. The waveguide is suitably passed through the opening in the inductive charging device according to the invention.
  • In the case of the charging device according to the invention, the dielectric antenna is preferably a dielectric resonator antenna or the dielectric antenna has a dielectric resonator antenna. Even in the case of dielectric resonator antennas, the formation of eddy currents can be effectively avoided, for example in comparison to a patch antenna, since metal surfaces for forming patch antennas as excitation elements are dispensed with.
  • The electric vehicle according to the invention has an inductive charging device as described above.
  • The charging station according to the invention comprises an inductive charging device as described above.
  • The inventive method for inductive charging, in particular an energy storage of an electric vehicle, in which one or two device / s used according to one of the preceding claims and wherein by means of the at least one inductive charging coil per one of the devices is transmitted energy and by means of the electrical or dielectric antenna each one of the devices communication data are transmitted. Suitably, the communication data transmitted in the method according to the invention comprise data for controlling and / or monitoring the inductive charging, in particular the charging power.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to embodiments shown in the drawing. Show it:
  • 1 an arrangement of an inductive charging device according to the invention with a Primärladespule and a dielectric antenna and another inductive charging device according to the invention with a secondary charging coil and a further dielectric antenna schematically in longitudinal section,
  • 2 Embodiments for forming the dielectric antennas of the charging devices according to the invention. 1 schematically in longitudinal section,
  • 3 a section of an electrical antenna, which in a further embodiment of an inductive charging device according to the invention in place of the dielectric antenna of the electric antenna according to the invention. 1 occurs, schematically in a perspective view,
  • 4 the electric antenna acc. 3 schematically in a perspective view,
  • 5 a dielectric resonator antenna, which in a further embodiment of an inductive charging device according to the invention in place of the dielectric antenna of the inventive dielectric antenna gem. 1 occurs, schematically in longitudinal section,
  • 6 an alternative dielectric resonator antenna, which in a further embodiment of an inductive charging device according to the invention in place of the dielectric antenna of the dielectric antenna according to the invention. 1 occurs, schematically in longitudinal section as well
  • 7 a further embodiment of an inductive charging device according to the invention with two charging coils and a arranged between the charging coils dielectric antenna schematically in cross section.
  • In the 1 The arrangement shown on the one hand comprises an inductive charging device according to the invention 5 a charging station 10 (not shown in full) for electric cars:
    The charging device 5 the charging station 10 has a flat and trained electromagnetic shielding 15 on. The shielding 15 extends in the 1 illustrated embodiment with their planar extensions parallel to the ground (not explicitly shown). Above the shield 15 is a charging coil in the form of a flat coil 20 arranged. The flat coil 20 forms a primary-side charging coil for charging an electric battery (not explicitly shown) of an electric car 110 , The electric car is in the representation acc. 1 exactly above the charging station. A winding plane of the flat coil 20 runs in the representation acc. 1 parallel to the ground and thus parallel to the flat extent of the shielding 15 , Wire turns of the flat coil circulate along this winding plane 20 a coil inside area 25 with a cross-section extending in directions parallel to the ground in the form of a square with rounded corners (in non-specifically illustrated embodiments, the cross section may also be shaped differently). Between flat coil 20 and shielding 15 is at the flat coil 20 a field-conducting ferrite layer 30 arranged. The ferrite layer 30 is formed as a flat part whose planar extensions are parallel to the winding plane of the flat coil 20 extend. Escaping with the coil inside area 25 have ferrite layer 30 and shielding 15 each openings 35 . 40 on.
  • The arrangement acc. 1 further comprises a secondary-side inductive charging device 105 an electric car 110 , The inductive charging device 105 of the electric car 110 similarly includes the charging device 5 the charging station 10 a flat and flat extending shielding 115 , one as a flat coil 120 formed secondary side charging coil with a coil inner region 125 and a field-conducting ferrite layer 130 , where also the shielding 115 and the ferrite layer 130 with the coil inside area 125 aligned openings 135 . 140 exhibit. shielding 115 , Flat coil 120 as well as the ferrite layer 130 the charging device 105 of the electric car 110 are similar to the shielding 15 , Flat coil 20 and the Ferrichtschicht 30 the charging device 5 the charging station 10 formed and arranged to these mirror image (with respect to an imaginary and parallel to the ground mirror plane). The coil axes (not shown in detail) of the flat coil 20 the charging station 10 and the flat coil 120 of the electric car 110 are aligned with each other and perpendicular to the ground.
  • In the presentation acc. 1 is the electric car 110 as a result of this mutually aligned arrangement of the coil axes in a position suitable for inductive charging. The coil axes run in 1 each vertically and centrally through the coil inner regions 25 . 125 therethrough.
  • In the case of the primary-side inductive charging device 5 the charging station 10 is the flat coil 20 to their energization with a power grid (not shown) electrically connected.
  • In the secondary-side inductive charging device 105 of the electric car 110 is the flat coil 120 with an electric battery (not shown) of the electric car 110 electrically connected.
  • In a first embodiment as in 1 have shown both the primary-side charging device 5 as well as the secondary-side inductive charging device 105 each a dielectric antenna 45 . 145 on.
  • The dielectric antennas 45 . 145 each comprise a waveguide in this embodiment 50 . 150 , The waveguide 50 the primary-side charging device 5 is through the mutually aligned openings 35 . 40 of shielding 15 and ferrite layer 30 with its longitudinal extent oriented perpendicular to the ground. The waveguide 50 is on the of the flat coil 20 remote flat side of the shield 15 with a dining facility 52 for feeding with a high-frequency electromagnetic field for communication with the secondary-side dielectric antenna 145 the secondary-side charging device 105 connected (in 1 not explicitly shown). The waveguide 50 has at its longitudinal end, which is at the flat coil 20 facing side of the shield 15 from this side of the shield 15 extends, a decoupling 55 on. The decoupling 55 thus forms a source for that high-frequency electromagnetic field, so the powered waveguide 50 with the extraction 55 is referred to as a dielectric antenna.
  • Analog is the waveguide 150 the secondary-side charging device 105 through the mutually aligned openings 135 . 140 of shielding 115 and ferrite layer 130 with its longitudinal extent oriented perpendicular to the ground. The waveguide 150 has at its longitudinal end, which is at the flat coil 120 facing side of the shield 115 from this side of the shield 115 extends, a coupling 155 on. The coupling 155 thus forms a sink for the electromagnetic high frequency field, so that the waveguide 150 with the coupling 155 also referred to as a dielectric antenna, here a receiving antenna. The waveguide 150 is on the of the flat coil 120 remote flat side of the shield 115 with a receiving electronics 152 for processing the waveguide 150 connected coupled electromagnetic waves.
  • In a further embodiment, which incidentally corresponds to the embodiment described above, are also both the dielectric antenna 45 the primary-side charging device 5 as well as the dielectric antenna 145 the secondary-side charging device 105 each with a feed device for feeding with a high-frequency electromagnetic field for communication as well as with a receiving electronics for processing the respective waveguide 50 . 150 the respective dielectric antenna 45 . 145 connected; ie in this embodiment, both the dielectric antenna work 45 the primary-side charging device 5 as well as the antenna 145 the secondary-side charging device 105 at the same time as transmitting antenna as well as receiving antenna. In this embodiment, therefore, a bidirectional communication of primary-side charging device 5 and secondary-side charging device 105 allows.
  • For example, in the embodiment described above, the polarization of the electromagnetic waves in the coupling into the respective waveguide 50 . 150 the dielectric antennas 45 . 145 chosen such that this polarization perpendicular to the winding plane of the flat coils 20 . 120 is oriented, since the field in this polarization direction already protrudes heavily into the flat coil. If the flat coils 20 . 120 as in 1 shown in the beam direction of the dielectric antennas 45 . 145 Although these act approximately as a grid polarizer. Nevertheless, the respective flat coil should 20 . 120 Nevertheless, this polarization does not require much attenuation of the electromagnetic waves when the waves are the pancake coils 20 . 120 run through.
  • The material of the dielectric waveguide 50 . 150 The embodiments described above is z. As Teflon with a relatively low dielectric constant ε rr <2.5). For example, the waveguides 50 . 150 each circular-cylindrical with a circular diameter of 1 / 2λ (eg., When provided communication by means of dielectric antennas 45 . 145 in the CAR2X band at 5.8 GHz approximately a circle diameter of 3 cm). In other embodiments, the circle diameter may also be larger. Measurements with a waveguide made of Teflon 50 . 150 with a circle diameter of the waveguide 50 . 150 of 3 cm at 5.8 GHz have shown that the directivity of the dielectric antennas 45 . 145 is very high, because here are almost flat wavefronts.
  • In other, not specifically illustrated embodiments, which otherwise correspond to the previously described embodiments, the waveguides 50 . 150 the dielectric antennas 45 . 145 of a dielectric material, such as a ceramic material, formed with a significantly higher dielectric constant, for example, with a dielectric constant of up to 140 , In these embodiments, the waveguide is formed with a significantly smaller circular diameter corresponding to the higher dielectric constant.
  • In other embodiments, which otherwise correspond to the previously described embodiments, is the coupling 155 or decoupling 55 the waveguide 50 . 150 the dielectric antennas 45 . 145 as in 2 shown formed:
    So there is a first in 2 illustrated embodiment of the waveguide 50 . 150 on the side of the shield 15 . 115 , Which in each case to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 facing away from a first dielectric material 53 and on the side which respectively to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 facing, made of a second dielectric material 54 ( 2a ). In this embodiment, the second dielectric material 54 a lower dielectric constant than the second dielectric material 54 , The diameter of the waveguide 50 . 150 however, remains at the in 2a illustrated embodiment unchanged. In this way, a high directivity of the dielectric antenna 45 . 145 be achieved in a radiation direction A. Due to the higher dielectric constant of the first material 53 However, the field is for leadership in the field of perforations 40 . 140 the shield 15 . 115 sufficiently in the waveguide 50 . 150 localized.
  • Im a second in 2 illustrated embodiment ( 2 B ) consists of the waveguide 50 . 150 on both sides of the shield 15 . 115 from the same dielectric material 53 , However, the diameter of the waveguide decreases 50 . 150 on the side, which in each case to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 faces with increasing distance from the shield 15 . 115 such that the waveguide 50 . 150 in the field of coupling 155 or decoupling 55 a peak 56 formed. Also in this way, a high directivity of the dielectric antenna 45 . 145 achieved in a radiation direction A. Due to the larger diameter of the waveguide 50 . 150 on the to the respective charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 opposite side of the shield 15 . 115 However, the field is for guidance in the area of the openings 40 . 140 the shield 15 . 115 sufficiently in the waveguide 50 . 150 localized.
  • In a third in 2 illustrated embodiment, the waveguide 50 . 150 on the side of the shield 15 . 115 , Which in each case to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 facing away from a first dielectric material and on the side, which in each case to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 is made of a second dielectric material ( 2c ). In this embodiment, the second dielectric material has a lower dielectric constant than the second dielectric material. The diameter of the waveguide 50 . 150 widens on the side, which in each case to the respective inductive charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 facing in the direction of the shield 15 . 115 away. Also in this way can a high directivity of the dielectric antenna 45 . 145 be achieved in a radiation direction A. However, due to the higher dielectric constant of the first material, the field is for guidance in the region of the openings 40 . 140 the shield 15 . 115 sufficiently in the waveguide 50 . 150 localized.
  • The further, in 3 illustrated embodiment of the charging devices according to the invention 5 . 105 corresponds to the 1 explained embodiments. In contrast to these embodiments, however, instead of a dielectric antenna 45 . 145 one electric antenna each 345 intended.
  • The electric antenna 345 includes an 8-fold dipolar array 350 with two-component dipole elements 355 and two to the respective components of the dipole elements 355 leading symmetrical signal leads 360 , which face each other in the direction of the coil axes of the flat coils 20 . 120 spaced by d2 = 0.25 millimeters (in other embodiments, the distance d2 may vary). The dipole elements 355 each have two dipole components, each at one of the symmetrical signal leads 360 are connected. The two dipole components of a dipole element 355 are each by one of the signal supply line 360 made of extending wire. In this case, the two dipole components each extend a dipole element 355 away from each other in parallel orientation. The orientations of the dipole components of all dipole elements 355 extend each covered polarization plane of the antenna 345 parallel to each other.
  • Furthermore, the electric antenna comprises 345 a strip-shaped reflector 365 , The reflector 365 includes parallel to each other in a to the winding plane of the respective charging device 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 arranged parallel plane metal strip with a width in the millimeter range or with a smaller width. The strips run parallel to the extensions of the dipole elements 355 ,
  • The dipolar array 350 is formed as a flat part whose plane of extent is parallel to the winding plane of the respective charging station 5 . 105 associated flat coil 20 . 120 extends.
  • Dipolarray 350 and reflector 365 are in a dielectric substrate 370 embedded, which has a dielectric constant of 10.2. The distance of the reflector to the dipole elements is d1 = 2.5 millimeters, corresponding to one twentieth of the free space wavelength, to the radiation or reception of the respective electrical antenna 45 . 145 is trained. In further embodiments, the distance d1 and the dielectric constant may differ.
  • The power dividers of the dipolar array can be used as T-junction (T-junction power divider) as in 4 represented, or z. B. also as Wilkinson divider with symmetrical wiring (not specifically shown in the drawing) are executed. In a further embodiment (not shown separately in the drawing) are as dipole elements 355 Folded dipoles provided, which have a high impedance. Here, the lines of the array are simply connected together (which halves the impedance), that the impedance is in the range of 50 ohms. To reduce induced loop currents in the folding dipoles, these can be designed with a series capacitor. The electric antenna 345 is by means of a balun, if necessary after adjustment to 50 ohms, connected to a coaxial cable.
  • The in the 5 and 6 represented dielectric antennas 445 , which in the embodiments described below, the charging devices according to the invention 5 . 105 the role of the previously described antennas 45 . 145 . 345 take over, are called dielectric resonator antennas 445 educated. For the rest, those relating to the 5 and 6 explained embodiments to those who to 1 have already been explained. The radiating element of the dielectric resonator antennas 445 each forms a dielectric resonator in a conventional manner 450 , which is operable by feeding with a suitable wavelength and polarization in resonance and is operated in resonance in the embodiment shown. The dimensions of the dielectric resonator 450 the dielectric resonator antenna 445 lie in the in 5 and 6 shown embodiments in the range of a few millimeters.
  • The resonant frequency is dependent on the dielectric constant ε r of the material and thus also determines the dimensions of the dielectric resonator 450 the dielectric resonator antenna 445 , The dimension is in the in 5 and 6 illustrated embodiments in the order of λ / √2, where λ indicates the wavelength in the free space.
  • For example, the dielectric resonator 450 the dielectric resonator antenna 445 the shape of a cylinder, in particular a circular cylinder, or a cuboid. Im in 5 The illustrated embodiment is the dielectric resonator antenna 445 on a ground plane 455 assembled. The dielectric resonator antenna 445 is via a coaxial conductor 460 fed. In this case, extends in the embodiment shown, the coaxial conductor 460 from the shield 15 . 115 to the side which from the respective charging device 5 . 105 belonging flat coil 20 . 120 away, away. The ground plane 455 extends flat and just in the plane of extension of the shield 15 . 115 , therefore in the in 1 illustrated arrangement parallel to the ground.
  • In other, not separately shown embodiments other supply variants are realized. These other supply variants include, for example, in a conventional manner slot couplings based on microstrip lines.
  • Im in 6 The illustrated embodiment is the dielectric resonator antenna 445 as a so-called metallized dielectric resonator antenna 445 trained, without ground plane 455 is realized. Here are those pages 472 of the dielectric resonator 450 the dielectric resonator antenna 445 , which are each perpendicular to the planar directions of extension of the shield 15 . 115 , ie perpendicular to the winding plane of the flat coil 20 . 120 , the respective associated charging device 5 . 105 extend, metallized. Furthermore, the dielectric resonator antenna has a metallic feeding point 475 on an end face of the dielectric resonator 450 on. A formation of eddy currents is particularly effectively avoided in this arrangement.
  • In another embodiment, the dielectric antenna is 445 gem. 6 each in the coil inner region 25 . 125 the flat coil 20 . 120 the respective charging device 5 . 105 arranged.
  • Im in 7 illustrated embodiment, which incidentally the previously described embodiments with a dielectric resonator 445 corresponds to are at the primary-side charging device 5 instead of a single flat coil 20 two flat coils each 20 . 20 ' present (in a further embodiment, the secondary-side charging device 105 formed in a mirror image with two flat coils, so that the embodiments of this embodiment also apply to a correspondingly formed secondary-side charging device in a corresponding manner). The dielectric resonator antenna 445 is between the flat coils 20 . 20 ' arranged and has dimensions of a few millimeters. The coil interior of the flat coils 20 . 20 ' has dimensions of 200 by 200 millimeters. The outer dimensions of each flat coil 20 . 20 ' amount to 500 millimeters.
  • The electric car according to the invention 110 has the secondary-side inductive charging device 105 as explained in more detail in the preceding embodiments.
  • The charging station 10 According to the invention, the primary-side inductive charging device comprises 5 as explained in more detail in the preceding embodiments and is for charging an electric car 110 educated.
  • By means of the above-described inventive primary-side charging device 5 and the secondary-side charging device according to the invention 105 is inventively using the inductive flat coil 20 the primary-side charging device 5 and the inductive flat coil 120 the secondary-side charging device 105 Energy between primary-side charging device 5 and secondary-side charging device 105 transfer. During this transfer of energy by means of the respective electrical 345 or dielectric antennas 45 . 145 . 445 from primary-side charging device 5 and secondary-side charging device 105 between primary-side charging device 5 and secondary-side charging device 105 Transfer communication data.

Claims (12)

  1. An inductive charging device comprising at least one inductive charging coil wound around a coil axis, and an electrical or dielectric antenna disposed at a location parallel to the coil axis displaced from a location of a region of the coil, a location within the at least one coil, or a location between the coils is located.
  2. Inductive charging device according to claim 1, which forms a primary side of an inductive charging system.
  3. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, which forms a secondary side of an inductive charging system.
  4. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, comprising an electromagnetic field shield, in which both the at least one inductive charging coil and the at least one electrical or dielectric antenna are arranged on the same side of the field shield.
  5. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the electrical or dielectric antenna is arranged at a location which is parallel to the coil axis displaced relative to a location of the geometric center of gravity of the coil or the inner areas.
  6. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, in which the electrical antenna has at least one dipole antenna comprising at least one or more dipoles.
  7. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, in which the dielectric antenna has at least one waveguide.
  8. Inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims, at least according to claims 4 and 7, wherein the field shield has an opening through which the waveguide is passed.
  9. An inductive charging device according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the dielectric antenna is or comprises a dielectric resonator antenna.
  10. Electric vehicle with an inductive charging device according to one of the preceding claims
  11. Charging station with an inductive charging device according to one of claims 1 to 9.
  12. Method for inductive charging, in particular an energy storage device of an electric vehicle, in which one or two charging device (s) according to one of the preceding claims is used and wherein energy is transmitted by means of the at least one inductive charging coil per one of the charging devices and by means of the electrical or dielectric antenna depending one the devices communication data are transmitted.
DE102013212736.7A 2013-06-28 2013-06-28 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging Withdrawn DE102013212736A1 (en)

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DE102013212736.7A DE102013212736A1 (en) 2013-06-28 2013-06-28 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging
EP14728116.6A EP2981980A1 (en) 2013-06-28 2014-05-23 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station, and method for inductive charging
PCT/EP2014/060648 WO2014206661A1 (en) 2013-06-28 2014-05-23 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station, and method for inductive charging
CN201480036956.5A CN105340030B (en) 2013-06-28 2014-05-23 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and the method for inductive charging
US14/901,608 US10069336B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2014-05-23 Inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station, and method for inductive charging

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DE102013221492A1 (en) 2013-10-23 2015-04-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Methods and apparatus for generating a shared secret
DE102015207995A1 (en) 2015-04-30 2016-11-03 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Antenna, inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging

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DE202009009693U1 (en) * 2009-07-14 2010-11-25 Conductix-Wampfler Ag Device for inductive transmission of electrical energy
DE102010063665A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for guiding electric car to charging position, involves determining position data of car from measured distance and measured angles based on charging position, where position data serve as basis for starting electric car

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE202009009693U1 (en) * 2009-07-14 2010-11-25 Conductix-Wampfler Ag Device for inductive transmission of electrical energy
DE102010063665A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for guiding electric car to charging position, involves determining position data of car from measured distance and measured angles based on charging position, where position data serve as basis for starting electric car

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102013221492A1 (en) 2013-10-23 2015-04-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Methods and apparatus for generating a shared secret
DE102015207995A1 (en) 2015-04-30 2016-11-03 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Antenna, inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station and method for inductive charging
WO2016173863A1 (en) 2015-04-30 2016-11-03 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Antenna, inductive charging device, electric vehicle, charging station, and inductive charging method

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