DE102012215702A1 - Lighting device - Google Patents

Lighting device

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Publication number
DE102012215702A1
DE102012215702A1 DE102012215702.6A DE102012215702A DE102012215702A1 DE 102012215702 A1 DE102012215702 A1 DE 102012215702A1 DE 102012215702 A DE102012215702 A DE 102012215702A DE 102012215702 A1 DE102012215702 A1 DE 102012215702A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
light
conversion element
wavelength conversion
nm
device according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102012215702.6A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
David Dussault
Andre Nauen
Christian Gammer
Sergey Khrushchev
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Osram GmbH
Original Assignee
Osram GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Osram GmbH filed Critical Osram GmbH
Priority to DE102012215702.6A priority Critical patent/DE102012215702A1/en
Publication of DE102012215702A1 publication Critical patent/DE102012215702A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • G01J3/50Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J3/505Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors measuring the colour produced by lighting fixtures other than screens, monitors, displays or CRTs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21KNON-ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES USING LUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING CHARGES OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL; LIGHT SOURCES USING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AS LIGHT-GENERATING ELEMENTS; LIGHT SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21K9/00Light sources using semiconductor devices as light-generating elements, e.g. using light-emitting diodes [LED] or lasers
    • F21K9/60Optical arrangements integrated in the light source, e.g. for improving the colour rendering index or the light extraction
    • F21K9/64Optical arrangements integrated in the light source, e.g. for improving the colour rendering index or the light extraction using wavelength conversion means distinct or spaced from the light-generating element, e.g. a remote phosphor layer
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/10Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source
    • F21S41/14Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source characterised by the type of light source
    • F21S41/16Laser light sources
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S45/00Arrangements within vehicle lighting devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, for purposes other than emission or distribution of light
    • F21S45/70Prevention of harmful light leakage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V23/00Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices
    • F21V23/04Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches
    • F21V23/0442Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors
    • F21V23/0457Arrangement of electric circuit elements in or on lighting devices the elements being switches activated by means of a sensor, e.g. motion or photodetectors the sensor sensing the operating status of the lighting device, e.g. to detect failure of a light source or to provide feedback to the device
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/28Investigating the spectrum
    • G01J3/30Measuring the intensity of spectral lines directly on the spectrum itself
    • G01J3/36Investigating two or more bands of a spectrum by separate detectors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • G01J3/50Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J3/51Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors using colour filters
    • G01J3/513Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors using colour filters having fixed filter-detector pairs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21WINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO USES OR APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • F21W2102/00Exterior vehicle lighting devices for illuminating purposes

Abstract

The invention relates to an illumination device having at least one laser light source (10) and at least one light wavelength conversion element (13) which is adapted to convert the light emitted by the at least one laser light source (10) proportionately into light of different wavelength, wherein for monitoring the at least one laser light source a first light sensor (14) for detecting unconverted laser light is tuned to the wavelength of the light emitted from the at least one laser light source (10), and a second light sensor (15) for detecting converted laser light to the wavelength of that of the at least one light wavelength conversion element (13) converted light is tuned.

Description

  • The invention relates to a lighting device according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • I. State of the art
  • Such a lighting device is for example in the US 2011/0084609 A1 disclosed. This document describes a lighting device with improved safety for the user. For this purpose, a light sensor is provided in the illumination device, which detects light reflected at the light wavelength conversion element and thus detects the presence or absence of the light wavelength conversion element and causes shutdown of the laser light source in the absence of the light wavelength conversion element.
  • II. Presentation of the invention
  • It is an object of the invention to provide a generic lighting device with improved monitoring of the light emission.
  • The illumination device according to the invention has at least one laser light source and at least one light wavelength conversion element which is designed to convert light emitted by the at least one laser light source proportionately into light of other wavelengths. In addition, the illumination device according to the invention has at least two light sensors for monitoring the light emission for the at least one laser light source, wherein a first light sensor for detecting unconverted laser light is tuned to the wavelength of the light emitted by the at least one laser light source, and a second light sensor for detecting converted Laser light is tuned to a wavelength, for example, the dominant wavelength of the light converted by the at least one light wavelength conversion element.
  • The illumination device according to the invention makes it possible with the help of the light sensors with different spectral sensitivity, a determination of the relative proportions of converted and unconverted light and thus the detection of any absolute or relative intensity change of the laser light or the converted light or any absolute or relative color locus of the converted and unconverted light existing mixed light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention. Depending on the size of the color locus shift or the relative change in intensity, a safety shutdown of the at least one laser light source can be activated. In addition, the illumination device according to the invention makes it possible to detect both changes to the laser light sources and to the at least one light wavelength conversion element. In particular, a more accurate localization of possible sources of error in the illumination device according to the invention is thus possible.
  • According to a first preferred embodiment of the invention, the light sensors of the illumination device according to the invention are arranged such that they detect scattered, converted or unconverted light at the at least one light wavelength conversion element. As a result of this arrangement of the light sensors, the light sensors do not disturb the light emission of the illumination device according to the invention since they are not arranged in the direct beam path of the at least one laser light source.
  • According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the first light sensor is arranged to detect unconverted light emitted from the at least one laser light source, and the second light sensor is arranged to detect converted light scattered on the at least one light wavelength conversion element. The first light sensor is in this case preferably arranged such that it either detects scattered light from the at least one laser light source or receives unconverted laser light which is coupled out, for example, by means of a beam splitter. In this case, the light emission of the illumination device according to the invention is likewise not hindered by the light sensors.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the illumination device according to the invention comprises at least one light guide, which is arranged such that converted and unconverted stray light is coupled from the at least one light wavelength conversion element in the light guide and then the light emerging from the light guide to one for each Spectral component of the converted or unconverted light sensitive light sensor is passed. The use of at least one light guide has the advantage that high intensity scattered light is passed from the at least one light wavelength conversion element to the light sensors with little loss, and thus a high light intensity can be measured by the light sensors.
  • Advantageously, an evaluation unit is provided and designed such that a quotient of the light intensities determined by the first light sensor and by the second light sensor or a variable proportional thereto is evaluated. As a result, the relative proportion of the converted light and the unconverted light in the light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention can be determined in a simple manner. In addition, the value of such a quotient or a variable proportional thereto can be used as a measure of the color location or any color locus shift of the light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention and defines a threshold for activating a safety shutdown of the laser light sources using this quotient or the size proportional thereto become. Furthermore, the value of such a quotient or a variable proportional thereto can be used as a measure of a possible loss of quality in the light wavelength conversion element or as an indicator of the partial or complete loss of the light wavelength conversion element. Furthermore, the use of the aforementioned quotient or the variable proportional thereto has the advantage that the safety shutdown of the laser light sources and the quality control of the at least one light wavelength conversion element is independent of the absolute values of the light intensities measured by the two light sensors. For the safety shutdown of the laser light sources and the quality monitoring of the at least one light wavelength conversion element, both the quotient L1 / L2 and the reciprocal L2 / L1 of this quotient and a variable proportional thereto are suitable, where L1 is the light intensity measured by the first light sensor and L2 is that measured by the second light sensor Light intensity called.
  • Preferably, the at least one laser light source is configured to emit light from the wavelength range of 380 nm to 490 nm, and the at least one light wavelength conversion element is configured to proportionate light from the at least one laser light source into light having a dominant wavelength in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm converted. This ensures that the illumination device according to the invention emits white light, which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. The lighting device according to the invention is thus suitable for use as a light source in a vehicle headlight. The color location of the white light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention is determined by the relative proportions of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. The term "white light" means that the standard color value components x, y of the light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention on the standard color chart DIN 5033 correspond to the chromaticity coordinates of the solid color point at x = 0.333 and y = 0.333, or differ only slightly from these values.
  • The first light sensor is advantageously tuned to a wavelength range of 380 nm to 490 nm and the second light sensor is preferably tuned to a wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm or to wavelengths greater than or equal to 550 nm. This ensures that the first light sensor only detects the proportion of the unconverted light of the light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention and the second light sensor only detects the proportion of the converted light of the light emitted by the illumination device according to the invention.
  • The at least one laser light source is preferably designed as a laser diode or laser diode array in order to enable a spatially compact arrangement of the components of the illumination device according to the invention.
  • III. Description of the preferred embodiments
  • The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to preferred exemplary embodiments. Show it:
  • 1 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the first embodiment of the invention
  • 2 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the second embodiment of the invention
  • 3 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the third embodiment of the invention
  • 4 A cross section through the in 3 Illustrated illumination device in a schematic representation along the plane AA
  • 5 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the fourth embodiment of the invention
  • 6 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the fifth embodiment of the invention
  • 7 A schematic representation of a lighting device according to the sixth embodiment of the invention
  • In 1 the structure of a lighting device according to the first embodiment of the invention is shown schematically. This illumination device has a blue light from the wavelength range of 440 nm to 460 nm emitting laser diode 10 , a collimator lens 11 , An optical fiber designed as a fiber optic 12 , a light wavelength conversion element 13 and two light sensors 14 . 15 , The laser diode 10 and the collimator lens 11 are in a common housing 100 accommodated. That of the laser diode 10 emitted light is using the collimator lens 11 parallelized and in a first end 122 the fiber optic 12 coupled. The fiber optics 12 has a light-conducting core 120 and one the core 120 surrounding coat 121 whose material has a lower optical refractive index than the material of the core 120 so that's in the fiber optic 12 coupled light by total reflection on the mantle 121 in the core 120 remains and the fiber optics 12 only at their ends 122 . 123 can leave. That from the second end 123 Exiting blue laser light impinges on the light wavelength conversion element 13 and becomes after hitting the light wavelength conversion element 13 proportionately converted into yellow light, so that when passing the light wavelength conversion element 13 White light 16 which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. The illumination device according to the first exemplary embodiment of the invention thus generates white light which is a mixture of blue excitation light of the laser diode 10 and converted yellow light of the light wavelength conversion element 13 is. The light wavelength conversion element 13 serves as a light exit opening of the illumination device and since it has only a small area in the range of 1 mm 2 to 5 mm 2 , the illumination device can be regarded as a white light emitting point light source, which is very well suited as a light source for projection applications, in particular vehicle headlights.
  • The light wavelength conversion element 13 The illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention consists of a sapphire plate 130 that with phosphor 131 which converts blue light into yellow light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. As a phosphor 131 For example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) is used. The relative proportion of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light in the white mixed light 16 is determined by the thickness of the phosphor coating 131 and the concentration of the phosphor on the sapphire plate 130 certainly. The blue laser light is applied to the phosphor particles of the light wavelength conversion element 13 scattered and part of the blue light is by means of the phosphor 131 converted to yellow light. The sapphire plate 130 serves as a carrier and heat sink for the phosphor 131 , The phosphor 131 is as a coating on the second end 123 the fiber optic 12 facing surface of the sapphire plate 130 appropriate. But he can also be on the end of this 123 opposite surface of the sapphire plate 130 be arranged. The light wavelength conversion element 13 is in a holder (not shown) clamped, in addition, as a heat sink for the light wavelength conversion element 13 serves.
  • The first light sensor 14 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the first photodiode substantially only receives light from the blue spectral range in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 460 nm. The second light sensor 15 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the second photodiode receives substantially only light from the yellow spectral range in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. Alternatively, the color filters may, for example, also be designed such that the color filter of the first light sensor 14 only transparent to light from the violet and blue spectral range and the color filter of the second light sensor 15 only permeable to the yellow and red spectral range. The first light sensor 14 is arranged to detect light at the light wavelength conversion element 13 or at the second end 123 the fiber optic 12 was scattered. The second light sensor 15 is arranged to detect light at the light wavelength conversion element 13 was scattered. The first light sensor 14 however, detects only unconverted blue light while the second light sensor 15 only converted yellow light detected. The of the two light sensors 14 . 15 detected light intensities are using an evaluation unit 110 evaluated, which contains a program-controlled microprocessor with data memory (both not shown), in case of failure, a safety shutdown of the laser diode 10 trigger. For monitoring the light emission of the illumination device according to the first exemplary embodiment of the invention, by means of the evaluation unit 110 the quotient from that of the second light sensor 15 detected light intensity and that of the first light sensor 14 detected light intensity or proportional to this quotient electrical quantity, for example in the form of an electrical voltage or an electric current, formed and evaluated. This quotient corresponds to the relative proportion of converted yellow light to unconverted blue light in the light emitted by the illumination device. If the value of this quotient or the electrical variable proportional thereto falls below a predetermined threshold value, then the safety shutdown for the laser diode becomes 10 triggered.
  • For example, in the case of the absence of the light wavelength conversion element, there exists 13 no converted yellow light, and consequently that of the second light sensor 15 detected light intensity zero. Accordingly, the value of Quotient from the second light sensor 15 detected light intensity and that of the first light sensor 14 detected light intensity also the value zero. In this case, for the laser diode 10 the safety shutdown is triggered. During the operating time of the illumination device, the quality of the light wavelength conversion element deteriorates 13 For example, due to detached or inactive parts of the phosphor coating 131 or because of an inadmissible increase in the intensity of the laser excitation radiation, the relative proportion of the converted yellow light will decrease with respect to that of the unconverted blue light. Accordingly, the value of the above-mentioned quotient is thereby also compared to its initial value, which is the case when the phosphor coating is completely intact 131 had, lowered. As a result, the color locus of the white light emitted by the illuminator, as defined by the standard chromaticity coordinates x, y, on the standard color chart in FIG DIN 5033 is shifted from its initial value toward the blue spectral range and the color temperature of the white light takes a higher value. The monitoring of the aforementioned quotient therefore additionally allows the safety shutdown of the laser diode 10 also a monitoring of the shift of color location and color temperature of the light emitted by the illumination device. Accordingly, therefore, in the case of a partially released or partially inactive phosphor coating 131 for example, the power of the laser diode 10 can be reduced or the laser diode are turned off as soon as a predefined threshold of the above quotient is exceeded.
  • In 2 the structure of a lighting device according to the second embodiment of the invention is shown schematically. The illumination device according to the second embodiment of the invention is almost completely identical to the illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention. The illumination device according to the second embodiment of the invention differs from the illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention only by the first light sensor 24 , Therefore, in the 1 and 2 for identical components of the lighting devices used in both embodiments of the invention, the same reference numerals. For their description, reference is made to the description of the components of the first embodiment of the invention. The first light sensor 24 the lighting device according to the second embodiment of the invention is in the housing 100 housed in the illumination device and arranged to detect unconverted blue light at the collimator lens 11 or at the first end of the fiber optic 12 was scattered or with slight divergence the laser diode 10 had left. The first light sensor 24 according to the second embodiment of the invention is true in all other details with the first light sensor 14 according to the first embodiment. Therefore, the only difference between the lighting devices according to the first and second embodiments of the invention is that in the lighting device according to the second embodiment of the invention, the unconverted blue portion of the light is applied directly to the laser diode 10 or at the first end 122 the optical fiber is detected, while in the illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention, the unconverted blue portion of the light at the second end 123 the fiber optic is detected. The operation of the lighting device according to the second embodiment of the invention is identical to the operation of the lighting device according to the first embodiment of the invention.
  • In the 3 and 4 the construction of a lighting device according to the third embodiment of the invention is shown schematically. This illumination device has four, blue light from the wavelength range of 440 nm to 460 nm emitting laser diodes 30a . 30b , one collimator lens each 31a . 31b for each of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b each formed as a fiber optic light guide 32a . 32b . 32c . 32d for each of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b , a light wavelength conversion element 33 and two light sensors 34 . 35 and a fifth fiber optic 32e that the light sensors 34 . 35 assigned. In 3 are from the four laser diodes 30a . 30b and their associated four collimator lenses 31a . 31b only two visible. That of the laser diodes 30a . 30b emitted light is in each case using the corresponding collimator lens 31a . 31b parallelized and in a first end 321a . 321b the corresponding fiber optics 32a . 32b . 32c respectively. 32d coupled. That from the second end 322a . 322b the fiber optics 32a . 32b . 32c respectively. 32d Exiting blue laser light impinges on the light wavelength conversion element 33 and becomes after hitting the light wavelength conversion element 33 proportionately converted into yellow light, so that when passing the light wavelength conversion element 33 White light 36 which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. The illumination device according to the third exemplary embodiment of the invention thus generates white light which is a mixture of blue excitation light of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b and converted yellow light of the light wavelength conversion element 33 is. The light wavelength conversion element 33 serves as a light exit opening of the illumination device and since it has only a small area in the range of 1 mm 2 to 5 mm 2 , For example, the illumination device can be regarded as a white light-emitting point light source, which is very well suited as a light source for projection applications, in particular vehicle headlights.
  • The light wavelength conversion element 33 The illumination device according to the third embodiment of the invention consists of a sapphire plate 330 that with phosphor 331 which converts blue light into yellow light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. As a phosphor 331 For example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) is used. The relative proportion of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light in the white mixed light 36 is determined by the thickness of the phosphor coating 331 and the concentration of the phosphor on the sapphire plate 330 certainly. The blue laser light is applied to the phosphor particles of the light wavelength conversion element 33 scattered and part of the blue light is by means of the phosphor 331 converted to yellow light. The sapphire plate 330 serves as a carrier and heat sink for the phosphor 331 , The phosphor 331 is as a coating on the second ends 322 the fiber optics 32a . 32b . 32c . 32d facing surface of the sapphire plate 330 appropriate. But it can also be on the surface facing away from the ends of the sapphire tile 330 be arranged. The light wavelength conversion element 33 is in a holder (not shown) clamped, in addition, as a heat sink for the light wavelength conversion element 33 serves.
  • The light sensors 34 . 35 associated fifth fiber optic 32e runs within one of the other four fiber optics 32a . 32b . 32c . 32d formed channel. The fifth fiber optic 32e is arranged such that at the light wavelength conversion element 33 scattered or reflected light, both converted and unconverted light, into one end of the fifth fiber optic 32e coupled to and at the other end of the fifth fiber optic 32e arranged light sensors 34 . 35 is directed. The first light sensor 34 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the first photodiode substantially only receives light from the blue spectral range in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 460 nm. The second light sensor 35 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the second photodiode receives substantially only light from the yellow spectral range in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. Alternatively, the color filters may, for example, also be designed such that the color filter of the first light sensor 34 only for light from the violet and blue spectral range is transparent and the color filter for the second light sensor 35 only permeable to the yellow and red spectral range. The first light sensor 34 detects only unconverted blue light while the second light sensor 35 only converted yellow light detected. The of the two light sensors 34 . 35 determined light intensities are evaluated by means of an evaluation unit, which has a program-controlled microprocessor with data memory (both not shown), in case of failure, a safety shutdown of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b trigger. For monitoring the light emission of the illumination device according to the third embodiment of the invention, the quotient of the second light sensor 35 detected light intensity and that of the first light sensor 34 detected light intensity or proportional to this quotient electrical quantity, for example in the form of an electrical voltage or an electric current, formed and evaluated. This quotient corresponds to the relative proportion of converted yellow light to unconverted blue light in the light emitted by the illumination device. If the value of this quotient or electrical variable proportional thereto falls below a predetermined threshold value, then a safety shutdown of the four laser diodes will occur 30a . 30b triggered.
  • For example, in the case of the absence of the light wavelength conversion element, there exists 33 no converted yellow light, and consequently that of the second light sensor 35 detected light intensity zero. Accordingly, the value of the quotient of the second light sensor 35 detected light intensity and that of the first light sensor 34 detected light intensity also the value zero. In this case, the four laser diodes 30a . 30b switched off. During the operating time of the illumination device, the quality of the light wavelength conversion element deteriorates 33 For example, due to detached or inactive parts of the phosphor coating 331 or because of an inadmissible increase in the intensity of the laser excitation radiation, the relative proportion of the converted yellow light will decrease with respect to that of the unconverted blue light. Accordingly, the value of the above-mentioned quotient is thereby also compared to its initial value, which is the case when the phosphor coating is completely intact 331 had, lowered. As a result, the color locus of the white light emitted by the illuminator, as defined by the standard chromaticity coordinates x, y, on the standard color chart in FIG DIN 5033 is shifted from its initial value toward the blue spectral range and the color temperature of the white light takes a higher value. The monitoring of the aforementioned quotient therefore additionally allows the safety shutdown of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b also a monitoring of the shift of color location and color temperature of the light emitted by the illumination device. Accordingly, therefore, in the case of a partially released or partially inactive phosphor coating 331 for example, the power of the four laser diodes 30a . 30b be reduced or the laser diodes 30a . 30b are switched off as soon as a predefined threshold value of the aforementioned quotient is exceeded.
  • In 5 the structure of a lighting device according to the fourth embodiment of the invention is shown schematically. This illumination device has a blue light emitting from the wavelength range of 440 nm to 460 nm laser diode 40 , a collimator lens 41 , a light wavelength conversion element 43 and two light sensors 44 . 45 , That of the laser diode 40 emitted light is using the collimator lens 41 parallelized and in the direction of the light wavelength conversion element 43 directed so that it is at an angle of 45 degrees to the surface of the light wavelength conversion element 43 incident.
  • The light wavelength conversion element 43 The illumination device according to the fourth embodiment of the invention consists of a sapphire plate 430 that with phosphor 431 which converts blue light into yellow light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. As a phosphor 431 For example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) is used. The relative proportion of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light in the white mixed light 46 is determined by the thickness of the phosphor coating 431 and the concentration of the phosphor on the sapphire plate 430 certainly. The blue laser light is applied to the phosphor particles of the light wavelength conversion element 43 scattered and part of the blue light is by means of the phosphor 431 converted to yellow light. The sapphire plate 430 serves as a carrier and heat sink for the phosphor 431 , The phosphor 431 is as a coating on that of the laser diode 40 opposite surface of the sapphire plate 430 , also referred to below as the back of the sapphire plate 430 is called attached. The with phosphor 431 coated back as well as the side edges of the sapphire plate 430 are with a light reflective layer 432 covered. Both the unconverted blue portion of the light and the converted yellow portion of the light become the light reflective coating 432 reflected, so that white light 46 which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light, the light wavelength conversion element 43 on the front of the sapphire plate opposite the back 430 leaves. The one on the front of the sapphire plate 430 exiting white light 46 is due to the scattering of the particles of the phosphor coating 431 emitted in different directions. In contrast, the tightly bundled blue laser light hits 47 at an angle of 45 degrees to the front of the sapphire tile 430 on.
  • The light reflective coating 432 each has a breakthrough for the two at the back of the sapphire tile 430 arranged light sensors 44 . 45 on. The first light sensor 44 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the first photodiode substantially only receives light from the blue spectral range in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 460 nm. The second light sensor 45 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the second photodiode receives substantially only light from the yellow spectral range in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. Alternatively, the color filters may, for example, also be designed such that the color filter of the first light sensor 44 only for light from the violet and blue spectral range is transparent and the color filter for the second light sensor 45 only permeable to the yellow and red spectral range. The first light sensor 44 however, detects only unconverted blue light while the second light sensor 45 only converted yellow light detected. The evaluation of the light sensors 44 . 45 detected light intensities occur in the same manner as in the light sensors 14 . 15 the illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention. The light wavelength conversion element 43 is in a receptacle designed as a heat sink metallic holder 400 arranged.
  • In 6 is schematically illustrated the structure of a lighting device according to the fifth embodiment of the invention. This illumination device has a blue light emitting from the wavelength range of 440 nm to 460 nm laser diode 50 , a collimator lens 51 , a fiber optic 52 , a light wavelength conversion element 53 , a light-scattering body 56 , and two light sensors 54 . 55 and a holder for the light wavelength conversion element 53 and the light-scattering body 56 , That of the laser diode 50 emitted light is using the collimator lens 51 parallelized and by means of fiber optics 52 on the light scattering body 56 directed. The light-scattering body 56 has two opposing surfaces, hereinafter referred to as the front and back of the light-scattering body 56 be designated. At the front of the light-scattering body 56 is the light wavelength conversion element 53 arranged and at the back of the light-scattering body 56 are the two light sensors 54 . 55 arranged.
  • The light wavelength conversion element 53 the illumination device according to the fifth Embodiment of the invention consists of a sapphire plate 530 that with phosphor 531 which converts blue light into yellow light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. As a phosphor 131 For example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) is used. The relative proportion of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light in the white mixed light 57 is determined by the thickness of the phosphor coating 531 and the concentration of the phosphor on the sapphire plate 530 certainly. The blue laser light is applied to the phosphor particles of the light wavelength conversion element 53 scattered and part of the blue light is by means of the phosphor 531 converted to yellow light. The sapphire plate 530 serves as a carrier and heat sink for the phosphor 531 , The phosphor 531 is as a coating on the light scattering body 56 facing surface of the sapphire plate 530 appropriate. He can also do so on the light-scattering body 56 opposite surface of the sapphire plate 530 be arranged. The light wavelength conversion element 53 is together with the light scattering body 56 in a holder 500 clamped, in addition, as a heat sink for the light wavelength conversion element 53 serves.
  • The first light sensor 54 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the first photodiode substantially only receives light from the blue spectral range in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 460 nm. The second light sensor 55 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the second photodiode receives substantially only light from the yellow spectral range in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. Alternatively, the color filters may, for example, also be designed such that the color filter of the first light sensor 54 only for light from the violet and blue spectral range is transparent and the color filter for the second light sensor 55 only permeable to the yellow and red spectral range.
  • That with the help of fiber optics 52 into the light-scattering body 56 coupled blue laser light is scattered in different directions, making it both on the phosphor layer 531 the light wavelength conversion element 53 as well as on the light sensors 54 . 55 meets. The blue scattered light from the first light sensor 54 detected. Part of the on the phosphor layer 531 incident light is converted into yellow light and also scattered in different directions, so that at the light scattering body 56 opposite surface of the sapphire plate 530 White light 57 which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. Part of the converted yellow light is in the direction of the light sensors 54 . 55 scattered and from the second light sensor 55 detected. The evaluation of the two light sensors 54 . 55 detected light intensities is analogous to the evaluation, based on the light sensors 14 . 15 the illumination device according to the first embodiment of the invention has been described.
  • In 7 schematically the structure of a lighting device according to the sixth embodiment of the invention is shown. This illumination device has two, blue light from the wavelength range of 440 nm to 460 nm emitting laser diodes 60a . 60b , one collimator lens each 61a . 61b for each of the laser diodes, a light guide designed as a fiber optic 62 , a light wavelength conversion element 63 , two light sensors 64 . 65 , a beam splitter 66 and a test light source 67 ,
  • That of the laser diodes 60a . 60b emitted light is using the collimator lenses 61a respectively. 61b parallelized and in a first end 622 the fiber optic 62 coupled. That from the second end 623 Exiting blue laser light impinges on the light wavelength conversion element 63 and becomes after hitting the light wavelength conversion element 63 proportionately converted into yellow light, so that when passing the light wavelength conversion element 63 White light 68 which is a mixture of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light. The illumination device according to the sixth exemplary embodiment of the invention thus generates white light which is a mixture of blue excitation light of the laser diodes 60a . 60b and converted yellow light of the light wavelength conversion element 63 is. The light wavelength conversion element 63 serves as a light exit opening of the illumination device and since it has only a small area in the range of 1 mm 2 to 5 mm 2 , the illumination device can be regarded as a white light emitting point light source, which is very well suited as a light source for projection applications, in particular vehicle headlights.
  • The light wavelength conversion element 63 The illumination device according to the sixth embodiment of the invention consists of a sapphire plate 630 that with phosphor 631 which converts blue light into yellow light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. As a phosphor 631 For example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) is used. The relative proportion of unconverted blue light and converted yellow light in the white mixed light 68 is determined by the thickness of the phosphor coating 631 and the concentration of the phosphor on the sapphire plate 630 certainly. The blue laser light is on the phosphor particles of the light wavelength conversion element 63 scattered and part of the blue light is by means of the phosphor 631 converted to yellow light. The sapphire plate 630 serves as a carrier and heat sink for the phosphor 131 , The phosphor 631 is as a coating on the second end 623 the fiber optic 62 facing surface of the sapphire plate 630 appropriate. But he can also be on the end of this 623 opposite surface of the sapphire plate 630 be arranged. The light wavelength conversion element 63 is in a holder (not shown) clamped, in addition, as a heat sink for the light wavelength conversion element 63 serves.
  • At the test light source 67 it is a laser diode that is either identical to the laser diodes 60a . 60b is formed and also emits blue light or emits the electromagnetic radiation or light from another wavelength range, for which the light wavelength conversion element 63 has a high reflectance. That of the test light source 67 emitted light is after passing a beam splitter 66 in the first end 622 the fiber optic 62 coupled with an angle of incidence of zero degrees. Part of the second end 623 the fiber optic 62 Exiting light of the test light source 67 becomes at the light wavelength conversion element 63 reflected and returned to the second end 623 the fiber optic 62 coupled in, leaving it after exiting the first end 622 the fiber optic 62 and after reflection at the beam splitter 66 from the first light sensor 64 is detected. The second light sensor 65 is disposed so as to be incident on the light wavelength conversion element 63 scattered light detected.
  • The first light sensor 64 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the first photodiode receives substantially only light from the wavelength range, that of the wavelength of the test light source 67 emitted light corresponds. The second light sensor 65 is formed as a photodiode, which is preceded by a color filter, so that the second photodiode receives substantially only light from the yellow spectral range in the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm. The first light sensor 64 is arranged so that it is from the test light source 67 emitted, unconverted light detected. The second light sensor 65 is arranged to detect light at the light wavelength conversion element 63 was scattered and converted to yellow light. The of the two light sensors 64 . 65 detected light intensities are evaluated in the same manner as in the first embodiment of the invention, in case of failure, a safety shutdown of the laser diodes 60a . 60b and the test light source 67 trigger.
  • The fiber optics 32a . 32b . 32c . 32d . 32e . 52 and 62 have the same construction as the fiber optic 12 according to the first embodiment of the invention. On the representation of the light-conducting core and the jacket of the fiber optics was in the 3 . 4 . 6 and 7 omitted for simplicity.
  • The evaluation units 110 for the intensities detected by the light sensors and the safety shutdowns for the laser diodes according to the embodiments described above can be realized in a simple manner by means of a program installed in the microprocessor evaluation unit that in case of failure, for example falling below a certain threshold of the above quotient L2 / L1 , the laser diodes off and optionally additionally causes the closing of the light exit opening of the illumination device by means of a diaphragm. The shutdown of the laser diodes takes place within a few nanoseconds.
  • The invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments of the invention. For example, instead of blue-emitting laser diodes and the yellow-phosphor light-wavelength conversion element, it is also possible to use laser diodes which emit light of other colors and light-wavelength conversion elements with differently colored light-generating phosphors. Accordingly, the light sensors can be adapted to these light wavelength conversion elements. The spectral range used for this invention includes infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation. In addition, the light wavelength conversion element can be movable, for example arranged rotatably about an axis and be designed for example as a color wheel, which is coated with different phosphors for generating differently colored light and is formed for example as part of a projection device. Accordingly, a plurality of light sensors may be provided for the light converted by the different phosphors to detect the relative proportions of converted and unconverted light for each phosphor and to determine color locus shift over the operating life of the illuminator.
  • In addition to the evaluation of the relative proportions of converted and unconverted light, the heating of the light wavelength conversion element, which results from the so-called Stokes shift in the phosphor of the light wavelength conversion element, can be monitored with the aid of a temperature sensor or an infrared sensor. To the attributable to other causes warming of the To hide light wavelength conversion element, the combination of modulation of the laser light and so-called lock-in technique can be performed in the temperature measurement. That is, the temperature measurement is made in synchronism with a certain phase of the modulated laser light.
  • The measuring and evaluation device can be calibrated or contain a self-calibration function. For example, calibration may be performed prior to the start of each commissioning of the lighting device. The calibration can be done, for example, with a very low laser power.
  • The excitation light sources can be clocked or operated in continuous wave mode, or in a combination of both modes.
  • All embodiments also function without the optical fibers upstream of the laser light sources, designed as fiber optics, since the laser beams can also be directed directly to the wavelength converting light wavelength conversion element. Here is the method of signal strength measurement regardless of how the laser beams are guided to the light wavelength conversion element. In addition, other forms of optical fibers, such as so-called TIR optics based on the principle of total internal reflection, or reflectors or a combination of fiber optics and TIR optics or a combination of fiber optics and reflectors may be used instead of the fiber optics.
  • At the in 2 illustrated second embodiment may also be the second light sensors 15 in the case 100 be accommodated, as at the Lichtwellenlängenkonversionselement 13 scattered and converted yellow light into the fiber optic 12 coupled and so to the first end 122 the fiber optic 12 then returned from the second light sensor 15 can be detected.
  • The term scattered light or scattered light is intended to mean both unconverted laser light scattered at the light wavelength conversion element or other optical elements, as well as the converted light emitted by the light wavelength conversion element.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • US 2011/0084609 A1 [0002]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • DIN 5033 [0010]
    • DIN 5033 [0024]
    • DIN 5033 [0029]

Claims (8)

  1. Lighting device with at least one laser light source ( 10 ) and at least one light wavelength conversion element ( 13 . 33 . 43 . 53 . 63 ), which is adapted to be from the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ) to convert light emitted proportionately into light of other wavelength, wherein the illumination device at least one light sensor for monitoring the light emission for the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ), characterized in that at least two light sensors ( 14 . 15 . 24 . 34 . 35 . 44 . 45 . 54 . 55 . 64 . 65 ), wherein a first light sensor ( 14 . 24 . 34 . 44 . 54 . 64 ) for detecting unconverted laser light at the wavelength of the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ) emitted light, and wherein a second light sensor ( 15 . 35 . 45 . 55 . 65 ) for detecting converted laser light to the wavelength of that of the at least one light wavelength conversion element ( 13 . 33 . 43 . 53 . 63 ) converted light is tuned.
  2. Lighting device according to claim 1, wherein the light sensors ( 14 . 15 . 24 . 34 . 35 . 44 . 45 . 54 . 55 . 64 . 65 ) are arranged such that they detect at the at least one light wavelength conversion element scattered or reflected light.
  3. Lighting device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first light sensor ( 24 ) is arranged such that it is not converted by the at least one laser light source ( 10 ) detected light, and the second light sensor ( 15 ) is arranged such that it is connected to the at least one light wavelength conversion element ( 13 ) detected scattered light.
  4. Lighting device according to one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the illumination device at least one light guide ( 32e ), which is arranged such that stray light from the at least one light wavelength conversion element ( 33 ) in the light guide ( 32e ) is coupled in and out of the optical fiber ( 32e ) leaking light on the light sensors ( 34 . 35 ) meets.
  5. Lighting device according to one of claims 1 to 4, wherein an evaluation unit ( 110 ) and is designed such that a quotient of that of the first light sensor ( 14 . 24 . 34 . 44 . 54 . 64 ) and the second light sensor ( 15 . 35 . 45 . 55 . 65 ) or a signal proportional thereto is evaluated.
  6. Lighting device according to one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ) is designed so that it emits light from the wavelength range of 380 nm to 490 nm, and the at least one light wavelength conversion element ( 13 . 33 . 43 . 53 . 63 ) is configured such that it receives light from the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ) is proportionally converted into light having a dominant wavelength from the wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm.
  7. Lighting device according to claim 6, wherein the first light sensor ( 14 . 24 . 34 . 44 . 54 . 64 ) is tuned to a wavelength range of 380 nm to 490 nm and the second light sensor ( 15 . 35 . 45 . 55 . 65 ) is tuned to a wavelength range of 560 nm to 590 nm or to wavelengths greater than or equal to 550 nm.
  8. Lighting device according to one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the at least one laser light source ( 10 . 30a . 30b . 40 . 50 . 60a . 60b ) is designed as a laser diode.
DE102012215702.6A 2012-09-05 2012-09-05 Lighting device Pending DE102012215702A1 (en)

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