DE102011110591B4 - Hollow fiber membrane filtration module and method of operating a filtration module for liquids - Google Patents

Hollow fiber membrane filtration module and method of operating a filtration module for liquids

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Publication number
DE102011110591B4
DE102011110591B4 DE102011110591.7A DE102011110591A DE102011110591B4 DE 102011110591 B4 DE102011110591 B4 DE 102011110591B4 DE 102011110591 A DE102011110591 A DE 102011110591A DE 102011110591 B4 DE102011110591 B4 DE 102011110591B4
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
fiber membranes
hollow fiber
passage
filtration module
hollow
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
DE102011110591.7A
Other languages
German (de)
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DE102011110591A1 (en
Inventor
Michael Micke
Michael Fasold
Jan Bolda
Peter Suckfüll
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Mann+Hummel GmbH
Original Assignee
Mann+Hummel GmbH
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Publication date
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Priority to DE102011110591.7A priority Critical patent/DE102011110591B4/en
Publication of DE102011110591A1 publication Critical patent/DE102011110591A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE102011110591B4 publication Critical patent/DE102011110591B4/en
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/44Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • B01D63/024Hollow fibre modules with a single potted end or U-shaped
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • B01D63/04Hollow fibre modules comprising multiple hollow fibre assemblies
    • B01D63/043Hollow fibre modules comprising multiple hollow fibre assemblies with separate tube sheets
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D65/00Accessories or auxiliary operations, in general, for separation processes or apparatus using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D65/02Membrane cleaning or sterilisation ; Membrane regeneration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/10Specific supply elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/26Specific gas distributors or gas intakes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/02Forward flushing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/04Backflushing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/10Use of feed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/12Use of permeate
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/18Use of gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/16Regeneration of sorbents, filters

Abstract

A liquid filtration module (10; 110; 210) comprising hollow fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) for separating foreign matter contaminated liquids, comprising a housing (12; 112; 212) having at least one feed passage (28; 224a) for admission to the loaded liquid (11; 111; 211) connected to the raw sides of the hollow fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) and at least one permeate passage (24; 124a, 124b; 228, 218). to the outlet of the extraneous-liberated liquid (15; 115; 215) connected to the clean sides of the hollow-fiber membranes (82; 182; 282), the hollow-fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) in the housing (12; 112, 212) are arranged to seal the feed passage (28; 128; 224a) closely from the permeate passage (24; 124a, 124b; 228, 218), each hollow fiber membrane (82; 182; 282) at least with an open end (84; 184; 284) attached to a closing element (78; 178a, 178b; 278a, 178b), the interiors of the hollow fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) are connected to one of the passages (24; 124a, 124b; 224a, 224b) via the open ends (84; 184; 284) and closed sections (82b; 182b; 282b) of the hollow fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) in FIG a chamber (38; 138; 238) of the housing (12; 112; 212), which in turn is connected to the other passage (28; 128; 218; 228), characterized in that the closing element (78; 178a, 178b, 278a, 178b) has at least the passage (28; 128; 218; 228) for fluid (11; 111; 215) which forms the passage to the chamber (38; 138; 238) and which is radial to said passage (28; 128; 218; 228) connected to the manifold (61; 161a, 161b; 261a, 261b) having a plurality of distributed distribution ports (66, 68; 166, 168; 266, 268) to the chamber (38; 138; 238), and the hollow fiber membranes (82; 182; 282) at least in the cross-sectional direction between the distribution channels (61; 161a, 161b; 261a, 261b) on the closing element (78; 178a, 178b; 278a, 178b) are attached.

Description

  • Technical area
  • The invention relates to a filtration module for liquids, in particular a water filtration module with hollow fiber membranes for the separation of foreign matter contaminated liquids, in particular water, with a housing having at least one feed passage for the inlet of the loaded liquid, which is connected to the raw sides of the hollow fiber membranes, and at least one permeate passage to the outlet from the extraneous-removed liquid connected to the clean sides of the hollow fiber membranes, the hollow fiber membranes in the housing being arranged to seal the feed passage closely from the permeate passage each hollow fiber membrane is attached at least with an open end to a closing element, the interiors of the hollow fiber membranes are connected via the open ends with one of the passages and closed portions of the hollow fiber membranes are arranged in a chamber of the housing, which in turn with de m other passage is connected.
  • Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for operating a filtration module for liquids, in particular a water filtration module, with hollow fiber membranes for separating contaminated with contaminants feed fluid, in particular feed water, in which passed in a cleaning process, the feed liquid through a feed inlet of a housing to the crude sides of the hollow fiber membranes is pressed, the foreign matter-freed permeate through the hollow-fiber membranes to the clean side, wherein the concentrated with foreign matter retentate remains on the crude sides, and the permeate is discharged through a permeate outlet from the housing.
  • State of the art
  • Such filtration modules can be used for the decentralized treatment of water, in particular groundwater, surface water, process water, wastewater and for prefiltration, in particular for reverse osmosis membranes, and are for example made US 5,783,083 A . DE 198 11 945 A1 . JP 2009 154 032 A . JP 9 173 795 A . JP 2010 125 415 A and JP 2007 203 254 A known.
  • From the WO 01/43856 A1 Furthermore, a water filtration module with hollow fiber membranes is known, which are traversed for filtration from outside to inside of water. The water to be treated is introduced into the module from above and the treated water is collected at the bottom of the module. The hollow fiber membranes are arranged in a housing in a plurality of U-shaped bundles. The module is vertically aligned with the U-shape of the hollow fiber membranes in the upper part of the module. At the bottom of the module each fiber bundle is arranged in a casing. The casings are cast in pot resin in a distribution disc. The free ends of the hollow fiber membranes are in the sleeves. The distributor plate defines a chamber of the housing in which the closed portions of the hollow fiber chambers are down. The open ends of the hollow fiber membranes are located outside the chamber at the bottom of the module housing where the depleted water can be removed. The loaded water is introduced from above into the module, the permeate is pressed by gravity from outside to inside in the interiors of the hollow fiber membranes and passed down through them. The retentate concentrated with impurities sinks downwards following gravity. The foreign substances block the hollow fiber membranes with increasing operating time from bottom to top. In this way, the filtration area formed by the outer surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes is successively reduced. The performance of the water filtration module decreases significantly with the operating time.
  • The invention has for its object to design a filtration module for liquids, especially for water, and a method of operating a filtration module of the type mentioned, in which a uniform loading of the hollow fiber membranes is achieved, in particular blockages or blockages are avoided. In particular, the longest possible service life should be possible.
  • Disclosure of the invention
  • This object is achieved in accordance with the invention in that the closing element has at least one passage for fluid, which forms the passage to the chamber, which is connected to distribution channels running radially to the passage, which have a plurality of distributed distribution openings to the chamber, and the hollow fiber membranes at least in Cross-sectional direction between the distribution channels are attached to the end element.
  • According to the invention, the passage to the chamber is thus combined with a distributor device which has, for example, a central tube and the distributor channels. Fluid, in particular water and / or purge gas, can flow through the passage. For the purposes of the invention, flow channels for liquid are also formed between the hollow-fiber membranes. About the distribution openings can the fluid, in particular directly, flow into the flow channels. The hollow-fiber membranes are fastened between the distribution channels at least in the cross-sectional direction of the filtration module, ie transversely to the fiber direction of the hollow-fiber membranes in the region of the terminating element. A plurality of preferably parallel-running hollow-fiber membranes may be arranged bundled to form a hollow-fiber segment, in each case transversely to the longitudinal direction of the hollow-fiber segment, between two of the distribution channels. The passage may be an inlet (feed inlet) for contaminated raw material (feed fluid) to be treated. Out / In hollow-fiber membranes are preferably used, the membrane walls are flowed through from the radially outside (raw side) to the inside (clean side). The advantage of using out / in hollow-fiber membranes is that external, open flow-side flow channels are not blocked so quickly by foreign substances and blockages on the outer raw sides of the hollow-fiber membranes can be easily released. The feed liquid is distributed uniformly over the entire cross section of the chamber via the distributor device. A part of the feed liquid may, for. B. introduced via a central line space directly into the chamber. Another part of the feed liquid is distributed over the distribution channels over the cross section of the chamber. In this way, a homogeneous flow of all possible hollow fiber membranes is achieved with feed liquid. Thus, the entire available surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes are used evenly for filtration. It will be realized correspondingly long service life and a uniform loading of the hollow fiber membranes. The passage may also be an outlet (permeate outlet) for depleted feed liquid (permeate) or an outlet (retentate outlet) for retentate concentrated with impurities. In this case, the distributor device causes the permeate or the retentate to be discharged uniformly over the cross section of the chamber. In this way, a uniform flow through the running between the hollow fiber membranes open flow channels is achieved. If the passage is the permeate outlet, preference is given to using in / out hollow-fiber membranes whose membrane walls are flowed through from radially inward to outward, ie the inside of which are on the inside and the clean side outside. The filtration module according to the invention may be realized as a module with a dead-end module, in which the feed opening and the permeate outlet are located on the same side of the housing. The hollow-fiber membranes can in particular run in a U-shape, with the legs of the "U's" having the open ends of the hollow-fiber membranes. Alternatively, the water filtration module according to the invention can be realized as a countercurrent module (cross-flow module). In the case of the cross-flow module, in each case one of the ends of the hollow-fiber membranes is arranged in a first outflow element and the respective other free end is arranged on a corresponding second closure element. The termination elements are arranged on opposite sides in the housing. One of the end elements has the feed inlet and serves to uniform feed of feed liquid into the chamber. The second end element has a retentate outlet. The second termination element may be constructed similar or equal to the first termination element. It may also have a passage with radially extending distribution channels with corresponding distribution openings. By means of the distributor device on the second closing element, the retentate can be removed uniformly over the entire cross section of the chamber, as a result of which a uniform flow of the hollow-fiber membranes is achieved overall. The filtration module according to the invention can be arranged oriented in all spatial directions. The dead-end filtration module is preferably arranged so that the end element is spatially down and the hollow fiber membranes are directed vertically upwards. The filtration module can also be arranged so that the hollow fiber membranes are directed spatially downwards on the closing element. Advantageously, a plurality of retentate outlets may be provided, over which also solids contained in the retentate with relatively high weight and / or high density can be efficiently discharged by rinsing out of the filtration module. Preferably, at least one of the retentate outlets can be arranged on the underside of the filtration module so that particles that have sunk there can be completely discharged. In this way, irreversible loading of the hollow-fiber membranes by particles can be counteracted. It can be achieved a uniform loading of the hollow fiber membranes. The filtration module can be cleaned by the inventive arrangement during operation. The filtration module according to the invention can be operated flexibly in different ways. In the filtration module also several permeate outlets can be provided. This has the advantage that multiple filtration modules can easily be connected in series by interconnecting their respective retentate outlets and permeate outlets.
  • Preferably, the passage is arranged centrally on the closing element. In this way, results in a simple and thus production engineering advantageous construction with a central passage, in particular a centrally disposed passage from which depart the radial distribution channels. A particularly simple construction results when a single central passage is provided on the closing element.
  • In the case of a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, a central tube is arranged in the passage on the closing element, which divides the passage into a radially inner central line space which directly, ie not via further distribution channels, into the chamber, and a radially outer loop space, and the loop space is connected to the radial distribution channels. It results in a functionally reliable division of partial flows of the fluid already in the passage.
  • In an advantageous embodiment, at least a part of the distributor openings may be fluidly aligned axially with respect to the hollow-fiber membranes. Axially directed distribution openings cause fluid flow along the hollow fiber segments.
  • Additionally or alternatively, advantageously at least a part of the distributor openings can be aligned fluidically transversely to the hollow-fiber membranes. Distributed openings aligned transversely to the hollow-fiber membranes cause fluid flow into and out of the hollow-fiber segments. In a further advantageous embodiment, a particularly separable throttle unit for throttling the fluid flow through the central tube can be arranged in the flow path of the central tube. The throttle unit may be mounted in front of, behind or in the central tube. With the throttle unit, a distribution of the fluid to the central tube and the distribution channels can be specified. By varying the setting of the throttle unit and the variation of the cross sections of the central tube, the loop space and / or the distribution channels, the flow distribution along the hollow fiber membranes and in the open flow channels between the hollow fiber membranes, in particular in the hollow fiber segments, can be optimally predetermined. Advantageously, the throttle unit can be arranged as a replaceable insert separable in the flow path of the central tube. Depending on the application and operating conditions of the filtration module can be varied by replacing the throttle unit, a proportion of the feed liquid through the throttle unit in relation to a flowing through the distribution channels feed liquid content.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment, a gas connection, in particular a compressed air connection, lead into the loop space. By means of the gas connection, purge gas can be fed to the hollow fiber segments and the hollow-fiber membranes in an equally distributed manner, analogously to the feed water, bypassing the central tube into the loop space and from there via the distributor channels and the distributor openings, before or during a purging of the filtration module. The purge gas causes the hollow fiber membranes to move. In this way, adhering to the raw sides of the hollow fiber membranes filter cake can be easily broken, detached from the hollow fiber membranes and rinsed with the retentate. If air is blown in as purge gas, this can be called air scoring. Preferably, this compressed air is used, which penetrates with pressure in the interstices between the hollow fiber membranes. The flushing of purge gas can be combined with a low volume flow of feed fluid, which can be referred to as a combined forward purge. The feed liquid serves in this case as a transport medium for the gas bubbles. This improves the penetration of the gas bubbles into the regions between the hollow-fiber membranes, the movement of the hollow-fiber membranes and thus the break-up of the filter cake. By introducing the purge gas through the distribution openings, an optimal distribution of the gas bubbles can be effected. Further, the purge gas bubbles discharged through the manifold openings may be smaller than purge gas bubbles introduced into the filtration module via a single central gas inlet. Transverse flows can form at the edges of the distribution openings, which parts the gas bubbles and can distribute over the cross section of the filtration module. In this way, the energy requirement can be reduced because even small volume flows of purge gas can move the hollow fiber membranes efficiently.
  • A further advantageous embodiment can provide that the housing has a retentate outlet which is connected to the raw sides of the hollow-fiber membranes, to the outlet at least of retentate concentrated with foreign substances, in particular to the outlet of retentate and in particular in a flushing process initiated purge gas. Due to the retentate outlet, the retentate and optionally introduced purge gas can be simply drained off. In this way, a flushing process can be realized, wherein the purge gas and possibly some feed liquid is introduced on one side of the housing and discharged on the opposite side.
  • Advantageously, the distribution channels can be arranged in a distributor star. The distributor star can also be manufactured separately as a modular component in a simple manner. The distributor star can also be composed of a star-shaped base element and a star-shaped cover element, so that the distribution channels are delimited by corresponding wings of the base element and cover element. The end element can be easily assembled with the distributor star. The hollow fiber membranes may be attached to the termination element separately from the distribution core. This has the advantage that to Production of the filtration module modular components can be used, which can be combined depending on the desired structure of the filtration module. In particular, the same embodiment of a distributor starter can be used in a dead-end module and in a cross-flow module.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment, a particular saddle-shaped receiving part for receiving free ends of the hollow-fiber membranes, in particular of closed U-shaped sections of the hollow-fiber membranes, be arranged in a spatially upper region of the housing. Free ends or curved U-shaped sections free sides of the hollow fiber membranes can be held with the receiving part. It is thus easy to prevent the hollow-fiber membranes from sagging down, and possibly even buckling, in particular as a result of the action of gravity. It can be prevented that the position of the hollow fiber membranes changes during operation of the filtration module. The hollow fiber membranes may advantageously be arranged in bundles. The hollow-fiber membranes may be favorably fixed in the upper part of the filtration module for the flow, in particular in an upper end cap of the housing with the receiving part. The receiving part can also be designed so that it can be used in the manufacturing process as a kind of transport handle for the transport of the hollow fibers. The receiving part can advantageously be designed for suspension on a corresponding rail system of a transport device of a production plant. For this purpose, the receiving part can be configured in particular hook-like.
  • In terms of process technology, the object is achieved according to the invention in that at least part of the feed liquid is distributed radially in a star-shaped manner relative to the axial flow direction and introduced between the hollow-fiber membranes. In this way, the feed liquid is evenly distributed over the cross section of the chamber to ensure optimum utilization of the surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes. The hollow fiber membranes are loaded so evenly, which allows efficient filtration and an extension of the service life. Furthermore, the uniform distribution of the feed water reduces the pressure loss in the water filtration module, which has a positive effect on the energy balance. Incidentally, the features and advantages for the method according to the invention and its advantageous embodiments set out above in connection with the filtration module according to the invention apply correspondingly.
  • Preferably, a portion of the feed liquid is distributed in a star shape radially to the axial flow direction and introduced between the hollow fiber membranes and introduced a portion of the feed liquid centrally in an axial flow in a chamber with the hollow fiber membranes.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the method, in a flushing process, gas, in particular compressed air, radially distributed to the axial flow direction and introduced between the hollow fiber membranes and the retentate from a previous cleaning process and the gas can be passed out of the housing through a retentate outlet. This flushing process can be referred to as optimized air scoring. With the gas, which is evenly distributed preferably introduced through radial distribution channels between the hollow fiber membranes in any hollow fiber segments, the hollow fiber membranes can be moved, so that aborted on the surfaces deposited impurity cake. The separated contaminants and the retentate can easily be passed out of the housing with the gas through the retentate outlet. The duration of a subsequent backwashing can be shortened. The consumption of permeate, which is pumped back to the raw side for backwashing, can be reduced. This has a positive effect on the costs in particular. This allows the filtration module to be easily regenerated efficiently without having to open the filtration module. It ensures a reliable operation of the filtration module. Overall, so the life of the hollow fiber membranes are extended.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment of the method, in the flushing process, in addition to the gas, feed liquid can be radially distributed radially to the axial flow direction and introduced between the hollow fiber membranes and the feed liquid, the retentate and the gas can be passed out of the housing through the retentate outlet. In this way, the benefits of optimized air scoring are combined with the advantages of combined forward flushing. It can flow a small volume flow of feed fluid through the module, whereby a deep penetration of the gas bubbles in the hollow fiber segments and a stronger movement of the hollow fiber membranes can be achieved. The feed liquid in this case serves as a transport medium for the gas bubbles and allows a better penetration into the hollow fiber segments.
  • Brief description of the drawings
  • Further advantages, features and details of the invention will become apparent from the following description, are explained in more detail in the embodiments of the invention with reference to the drawing. The person skilled in the art will use the drawings in the drawing Described description and the claims in combination expediently individually and summarize meaningful further combinations. Show it:
  • 1 schematically a side view of a water filtration module according to a first embodiment, which is constructed as a dead-end module with out / in hollow-fiber membranes;
  • 2 schematically a plan view of the water filtration module 1 in the direction of an arrow II there;
  • 3 schematically a first longitudinal section of the water filtration module from the 1 and 2 along a section line III-III in 2 ;
  • 4 a detailed view of a lower end cap of the water filtration module in longitudinal section 3 in a local area IV;
  • 5 schematically a second longitudinal section of the water filtration module from the 1 and 2 along a section line VV in 2 ;
  • 6 a detailed view of the lower end cap in longitudinal section 5 in a local area VI;
  • 7 schematically a third longitudinal section of the water filtration module from the 1 and 2 along a section line VII-VII in FIG 2 ;
  • 8th a detailed view of the lower end cap in longitudinal section 7 in a local area VIII;
  • 9 a detailed view of a throttle in the region of the lower end cap in longitudinal section 7 in a local area IX;
  • 10 schematically a fourth longitudinal section of the water filtration module of the 1 and 2 along a section line XX in 2 ;
  • 11 schematically an isometric view of the lower end cap and a manifold of the water filtration module of the 1 to 10 ;
  • 12 schematically in longitudinal section a water filtration module according to a second embodiment, which is to the water filtration module according to the first embodiment of the 1 to 11 similar, and that is constructed as a cross-flow module with out / in hollow fiber membranes;
  • 13 schematically in longitudinal section a water filtration module according to a third embodiment, which is to the water filtration modules according to the first and the second embodiment of the 1 to 12 similar, and that is constructed as a cross-flow module with in / out hollow fiber membranes;
  • 14 schematically an isometric view of a distributor cover of the distribution device of the 11 ;
  • 15 schematically in plan view of the distributor cover from the 14 ;
  • 16 schematically an isometric view of a distributor cover according to an alternative embodiment, to the distributor cover of the 11 . 14 and 15 is similar;
  • 17 schematically in plan view of the distributor cover from the 16 ;
  • 18 schematically a section of an alternative upper end cap, with a receiving part for receiving the hollow fiber modules in the region of the upper end cap, which in the water filtration module according to the first embodiment of the 1 to 10 can be used;
  • 19 schematically a section of the upper end cap of the 18 in a sectional plane perpendicular to the local section plane.
  • In the figures, the same components are provided with the same reference numerals.
  • Embodiment (s) of the invention
  • In the 1 to 11 is a first embodiment of a water filtration module 10 shown in dead-end construction in different perspectives and sections. The modular construction of the water filtration module 10 can be used for the decentralized treatment of contaminated water (feed water), for example groundwater, surface water, process water, wastewater or for prefiltration in reverse osmosis plants. The feed water is particularly in the 1 . 3 . 4 . 5 and 6 indicated by arrows 11 , In the dead-end construction, water released from foreign substances (permeate 15 ) at the same end of the water filtration module 10 discharged, which also contaminated with foreign substances feed water 11 is initiated.
  • The water filtration module 10 has a housing 12 with a tubular housing wall 13 on which at its ends with an upper endcap 14 and a lower end cap 16 is closed.
  • In 2 is the water filtration module 10 in plan view looking at the upper end cap 14 in the direction of an arrow II 1 shown. The upper end cap 14 has two interconnected retentate outlets 18 , on opposite sides of the upper end cap 14 lead out. The upper end cap 14 is, as in particular in a first longitudinal section in the 3 shown on her the inside of the case 12 facing inside dome-shaped. On the outside of the upper end cap 14 is a variety of ribbing 20 arranged, which increase the bursting pressure resistance. The upper end cap 14 is over an intermediate ring 22 pluggable and detachable with the housing 12 connected. On the intermediate ring 22 can also be dispensed with in this embodiment. The upper end cap 14 can also be firm with the case 12 be connected. In this embodiment, it is sufficient that the water filtration module 10 for example, for maintenance purposes via the lower end cap 16 can be opened.
  • The lower end cap 16 especially in the 4 shown in detail, has two permeate outlets 24 on which at opposite circumferential sides of the lower end cap 16 lead out.
  • A to the housing 12 coaxial tubular feed inlet 28 leads, as in the 3 shown, centrally by a dome-like inner wall 26 the lower end cap 16 therethrough. The outside of the lower end cap 16 is analogous to the upper end cap 14 with a variety of ribs 30 provided to improve the bursting pressure resistance.
  • The feed inlet 28 serves to inlet the feed water 11 , In the feed inlet 28 is coaxial with a central tube 32 arranged. The central tube 32 divides the feed intake 28 in a radially inner central pipe space 34 and a radially outer loop space 36 , The central room 34 opens, as explained in more detail below, in the interior of the housing 12 , which is an inlet chamber 38 forms. On the outside of the water filtration module 10 exceeds the feed intake 28 the central tube 32 in the axial direction.
  • Through the peripheral wall of the feed inlet 28 leads a compressed air connection 40 and flows into the area of the central tube 32 in the loop space 36 , The compressed air connection 40 runs obliquely to the axis of the feed inlet 28 , so that injected compressed air, especially in the 3 and 4 indicated by an arrow 41 , inward towards the inlet chamber 38 is blown and not in the central tube 32 can get.
  • That of the inlet chamber 38 facing the end of the feed inlet 28 is on the inlet chamber 38 facing side of a border 42 the lower end cap 16 stepped radially inward. The stage thus formed 44 serves as a support for a ring seal 46 ,
  • The central tube 32 ends on the inlet chamber 38 facing side approximately at the height of the step 44 , The radially outer peripheral side of the central tube 32 is at its local end with a rejuvenation 48 Mistake. The rejuvenation 48 serves to attach a central tube connection piece described in more detail below 50 a distribution star 52 and causes the outer contour of the central pipe fitting 50 in the outer contour of the central tube 32 passes.
  • The distribution star 52 is part of a distribution facility 54 in the 11 shown in detail. The distribution device 54 further comprises a tubular annular wall 56 between the case 12 and the lower end cap 16 is arranged. The ring wall 56 itself is a modular component, which is analogous to the intermediate ring 22 is constructed so that only a single type of component for the two components is required. The distribution star 52 is inside the ring wall 56 arranged coaxially with this. The case 12 facing edge of the ring wall 56 is with a glue groove 56a provided in the the edge of the housing 12 is glued. Instead of the glue groove 56a can also be provided a welding groove, in which the edge of the housing 12 is welded.
  • The distribution star 52 points to the feed inlet 28 and to the central tube 32 coaxial tubular plug-on nozzle 58 on, with which he on the the Zulaufkammer 38 facing the end of the feed inlet 28 is plugged. It seals the ring seal 46 the radially inner side of the attachment piece 58 against the radially outer side of the feed inlet 28 from. At the end of the attachment piece 58 that the feed intake 28 facing away, leads a plurality of channel wings 60 star-shaped from the plug-on neck 58 in the radial direction almost to the ring wall 56 , The canal wings 60 are in one piece on the slip-on 58 attached. The canal wings 60 each have an approximately U-shaped profile, in each of which a distribution channel 61 radially to the attachment piece 58 extends. The distribution channels 61 are each to the inside of the Aufsteckstutzens 58 open and are over the interior of the Aufsteckstutzens 58 with the loop space 36 connected. They are below and on the sides by the radially extending walls of the corresponding channel wing 60 limited. The open longitudinal sides of the U-shaped canal wing 60 are each with one cover wings 64 a likewise star-shaped distributor cover 62 limited. The distributor cover 62 is in the axial direction on the distributor star 52 by means of a snap connection 88 clipped.
  • The lid wings 64 of the distributor cover 62 which in detail in the 11 . 14 and 15 are shown, each have a U-shaped profile. In each case a lid wing 64 is from the open side of the canal wing 60 plugged, such that the legs of the lid wings 64 the legs of the canal wings 60 embrace the outside.
  • The canal wings 60 and the lid wings 64 have at different radial distances to Aufsteckstutzen 58 on their leg sides a plurality of pairs aligned openings. The aligned openings each form a side distribution opening 66 , Through the side distribution openings 66 a part of the feed water flows 11 passing through the canal wings 60 is initiated, across to one in the 1 shown center axis 67 of the housing 12 in the inlet chamber 38 one.
  • The lid wings 64 also each have a plurality of Axialverteileröffnungen 68 on, which are in different radial distances to the slip-on 58 are located. The Axialverteileröffnungen 68 are axial to the housing 12 directed. Through them, a part of the feed water 11 from the canal wings 60 in the axial direction in the inlet chamber 38 directed.
  • Coaxial with the slip-on 58 runs the central pipe connection piece 50 , which, in particular in the 6 shown on the inlet chamber 38 facing side with the connecting piece 58 is integrally connected. The interior of the central pipe connection piece 50 joins the central line room 34 of the central tube 32 and is from the loop space 60 separated.
  • At the to the inlet chamber 38 open end of the central pipe section 50 is a replaceable throttle 70 arranged, which at a middle part 72 of the distributor cover 62 is attached separable. The middle part 72 sits tight on the edge of the central pipe fitting 50 on. The middle part 72 points to the central pipe connection piece 50 facing side a plurality of snap hooks 74 which is in the central tube fitting 50 lock.
  • On the central pipe connection piece 50 opposite side is at the middle part 72 a circular cylindrical central outlet 76 arranged, which to the inlet chamber 38 is open.
  • An annulus between the slip-on 58 and the ring wall 56 is with a potting compound 78 preferably filled from epoxy resin. Alternatively, the potting compound 78 z. B. also made of polyurethane or silicone. The potting compound 78 extends in the axial direction of the undersides of the channel wings 60 , which is the inlet chamber 38 are turned away, to the bottom of the ring wall 56 , The potting compound 78 forms as it were a final element of the inlet chamber 38 at least with.
  • In the potting compound 78 is a variety of hollow fiber membranes 82 as in the 5 . 6 and 10 shown, poured. The hollow fiber membranes 82 are at least in the cross-sectional direction of the water filtration module 10 or transverse to the central axis 67 at the potting compound 78 attached. The hollow fiber membranes 82 are in hollow fiber segments 83 bundled, each between two of the canal wings 60 in the axial direction through the potting compound 78 extend. A section of one of these hollow fiber segments 83 is particular in 6 shown. In the illustrated embodiment of the water filtration module 10 are a total of about 4000 hollow fiber membranes 82 arranged.
  • In the inlet chamber 38 the closed sections of the hollow fiber membranes run 82 approximately U-shaped. The legs of the U's extend substantially parallel to each other axially to the housing 12 so that between the hollow fiber membranes 82 flow channels 85 arise, which are substantially axially to the housing 12 extends. In the 3 . 5 and 7 is one of the hollow fiber membranes for clarity 82 completely shown. The vertices of the U are in the area of the upper end cap 14 , The two open ends 84 the hollow fiber membranes 82 open outside the inlet chamber 38 into a permeate collection room 86 in the lower end cap 16 , The permeate collection space 86 is with the permeate outlets 24 connected.
  • The hollow fiber membranes 82 are out / in membranes whose separation layers are on the radially outer outsides of the hollow fiber membranes 82 are located. The feed water 11 flows through the walls of the hollow fiber membranes 82 from the raw side radially outside to the clean side inside.
  • For repair purposes, for example for sealing defective hollow-fiber membranes 82 , the lower end cap can 16 from the ring wall 56 be separated.
  • For cleaning feed water 11 with the water filtration module 10 becomes the feed water 11 in the direction of in 3 and 4 shown arrow 11 through the feed inlet 28 fed. Part of the feed water 11a flows in the axial direction through the central line space 34 and through the throttle 70 directly from the bottom into the inlet chamber 38 ,
  • Another part 11b the feed water supplied 11 flows through the loop space 36 initially in the axial direction of the inlet chamber 38 to and then distributed in the distribution channels 61 , In this flows the feed water 11 initially essentially radially to the central tube 32 ,
  • Part of the radially flowing feed water 11 enters through the side distribution openings 66 from and flows into the respective adjacent hollow fiber segments 83 , The feed water 11 flows on the hollow fiber membranes 82 along upwards. Another part of the radially flowing feed water 11 passes through the Axialverteileröffnungen 68 into the open flow channels 85 between the hollow fiber segments 83 ,
  • The feed water 11 Overall, it is optimally distributed over the entire cross section of the inlet chamber 38 , so that as possible the entire outer surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes 82 be streamed.
  • The permeate 15 flows through the membrane walls of the hollow fiber membranes 82 from radially outside to inside. The foreign substances remain on the outside of the hollow fiber membranes 82 , The permeate 15 flows in the hollow fiber membranes 82 down, collects in the permeation room 86 and is via the permeate outlets 24 from the permeate collection space 86 drained.
  • By appropriate specification of the throttle 70 , which can be replaced and replaced by a correspondingly different throttle, and the variation of the opening cross-sections of the side distribution openings 66 and the axial distribution openings 68 becomes the distribution of the feed water 11 in the central room 34 and the loop space 36 specified.
  • For forward flushing of the water filtration module 10 for the purpose of removing retentate concentrated with foreign substances, which is particularly useful in the 1 and 3 is indicated by an arrow 90 , is initially via the compressed air connection 40 , Compressed air 41 in the loop space 36 blown. This process is called air scoring. Because the compressed air connection 40 in the flow direction behind the open end of the central tube 32 located, can the compressed air 41 not in the central room 34 reach. The compressed air 41 thus flows under bypass of the central tube 32 exclusively over the loop space 36 into the distribution channels 61 , From there, a part of the compressed air escapes 41 over the side distribution openings 66 directly into the hollow fiber segments 83 and part of the compressed air 41 passes over the Axialverteileröffnungen 68 in the spaces between the hollow fiber segments 83 , The compressed air 41 flows in the hollow fiber segments 83 on the hollow fiber membranes 82 along and makes sure that the hollow fiber membranes 82 move. In this way, the filter cake is broken up from separated foreign matter and from the hollow fiber membranes 82 solved.
  • Subsequently, feed water is added to the rinse 11 over the feed water inlet 28 in the manner already described above in the inlet chamber 38 directed. The retentate 90 and the supplied compressed air 41 be via the retentate outlets 18 in the upper end cap 14 at the top of the water filtration module 10 directed. Simultaneously with the injection of compressed air 41 can also be a, in particular relatively small volume flow of feed water 11 as a combined forward purge through the feed inlet 28 be supplied. The feed water 11 serves as a transport medium for the air bubbles and allows a better penetration into the hollow fiber segments 83 , This leads to a stronger movement of the hollow fiber membranes 82 and a better separation of the filter cake.
  • Following the forward purge described above, a backwash may take place, in which permeate 15 from the clean side through the hollow fiber membranes 82 is pumped from the inside out to the raw side. The permeate 15 becomes with the remaining on the raw side retentate 90 and the detached filter cake via the retentate outlets 18 from the water filtration module 10 directed. In a backwash, in addition, as described above, compressed air 41 be blown on the raw side.
  • In a second embodiment, shown in FIG 12 , are those elements that are among those of the first, in 1 to 11 are similar, are given the same reference numerals plus 100, so that with respect to the description of the comments on the first embodiment reference is made. This embodiment differs from the first in that the water filtration module 110 is constructed in the cross-flow design. At the water filtration module 110 are a lower end cap 116a and a lower manifold 154a and an upper end cap 116b and an upper manifold 154b provided, similar to the lower end cap 16 and the distribution device 54 are constructed from the first embodiment. The water filtration module 110 is the same at both ends. The lower end cap 116a has a feed inlet 128 according to the feed inlet 28 in the first embodiment.
  • In contrast to the first embodiment, the hollow fiber membranes 182 with an open end in the potting compound 178a in the lower manifold 154a attached and with the other open end in the potting compound 178b in the upper distributor device 154b , As a retentate outlet 118 serves a the feed intake 128 corresponding outlet in the upper end cap 116b , Through the retentate outlet 118 becomes the retentate accordingly 190 and at a rinse the introduced compressed air 41 drained. An outlet which is the permeate outlet 124a on the lower end cap 16 corresponds, serves as a second permeate outlet 124b which can be opened optionally. The distribution channels 161b which the distribution channels 161a in the lower manifold 154a correspond serve in the upper manifold 154b the removal of the retentate 190 and the injected during a flushing compressed air 41 , In a third embodiment of a water filtration module 210 represented in 13 , are those elements that are second to those in 12 are similar, are given the same reference numerals plus 100, so that with respect to the description of the comments on the second and the first embodiment reference is made. This embodiment differs from the second in that instead of out / in hollow fiber membranes as in the first and the second embodiment here In / Out hollow fiber membranes 282 be used. For the In / Out hollow fiber membranes 282 the separation layer is located on the radially inner side of the membrane walls. The feed water 211 flows inside into the interior of the hollow fiber membranes 282 and flows through the membrane walls from the inside to the outside.
  • When operating the water filtration module 210 becomes the feed water 211 via a feed inlet 224a which is the permeate outlet 124a in the second embodiment, the collection space 286 fed. From there, the feed water flows 211 in the open ends of the hollow fiber membranes there 282 , The foreign matter released permeate 215 passes through the membrane walls to the outside in the chamber 238 , which is the inlet chamber 138 in the second embodiment corresponds. From there, the permeate arrives 215 through side openings and axial openings which correspond to the side distribution openings 66 and the Axialverteileröffnungen 68 in the first embodiment correspond to the distribution channels 261 , which in this case can also be referred to as collection channels. From there, the permeate flows 215 over the plug-on neck 258 and the loop space 236 to a permeate outlet 228 the feed inlets 28 respectively. 128 in the first two embodiments corresponds. Part of the permeate 215 flows through the throttle 270 , the central pipe fitting 250 and the central tube 232 through the central room 234 to the permeate outlet 228 ,
  • As a retentate outlet 224b for the retentate 290 serves an outlet in the upper end cap 216b which in the second embodiment, the second permeate outlet 124b equivalent.
  • An outlet, which in the second embodiment as a retentate outlet 128 serves has the function of a second permeate outlet in the third embodiment 218 which can be opened optionally.
  • At the in 13 exemplified cross-flow water filtration module 210 with in / out hollow fiber membranes 282 is dispensed with a device for a purge gas supply for air scoring. However, there may be an additional compressed air connection in the lower end cap 216a be provided.
  • In the 16 and 17 is another embodiment of a distribution cover 162 shown. Those elements corresponding to those of the embodiment of the 11 . 14 and 15 are similar, the same reference numerals plus 100 are provided. The further embodiment differs from the embodiment of the 11 . 14 and 15 in that no Axialverteileröffnungen are provided as in the first embodiment. In the 16 and 17 wells shown 169 in cover wings 164 are not consistent. By dispensing with Axialverteileröffnungen one can in comparison to the embodiment of the 11 . 14 and 15 changed flow of the hollow fiber membranes 82 and the hollow fiber segments 83 and a changed flow distribution can be achieved.
  • In the 18 and 19 is an alternative upper end cap 314 shown. Those elements that make up the end cap from those 1 to 3 . 5 . 7 and 10 are similar, are provided with the same reference numerals plus 300. The alternative end cap 314 is different from the end cap 14 from the 1 to 3 . 5 . 7 and 10 in that in addition a receiving part 392 for receiving the closed sections of the U-shaped hollow fiber membranes 82 in the area of the upper end cap 314 is provided. The hollow fiber membranes 82 are with their U-shaped sections on the receiving part 392 hung up and are held up with this. This will prevent the hollow fiber membranes 82 for example, due to gravity bent down to the lower end cap, sag or even kinked. Furthermore, it prevents so that the layers of the hollow fiber membranes 82 during operation of the water filtration module 10 change.
  • The hollow fiber membranes 82 are in four hollow fiber bundles 387 and 389 bundled. Layers of two each of the hollow fiber bundles 387 and 389 , in which the respective closed, U-shaped sections are located, run parallel to each other, wherein the closed sections are in the axial direction at a height. The levels in which are the closed, U-shaped sections of the other two paired hollow fiber bundles 387 are perpendicular to the respective planes of the first two paired hollow fiber bundles 389 , The closed sections of the lower hollow fiber bundles 389 are located between the legs of the upper hollow fiber bundles 387 on the upper end cap 314 opposite side. The recording part 392 is like in the 18 shown, overall about T-shaped. It has a holding section 394 at which approximately centrally a tubular connecting rod 396 is arranged in one piece. The connection rod 396 runs coaxially to the upper end cap 314 , He is with its free end by means of a fastener 398 with the upper end cap 314 glued or detachable on the upper end cap 314 attached.
  • The elongated holding section 394 is designed saddle-shaped. At its transverse ends is the holding section 394 to the upper end cap 314 bent over. Between the connecting rod 396 and each one of the bent-over transverse ends of the holding portion 394 is realized as a hook-like recording. In each hook-like receptacle is one of the lower hollow fiber bundles 389 hung with its closed, U-shaped section. The bends of the transverse ends approximately correspond to the circumferential bends of the lower hollow fiber bundles 389 , The lower hollow fiber bundles 389 lie flat against the bends at the transverse ends of the holding portion 394 at. On its long sides is the holding section 394 from the upper end cap 314 bent away. The bends of the long sides of the holding section 394 correspond approximately to the bends of the U-shaped sections of the hollow fiber bundles 389 , The inner sides of the U-shaped sections lie flat against the bends of the longitudinal sides of the holding section 394 at. By the flat concern of the hollow fiber bundles 389 at the holding section 394 becomes a uniform force distribution on the U-shaped sections of the hollow fiber bundles 389 reached. So a gentle bend of the U-shaped sections is realized. A kinking of the hollow fiber bundles 389 in the area of the holding section 394 is thus prevented.
  • The U-shaped sections of the upper hollow fiber bundles 387 lie on both sides of the connecting rod 396 at the holding section 394 opposite side on the U-shaped portions of the lower hollow fiber bundle 389 on.
  • In all embodiments of a water filtration module described above 10 ; 110 ; 210 and a method of operating a water filtration module 10 ; 110 ; 210 Among others, the following modifications are possible:
    The invention is not limited to water filtration modules. Rather, it can also be used in filtration modules for other types of liquids. At the Dead End Water Filtration Module 10 from the 1 to 11 can the hollow fiber membranes 82 instead of U-shaped also different, especially straight, run. The hollow fiber membranes are each at the open end in the potting compound 78 attached. The other end is closed and is freely movable in the inlet chamber 38 ,
  • At the Dead End Water Filtration Module 10 from the 1 to 11 can the lower end cap 16 above and the upper end cap 14 instead be located below. The hollow fiber membranes laid in loops 82 can then be arranged hanging in the membranes. In this way special applications for membrane bioreactors (MBR) can be made possible.
  • There may also be more or less than 4000 hollow fiber membranes 82 ; 182 ; 282 in the water filtration modules 10 ; 110 ; 210 be arranged.
  • The water filtration modules 10 ; 110 ; 210 can also be oriented in a different way than vertically in space. They can also be arranged so that the upper end caps are at the bottom and the lower end caps are at the top.

Claims (14)

  1. Filtration module for liquids, ( 10 ; 110 ; 210 ), with hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) for the separation of contaminated liquids with a housing ( 12 ; 112 ; 212 ), which has at least one feed passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 224a ) to the inlet of the loaded liquid ( 11 ; 111 ; 211 ), which is in contact with the raw sides of the hollow-fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ), and at least one permeate passage ( 24 ; 124a . 124b ; 228 . 218 ) to the outlet from the depleted liquid ( 15 ; 115 ; 215 ), with the clean sides of the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ), wherein the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) in the housing ( 12 ; 112 ; 212 ) are arranged so that they the feed passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 224a ) close to the permeate passage ( 24 ; 124a . 124b ; 228 . 218 ), each hollow fiber membrane ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) at least with an open end ( 84 ; 184 ; 284 ) on a closing element ( 78 ; 178a . 178b ; 278a . 178b ), the interiors of the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) over the open ends ( 84 ; 184 ; 284 ) with a the passages ( 24 ; 124a . 124b ; 224a . 224b ) and closed sections ( 82b ; 182b ; 282b ) of the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) in a chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ) of the housing ( 12 ; 112 ; 212 ), which in turn are connected to the other passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 218 ; 228 ), characterized in that the end element ( 78 ; 178a . 178b ; 278a . 178b ) at least the passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 218 ; 228 ) for fluid ( 11 ; 111 ; 215 ), which communicates the passage to the chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ), and which with radially to this passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 218 ; 228 ) extending distribution channels ( 61 ; 161a . 161b ; 261a . 261b ) having a plurality of distributed distribution openings ( 66 . 68 ; 166 . 168 ; 266 . 268 ) to the chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ), and the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) at least in the cross-sectional direction between the distribution channels ( 61 ; 161a . 161b ; 261a . 261b ) at the conclusion element ( 78 ; 178a . 178b ; 278a . 178b ) are attached.
  2. Filtration module according to claim 1, characterized in that the passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 218 ; 228 ), which the passage to the chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ), at the end element ( 78 ; 178a . 178b ; 278a . 178b ) is centrally located.
  3. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 218 ; 228 ), which the passage to the chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ), at the end element ( 78 ; 178a . 178b ; 278a . 178b ) a central tube ( 32 . 50 ; 132 . 150 ; 232 . 250 ) is arranged, which the passage ( 28 ; 128 ; 228 ) in a radially inner central line space ( 34 ; 134 ; 234 ) directly into the chamber ( 38 ; 138 ; 238 ), and a radially outer loop space ( 36 ; 136 ; 236 ), and the loop space ( 36 ; 136 ; 236 ) with the radial distribution channels ( 61 ; 161a . 161b ; 261a . 261b ) connected is.
  4. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least a part of the distribution openings ( 68 ; 168 ; 268 ) fluidically axially to the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) is aligned.
  5. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least a part of the distribution openings ( 66 ; 166 ; 266 ) fluidically transversely to the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) is aligned.
  6. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the flow path of the central tube ( 32 . 50 ; 132 . 150 ; 232 . 250 ) a particular separable throttle unit ( 70 ; 170 ; 270 ) for throttling the fluid flow through the central tube ( 32 . 50 ; 132 . 150 ; 232 . 250 ) is arranged.
  7. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a gas connection, in particular a compressed air connection ( 40 ; 140 ), into a loop space ( 36 ; 136 ) leads.
  8. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the housing ( 12 ; 112 ; 212 ) a retentate outlet ( 18 ; 118 ; 224b ), which with the raw sides of the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ), for the outlet of at least of retentate concentrated with foreign substances (US Pat. 90 ; 190 ; 290 ) and in particular in a flushing process initiated purge gas ( 41 ; 141 ).
  9. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distribution channels ( 61 ; 161a . 161b ; 261a . 261b ) in a distribution star ( 52 . 62 ; 152 . 162 ; 252 . 262 ) are arranged.
  10. Filtration module according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a particular saddle-shaped receiving part ( 392 ) for receiving free ends of the hollow-fiber membranes ( 82 ), in particular of closed U-shaped sections of the hollow-fiber membranes ( 82 ), in a spatially upper region of the housing ( 12 ) is arranged.
  11. Method for operating a filtration module for liquids, ( 10 ; 110 ; 210 ), with hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ; 282 ) for the separation of contaminated with foreign substances feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ; 211 ), according to one of the preceding claims, wherein in a cleaning process, the feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ) through a feed inlet ( 28 ; 128 ) of a housing ( 12 ; 112 ) to the raw sides of the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ), the foreign matter-released permeate ( 15 ; 115 ) through the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) is pressed to the clean side, wherein the concentrated with foreign substances retentate ( 90 ; 190 ) remains on the crude sides, and the permeate ( 15 ; 115 ) through a permeate outlet ( 24 ; 124a . 124b ) out of the housing ( 12 ; 112 ) is discharged, characterized in that at least a portion of the feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ) radially distributed in a star shape to an axial flow direction and between the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) is initiated.
  12. A method according to claim 11, characterized in that a part of the feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ) is radially distributed radially to the axial flow direction and between the hollow-fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) is introduced and a part of the feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ) centrally in an axial flow direction into a chamber ( 38 ; 138 ) with the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) is initiated.
  13. Method according to one of claims 11 or 12, characterized in that in a flushing process gas, in particular compressed air ( 41 ; 141 ), radially distributed radially to the axial flow direction and between the hollow fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) and the retentate ( 90 ; 190 ) from the previous purification process and the gas ( 41 ; 141 ) through a retentate outlet ( 18 ; 118 ) out of the housing ( 12 ; 112 ) are conducted out.
  14. A method according to claim 13, characterized in that in the flushing process in addition to the gas ( 41 ; 141 ) Feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ) is radially distributed radially to the axial flow direction and between the hollow-fiber membranes ( 82 ; 182 ) is introduced and the feed liquid ( 11 ; 111 ), the retentate ( 90 ; 190 ) and the gas ( 41 ; 141 ) through the retentate outlet ( 18 ; 118 ) out of the housing ( 12 ; 112 ) are conducted out.
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DE102013218188B3 (en) * 2013-09-11 2014-12-04 membion Gmbh Membrane filter and method for filtering
DE102014011445B4 (en) * 2014-08-07 2016-06-02 Mann + Hummel Gmbh Filter device with hollow fibers
WO2019006729A1 (en) * 2017-07-06 2019-01-10 易达科技(深圳)有限公司 Radial fibre filter

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