DE102010033561B3 - An apparatus for optical scanning and measuring an environment - Google Patents

An apparatus for optical scanning and measuring an environment

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Publication number
DE102010033561B3
DE102010033561B3 DE201010033561 DE102010033561A DE102010033561B3 DE 102010033561 B3 DE102010033561 B3 DE 102010033561B3 DE 201010033561 DE201010033561 DE 201010033561 DE 102010033561 A DE102010033561 A DE 102010033561A DE 102010033561 B3 DE102010033561 B3 DE 102010033561B3
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trolley
laser scanner
foot
device
measuring
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DE201010033561
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German (de)
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Andreas Ditte
Dr. Ossig Martin
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Faro Technologies Inc
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Faro Technologies Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/89Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C15/00Surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C13/00
    • G01C15/002Active optical surveying means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C22/00Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers
    • G01C22/02Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C22/00Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers
    • G01C22/02Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator
    • G01C22/025Differential odometers

Abstract

Eine Vorrichtung zum optischen Abtasten und Vermessen einer Umgebung, mit einem Laserscanner (10), aufweisend einen Fuß (14) und einen relativ zum Fuß (14) drehbaren Messkopf mit einem Lichtsender, der einen Sendelichtstrahl aussendet, einen Lichtempfänger, der einen von einem Objekt in der Umgebung des Laserscanners (10) reflektierten oder sonst irgendwie gestreuten Empfangslichtstrahl empfängt, und einer Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung, die für eine Vielzahl von Messpunkten jeweils wenigstens die Distanz zum Objekt ermittelt, weist einen manuell verfahrbaren Trolley (40) auf, auf dem der Laserscanner (10) mittels seines Fußes (14) montiert ist, und der von einem Ruhezustand in einen Fahrzustand überführbar ist, wobei der Trolley (40) eine Wegmessvorrichtung zur Erfassung seines Weges aufweist. An apparatus for optical scanning and measuring an environment with a laser scanner (10) comprising a foot (14) and a relative to the foot (14) rotatable measuring head comprising a light transmitter which emits a transmitted light beam, a light receiver, the one of an object in the vicinity of the laser scanner reflected or (10) any other way scattered reception light beam receives, and a control and evaluation device, which in each case determined for a plurality of measurement points at least the distance to the object, has a manually movable trolley (40) on which the laser scanner (10) is mounted by means of its foot (14), and which can be transferred from a quiescent state to a driving state, wherein the trolley (40) has a path measuring device for detecting its path.

Description

  • Die Erfindung betrifft eine Vorrichtung mit den Merkmalen des Oberbegriffs des Anspruches 1. The invention relates to a device having the features of the preamble of claim 1.
  • In der In the US 7,193,690 B2 US 7,193,690 B2 ist eine Vorrichtung dieser Art beschrieben, bei welcher der Laserscanner auf einem dreibeinigen Stativ montiert ist. describes a device of this type in which the laser scanner is mounted on a three-legged tripod. Um eine Szene mit mehreren Scans zu erfassen, wird der Laserscanner samt Stativ nach einem Scan an einen neuen Standort gebracht. In order to capture a scene with multiple scans, the laser scanner together stand for a scan to a new location is placed. Gemäß der nachveröffentlichten According to the post- DE 10 2009 035 336 B3 DE 10 2009 035 336 B3 wird hierfür ein manuell verfahrbarer Wagen verwendet, während in dem Artikel Brenneke, Ch. et al.: ”Using 3D Laser Range Data for SLAM in Outdor Environments”, IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference an Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, Oktober 2003, Seiten 188 bis 193, der Laserscanner auf einem selbstfahrenden Wagen, nämlich einem Kart, montiert ist. is developing a manually movable carriage while in the article Brenneke, Ch. et al .: "Using 3D Laser Range Data for SLAM in Outdor Environments", IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, October 2003 , pages 188 to 193, the laser scanner on a self-propelled cart, namely a kart, is mounted. Um die Scans der Szene in einem einzigen Koordinatensystem zu registrieren, wird in der To register scans the scene in a single coordinate system in the US 2003/0137449 A1 US 2003/0137449 A1 ein Laserscanner mit einem GPS-Empfänger vorgeschlagen. proposed a laser scanner with a GPS receiver. Dagegen ist in der By contrast, in the WO 2006/000552 A1 WO 2006/000552 A1 auf dem manuell verfahrbaren Wagen ein Reflektor montiert, dessen Position mittels eines feststehenden geodätischen Geräts erfasst wird. on the manually movable carriage mounted a reflector whose position is detected by means of a fixed geodetic device.
  • Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zu Grunde, eine Vorrichtung der eingangs genannten Art zu verbessern. The invention is based on the object to improve a device of the type mentioned. Diese Aufgabe wird erfindungsgemäß durch eine Vorrichtung mit den Merkmalen des Anspruches 1 gelöst. This object is inventively achieved by a device having the features of claim 1. Vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen sind Gegenstand der Unteransprüche. Advantageous embodiments are the subject matter of the claims.
  • Die Verwendung eines manuell verfahrbaren Trolleys erleichtert den Wechsel des Standortes des Laserscanners gegenüber dem Transport des Stativs. The use of a manually movable trolley makes changing the location of the laser scanner to the transport of the tripod. Sie ist ferner weniger aufwendig wie ein selbstfahrender Wagen. It is also less expensive as a self-propelled car. Der Laserscanner kann während des Scans auf dem Trolley montiert bleiben, so dass kein zusätzliches Stativ notwendig ist. The laser scanner can remain in place during the scan on the trolley, so that no additional stand is necessary. Eine Positionierung des Laserscanners vertikal oberhalb eines Standpunktes des Trolleys im Ruhezustand sorgt für einen sicheren Stand und eine definierte Ausrichtung. A positioning of the laser scanner vertically above a point of view of the trolley in the rest state ensures a safe state and a defined orientation.
  • Bei der Verwendung der Begriff ”Horizontale” und ”Vertikale” in Bezug auf die Geometrie des Laserscanners und des Trolleys wird davon ausgegangen, dass die Richtung der Gewichtskraft mit der Vertikalen übereinstimmt, dh der Trolley sich auf einer horizontalen Ebene befindet. When using the term "horizontal" and "vertical" with respect to the geometry of the laser scanner and the trolley it is assumed that the direction of the weight coincides with the vertical, ie the trolley is on a horizontal plane. Der Trolley kann jedoch auch leicht geneigt sein, beispielsweise bis zu 15° gegen die Horizontale und/oder Vertikale (dh die Drehachsen des Messkopfes und des Spiegels entsprechend geneigt sind), ohne dass Probleme bei der Durchführung des Scans oder dessen Auswertung auftreten. however, the trolley can also be slightly inclined, for example up to 15 ° vertical (ie, the axes of rotation of the measuring head and the mirror are correspondingly inclined) relative to the horizontal and / or without any problems in the operation of the scan or its evaluation occur.
  • Grundsätzlich sind zwei Betriebsarten des Laserscanners möglich, bei denen der Trolley hilfreich ist. Basically two modes of operation of the laser scanner are possible in which the trolley is helpful. Bei der ersten Betriebsart kann eine ganze Szene mit mehrere Scans von unterschiedlichen Standorten aus erfasst werden, wobei der Laserscanner an jedem Standort mit dem sich drehenden Messkopf und dem sich drehenden Spiegel den Scan durchführt. In the first mode, an entire scene with multiple scans can be collected from various locations, wherein the laser scanner to the rotating measuring head and the rotating mirror at each site performs the scan. Der Trolley dient dann nur dem Standortwechsel. The trolley then is for the relocation. Bei der zweiten Betriebsart (”helical scan”) kann während der Bewegung des Trolleys der Messkopf in Ruhe bleiben und nur der Spiegel sich drehen, um den Scan durchzuführen. In the second mode ( "helical scan") may remain at rest, and only the mirror rotate to perform the scanning during movement of the trolleys in the measuring head. Der Trolley wird dann während der Messung entlang eines gewählten Pfades bewegt und zeichnet mittels wenigstens zweier Encoder, welche jeweils einem der wenigstens zwei Räder zugeordnet sind, Positionsänderungen auf. The trolley is then moved during the measurement along a selected path and is characterized by at least two encoders, each of which is associated with one of at least two wheels, position changes. Damit steht ein Verfahren zur Verfügung, schnell Übersichtsdaten entlang des vorgegebenen Pfades zu erzeugen. This provides a method for producing summary data along the predetermined path fast. Die Präzision der Bewegung kann durch eine höhere Anzahl von Rädern und damit einer stabileren, gleichmäßigeren Bewegung des Trollyes verbessert werden. The precision of movement can be improved by increasing the number of wheels and thus a more stable, more uniform movement of the Trollyes. Gegenüber einem motorisch verfahrbaren Wagen ist der manuell verfahrbare Trolley deutlich kostengünstiger. Compared with a motor-driven carriage manually movable trolley is significantly cheaper.
  • Im Folgenden ist die Erfindung anhand eines in der Zeichnung dargestellten Ausführungsbeispiels näher erläutert. In the following the invention with reference to an embodiment shown in the drawing, the embodiment is explained in more detail. Es zeigen Show it
  • 1 1 eine Seitenansicht des Trolleys mit montiertem Laserscanner, a side view of the trolley with the mounted laser scanner,
  • 2 2 eine weitere Seitenansicht des Trolleys aus einer um 90° gegenüber a further side view of the trolley from a by 90 ° with respect to 1 1 versetzten Richtung, offset direction,
  • 3 3 einen Schnitt durch die Montagevorrichtung, a section through the mounting device,
  • 4 4 eine Draufsicht auf die Montagevorrichtung, und a plan view of the mounting device, and
  • 5 5 eine schematische, teilweise geschnittene Darstellung des Laserscanners im Betrieb. a schematic, partially sectional view of the laser scanner in operation.
  • Ein Laserscanner A laser scanner 10 10 ist als Teil einer Vorrichtung zum optischen Abtasten und Vermessen einer Umgebung des Laserscanners is as part of a device for optically scanning and measuring an environment of the laser scanner 10 10 vorgesehen. intended. Der Laserscanner The laser scanner 10 10 weist einen Messkopf has a measuring head 12 12 und einen Fuß and a foot 14 14 auf. on. Der Messkopf The measuring head 12 12 ist als eine um eine vertikale Achse drehbare Einheit auf dem Fuß is provided as a rotatable about a vertical axis on the base unit 14 14 montiert. assembled. Der Messkopf The measuring head 12 12 weist einen um eine horizontale Achse drehbaren Spiegel has a about a horizontal axis rotatable mirror 16 16 auf. on. Der Schnittpunkt der beiden Drehachsen sei als Zentrum C 10 des Laserscanners The intersection of the two axes of rotation is a center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 10 bezeichnet. designated.
  • Der Messkopf The measuring head 12 12 weist ferner einen Lichtsender further comprises a light emitter 17 17 zum Aussenden eines Sendelichtstrahls for emitting a transmitted light beam 18 18 auf. on. Der Sendelichtstrahl The transmitted light beam 18 18 ist vorzugsweise ein Laserstrahl im Bereich von ca. 300 bis 1600 nm Wellenlänge, beispielsweise 790 nm, 905 nm oder weniger als 400 nm, jedoch sind prinzipiell auch andere elektromagnetische Wellen mit beispielsweise größerer Wellenlänge verwendbar. is preferably a laser beam in the range of about 300 to 1600 nm wavelength, for example 790 nm, 905 nm or less than 400 nm, but other electromagnetic waves in principle be used with, for example, longer wavelength. Der Sendelichtstrahl The transmitted light beam 18 18 ist mit einem Modulationssignal amplitudenmoduliert. is amplitude modulated with a modulation signal. Der Sendelichtstrahl The transmitted light beam 18 18 wird vom Lichtsender is from the light transmitter 17 17 auf den Rotorspiegel on the rotor mirrors 16 16 gegeben, dort umgelenkt und in die Umgebung ausgesandt. given where it is deflected and emitted into the environment. Ein von einem Objekt O in der Umgebung reflektierter oder sonst irgendwie gestreuter Empfangslichtstrahl One from an object O in the area reflected or otherwise scattered received light beam 20 20 wird vom Rotorspiegel is from the rotor mirrors 16 16 wieder eingefangen, umgelenkt und auf einen Lichtempfänger recaptured deflected and a light receiver 21 21 gegeben. given. Die Richtung des Sendelichtstrahls The direction of the transmitted light beam 18 18 und des Empfangslichtstrahls and the received light beam 20 20 ergibt sich aus den Winkelstellungen des Rotorspiegels results from the angular positions of the rotor mirror 16 16 und des Messkopfes and the measuring head 12 12 , welche von den Stellungen ihrer jeweiligen Drehantriebe abhängen, die wiederum von jeweils einem Encoder erfasst werden. Which depend on the positions of their respective rotary drives, which are in turn detected by an encoder.
  • Eine Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung A control and evaluation device 22 22 steht mit dem Lichtsender is connected to the light emitter 17 17 und dem Lichtempfänger and the light receiver 21 21 im Messkopf in the measuring head 12 12 in Datenverbindung, wobei Teile derselben auch außerhalb des Messkopfes in data connection with parts thereof and outside of the measuring head 12 12 angeordnet sein können, beispielsweise als ein am Fuß can be arranged, for example, as a foot 14 14 angeschlossener Computer. connected computer. Die Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung The control and evaluation device 22 22 ist dazu ausgebildet, für eine Vielzahl von Messpunkten X die Distanz d des Laserscanners is adapted to d for a plurality of measurement points X, the distance of the laser scanner 10 10 zu dem (beleuchteten Punkt am) Objekt O aus der Laufzeit des Sendelichtstrahls to the (illuminated point on) the object O from the transit time of the transmitted light beam 18 18 und des Empfangslichtstrahls and the received light beam 20 20 zu ermitteln. to determine. Hierzu kann beispielsweise die Phasenverschiebung zwischen den beiden Lichtstrahlen For this example, the phase shift between the two light beams 18 18 , . 20 20 bestimmt und ausgewertet werden. be determined and evaluated.
  • Mittels der (schnellen) Drehung des Rotorspiegels By means of the (fast) rotation of the rotor mirror 16 16 wird entlang einer Kreislinie abgetastet. is scanned along a circular line. Mittels der (langsamen) Drehung des Messkopfes By means of the (slow) rotation of the measuring head 12 12 relativ zum Fuß relative to the foot 14 14 wird mit den Kreislinien nach und nach der gesamte Raum abgetastet. is scanned with the circular lines gradually, the entire space. Die Gesamtheit der Messpunkte X einer solchen Messung sei als Scan bezeichnet. The totality of the measuring points X of such a measurement is called a scan. Das Zentrum C 10 des Laserscanners The center C of the laser scanner 10 10 10 definiert für einen solchen Scan den Ursprung des lokalen stationären Bezugssystems. defined for such a scan the origin of the local stationary reference system. In diesem lokalen stationären Bezugssystem ruht der Fuß In this local stationary reference system of the foot rests 14 14 . ,
  • Jeder Messpunkt X umfasst außer der Distanz d zum Zentrums C 10 des Laserscanners Each measurement point X includes, in addition to the distance d from the center C of the laser scanner 10 10 10 als Wert noch eine Helligkeit, welche ebenfalls von der Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung as a value still a brightness which also by the control and evaluation device 22 22 ermittelt wird. is determined. Die Helligkeit ist ein Graustufenwert, welcher beispielsweise durch Integration des bandpass-gefilterten und verstärkten Signals des Lichtempfängers The brightness is a grayscale value which, for example, by integrating the band-pass filtered and amplified signal of the light receiver 21 21 über eine dem Messpunkt X zugeordnete Messperiode ermittelt wird. is determined via a measuring point X assigned measurement period. Optional können mittels einer Farbkamera noch Bilder erzeugt werden, mittels derer den Messpunkten noch Farben (R, G, B) als Wert zugeordnet werden können. Optionally, images can be produced by means of a color camera still by means of which can be assigned as the value of the measuring points or colors (R, G, B).
  • Um eine Szene aus verschiedenen Richtungen erfassen zu können, werden mehrere Scans von unterschiedlichen Standorten aus erzeugt und danach registriert bezüglich eines gemeinsamen Koordinatensystem der Szene. To capture a scene from different directions, several scans are generated from different locations and then registered with respect to a common coordinate system of the scene. Der Laserscanner The laser scanner 10 10 hat dafür seinen Standort zu wechseln, womit dann jeweils das Zentrum C 10 des Laserscanners it has to change its location, which then each center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 10 innerhalb des gemeinsamen Koordinatensystems bewegt wird. is moved within the common coordinate system. Um den Standort einfach wechseln zu können, weist die Vorrichtung zum optischen Abtasten und Vermessen einer Umgebung des Laserscanners In order to simply change the location, the device for optical scanning and measuring an environment of the laser scanner 10 10 zusätzlich zum vorbeschriebenen, eigentlichen Laserscanner in addition to the above, actual laser scanner 10 10 noch einen Trolley even a trolley 40 40 auf, auf welchem der Laserscanner on, on which the laser scanner 10 10 (ständig) montiert ist. (Constant) is mounted.
  • Der manuell verfahrbare Trolley The manually movable trolley 40 40 weist ein Fahrgestell comprises a chassis 42 42 mit wenigstens zwei Rädern at least two wheels 44 44 , die sich unabhängig voneinander um eine gemeinsame (gedachte oder körperliche) Achse A drehen und jeweils mit einem Encoder Independently rotate about a common (imaginary or physical) axis A and each connected to an encoder 45 45 versehen sind, und einen Stützfuß are provided, and a support leg 46 46 auf, welche bei unbewegtem Trolley on which at unmoved Trolley 40 40 eine Abstützung an drei Punkten definieren. define a support at three points. Die verwendeten Richtungsangaben beziehen sich auf die (idealerweise horizontale) Ebene dieser Abstützung, wobei der Trolley The directions used refer to the (ideally horizontal) plane of said support, said trolley 40 40 zum Fahren gegenüber seiner Ruhestellung geneigt wird. is inclined to drive towards its rest position. Die Punkt, an welchem der Stützfuß The point at which the support leg 46 46 den Trolley the trolley 40 40 am Boden abstützt, sei als Standpunkt P bezeichnet. supported on the ground is called a point P. Anstelle des Stützfußes Instead of the support leg 46 46 kann auch ein drittes Rad vorgesehen sein, welches zur Achse A der beiden anderen Rädern and a third wheel may be provided, which to the axis A of the other two wheels 44 44 versetzt und vorzugsweise lenkbar ist. is offset and preferably steerable. Vorliegend weist das Fahrgestell einen Querträger In the present case, the chassis a transverse beam 42a 42a auf, von dessen beiden gegenüberliegenden Enden je ein Lager on, from the two opposite ends of a bearing each 42b 42b senkrecht (nach unten) absteht, welcher jeweils eines der beiden Räder perpendicular projecting (down) which in each case one of the two wheels 44 44 (oder deren Achse A) lagert, und an dessen drittem Ende der Stützfuß (Or its axis A) stored, and the third at the end of the support leg 46 46 schräg (nach unten) absteht. projecting obliquely (downwards).
  • Vom Fahrgestell the chassis 42 42 steht ferner ein Arm furthermore represents an arm 48 48 (nach oben) ab, vorliegend zwei parallele, miteinander verbundene Vierkantprofile (Upward) from, in this case two parallel, interconnected square profiles 48a 48a , welche am Querträger That on the crossmember 42a 42a befestigt sind. are attached. Vom Arm the arm 48 48 stehen beidseitig Handgriffe are handles on both sides 49 49 ab, also von jedem der beiden Vierkantprofile from, that of each of the two square profiles 48a 48a je ein Handgriff each a handle 49 49 , beispielsweise parallel zur Achse A der Räder , For example parallel to the axis A of the wheels 44 44 . , Am oberen Ende des Arms At the upper end of the arm 48 48 ist eine Montageplatte is a mounting plate 50 50 befestigt, welche vorliegend eine Dreiecksform aufweist mit den beiden Vierkantprofilen attached, which in the present case has a triangular shape with the two square profiles 48a 48a (festgeschraubt) in zwei der drei Ecken. (Screwed) in two of the three corners. Die Montageplatte The mounting plate 50 50 tragt eine Montagevorrichtung it carries out assembly device 52 52 , vorliegend ein an der Montageplatte , Here a to the mounting plate 50 50 (im Bereich der dritten Ecke) festgeschraubter, zylindrischer oder quaderförmiger Block mit einer drehbaren Montageschraube screwed firmly, cylindrical or cuboid (in the region of the third corner) block with a rotatable mounting screw 52a 52a . , Die Montageplatte The mounting plate 50 50 weist einen Knick auf, so dass die Montagevorrichtung has a kink, so that the mounting device 52 52 schräg zur Stütze obliquely to the support 48 48 geneigt ist. is inclined. Die Abmessungen des Arms The dimensions of the arm 48 48 und des Querträgers and the cross member 42 42 und die Neigungswinkel zwischen dem Stützfuß and the inclination angle between the support leg 46 46 und dem Querträger and the cross member 42a 42a einerseits und zwischen der Montagevorrichtung on the one hand and between the mounting device 52 52 und dem Arm and the arm 48 48 andererseits sind so gewählt, dass die Montagevorrichtung on the other hand are selected such that the mounting device 52 52 genau in Verlängerung des Stützfußes exactly in the extension of the support leg 46 46 angeordnet ist, wobei in der Ruhestellung des Trolleys is arranged, wherein in the rest position of the trolley 40 40 die Montagevorrichtung the fixture 52 52 genau vertikal oberhalb des Standpunktes P und die Oberseite der Montagevorrichtung exactly vertically above the point of P and the upper surface of the mounting device 50 50 horizontal ausgerichtet ist. is oriented horizontally.
  • Der Laserscanner The laser scanner 10 10 wird mit seinem Fuß is with his foot 14 14 auf der Oberseite der Montagevorrichtung on top of the mounting device 52 52 des Trolleys the trolley 40 40 angeordnet und an der Montagevorrichtung and arranged on the mounting device 52 52 befestigt, vorliegend mittels der Montageschraube attached, in this case by means of the mounting screw 52a 52a festgeschraubt, so dass der Arm screwed, so that the arm 48 48 den Laserscanner the laser scanner 10 10 trägt. wearing. Während eines Scans befindet sich der Trolley During a scan, the trolley is 40 40 in seiner Ruhestellung, dh der Laserscanner in its rest position, ie the laser scanner 10 10 ist (idealerweise) horizontal ausgerichtet. is oriented horizontally (ideally). Zwischen zwei Scans für eine Szene kann der Trolley Between two scans for a scene of the trolley can 40 40 mit dem Laserscanner with the laser scanner 10 10 manuell verfahren werden, wozu der Trolley be moved manually, to which the trolley 40 40 – mittels der Handgriffe - by means of the handles 49 49 – so weit um die Achse A der Räder - as far as about the axis A of the wheels 44 44 geneigt wird, dass der Stützfuß is inclined such that the support leg 46 46 sich vom Boden löst und das Zentrum C 10 des Laserscanners lifts off the ground and the center C of the laser scanner 10 10 10 die Vertikale durch die Achse A der Räder the vertical through the axis A of the wheels 44 44 erreicht oder diese Vertikale passiert, und dann der Trolley reached or passed this vertical, and then the trolley 40 40 in diesem (geneigten) Fahrzustand an der Handgriffen in this (inclined) driving condition at the handles 49 49 geschoben oder gezogen wird. is pushed or pulled.
  • Typische Abmessungen sind beispielsweise, dass das Zentrum C 10 des Laserscanners Typical dimensions are, for example, that the center C of the laser scanner 10 10 10 sich 1600 mm oberhalb des Standpunktes P befindet, die Räder to 1600 mm is above the point of P, the wheels 44 44 voneinander 600 mm beabstandet sind, der Stützfuß 600 mm spaced apart, the support leg 46 46 zwischen dem Querträger between the cross member 42a 42a und dem Boden 400 mm lang ist, und der Neigungswinkel zwischen dem Arm and the floor is 400 mm long, and the inclination angle between the arm 48 48 und der (vertikalen) Verbindungslinie der Montagevorrichtung and the (vertical) line connecting the mounting apparatus 52 52 und dem Standpunkt P in der Ruhestellung 12° beträgt. and the point P is in the position of rest 12 °. Die Vierkantprofile The square profiles 48a 48a können 40 mm × 40 mm messen, und die Montagevorrichtung can measure 40 mm × 40 mm, and the fixture 52 52 mit Montageplatte with mounting plate 50 50 kann 64 mm hoch sein. may be 64 mm high.
  • Der Trolley the trolley 40 40 weist eine Wegmessvorrichtung auf, die im Ausführungsbeispiel aus den beiden Encodern has a path measuring device, which in the exemplary embodiment of the two encoders 45 45 an den Rädern on the wheels 44 44 und einer nicht dargestellten Verbindung von den Encodern and a compound of the encoders, not shown, 45 45 zum Laserscanner the laser scanner 10 10 , insbesondere zur Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung , In particular to the control and evaluation device 22 22 , besteht. , consists. Jeder der beiden Encoder Each of the two encoders 45 45 erfasst die Drehung des zugeordneten Rads detects the rotation of the associated wheel 44 44 , also dessen Weg (in Abhängigkeit der Zeit), so dass sich die Länge des Weges jedes Rades So its path (as a function of time), so that the length of the path of each wheel 44 44 direkt und die Richtung des Weges des Trolleys directly, and the direction of the path of the trolley 40 40 aus der Kombination der Informationen der beiden Räder from the combination of the information of the two wheels 44 44 ergibt. results. Alternativ ist eine optische Wegmessvorrichtung vorgesehen, welche beispielsweise den optischen Flusses misst. Alternatively, an optical distance measuring device is provided, which for example measures the optical flow.
  • Bei der ersten Betriebsart des Laserscanners In the first mode of the laser scanner 10 10 (drehender Messkopf (Rotating probe 12 12 , drehender Spiegel , Rotating mirror 16 16 , ruhender Trolley , Static trolley 40 40 ) kann für die Erfassung einer Szene mittels der Wegmessvorrichtung des Trolleys ) Can be used for the detection of a scene by means of the distance measuring device of the trolley 40 40 der Wechsel von einem Standort zum nächsten Standort verfolgt werden, was das Registrieren der einzelnen Scans im gemeinsamen Koordinatensystem erleichtert. the change from one location to be tracked to the next location, which facilitates registering the individual scans in the common coordinate system. Bei der zweiten Betriebsart des Laserscanners In the second mode of the laser scanner 10 10 (ruhender Messkopf (Static probe 12 12 , drehender Spiegel , Rotating mirror 16 16 , bewegter Trolley , Moving trolley 40 40 ), bei welcher der Scan während der Bewegung des Trolleys ) At which the scanning during movement of the trolleys 40 40 mit – mehr oder weniger – gleicher Neigung des Laserscanners with - more or less - the same inclination of the laser scanner 10 10 erzeugt wird, gehen die Daten der Wegmessvorrichtung des Trolleys is generated, the data of the distance measuring device of the trolley 40 40 als weitere Koordinaten in den Scan ein. as a further coordinate in the scan a. Gegenüber der ersten Betriebsart ersetzen die Daten der Wegmessvorrichtung diejenigen des Encoders des Messkopfes Compared to the first mode, the data of the distance measuring device to replace those of the encoder of the measuring head 12 12 . ,
  • Die Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung The control and evaluation device 22 22 kann die Daten der Wegmessvorrichtung sofort auswerten oder zur späteren Auswertung in den Scan eingehen lassen oder mit den Daten des Scans synchronisierbar separat aufzeichnen. can evaluate the data of the distance measuring device immediately or for later analysis in the scanning admit them or record separately synchronized with data from the scans. Die Wegmessvorrichtung kann auch eine eigene Steuereinheit aufweisen, welche die Daten der Encoder The distance measuring device may also have its own control unit which controls the data of the encoder 45 45 separat aufzeichnet und später der Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung records separately and later the control and evaluation 22 22 übermittelt. transmitted.
  • Eine höhere Anzahl von Rädern, beispielsweise ein zusätzliches drittes Rad, welches lenkbar sein kann, oder insgesamt vier Räder, stabilisiert die Bewegung des Trolleys A higher number of wheels, for example, an additional third wheel which can be steered, or a total of four wheels, stabilizes the movement of the trolley 40 40 , insbesondere in der zweiten Betriebsart, bei welcher (mittels dreier Räder) die Neigung des Laserscanners , Especially in the second mode in which (by means of three wheels), the inclination of the laser scanner 10 10 beibehalten werden soll. should be maintained. Zwei Encoder two encoders 45 45 an zwei Rädern on two wheels 44 44 , die sich unabhängig voneinander drehen, reichen für die Wegmessvorrichtung aus. Which rotate independently of one another, are sufficient for the path measuring device. Eine höhere Anzahl von Rädern mit zusätzlichen Encodern kann aber – an sich redundante – Information zur Fehlerkorrektur liefern. but a higher number of wheels with additional encoders can - provide information for error correction - redundant in itself.
  • Vorzugsweise weisen der Laserscanner Preferably, the laser scanner 10 10 und/oder der Trolley and / or the trolley 40 40 verschiedene Sensoren auf, beispielsweise Thermometer, Neigungsmesser, Höhenmesser, Kompass, Kreiselkompass, GPS etc., die vorzugsweise an die Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung various sensors, such as thermometer, inclinometer, altimeter, compass, gyrocompass, GPS, etc., preferably to the control and evaluation device 22 22 angeschlossen sind. are connected. Mittels der besagten Sensoren werden die Betriebsbedingungen des Laserscanners By means of said sensors, the operating conditions of the laser scanner 10 10 überwacht, welche durch bestimmte Parameter, beispielsweise geometrische Ausrichtung oder Temperatur, definiert werden. monitors which are defined by certain parameters, for example, geometric orientation or temperature. Weisen ein oder mehrerer Parameter einen Drift auf, wird dieser mit den zugeordneten Sensoren erkannt und kann von der Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung Have one or more parameters of a drift on, this is detected with the associated sensors and may depend on the control and evaluation 22 22 kompensiert werden. be compensated. Mittels der besagten Sensoren kann auch eine plötzliche Änderung der Betriebsbedingungen erkannt werden, beispielsweise ein die Ausrichtung ändernder Schlag auf den Laserscanner Means of said sensors, a sudden change in the operating conditions can be detected, for example, changing the orientation blow to the laser scanner 10 10 oder eine Verschiebung des Laserscanners or a shift of the laser scanner 10 10 . , Wenn der Umfang der besagten Änderung nicht genau genug erfasst werden kann, ist der Scanvorgang zu unterbrechen oder abzubrechen. When the circumference of said change can not be detected accurately enough, the scanning process is to be interrupted or stopped. Wenn der Umfang der besagten Änderung der Betriebsbedingungen grob abgeschätzt werden kann, kann der Messkopf If the amount of said change in the operating conditions can be roughly estimated, the measuring head can 12 12 ein paar Winkelgrade zurückgedreht werden (bis eine Überlappung mit dem Bereich besteht, welcher vor der plötzlichen Änderung gescannt wurde), und der Scanvorgang wird fortgesetzt. a few degrees of angle are rotated back (still exists an overlap with the region which is scanned prior to the sudden change), and the scan is continued. Die zwei verschiedenen Teile des Scans können durch Auswertung des überlappenden Bereichs zusammengefügt werden. The two different parts of the scan can be joined together by evaluating the overlapping region.
  • Bei der zweiten Betriebsart verfeinern die Daten der besagten Sensoren die Daten der Wegmessvorrichtung des Trolleys In the second mode, the data of said sensors refine the data of the distance measuring device of the trolley 40 40 . , Bei der ersten Betriebsart des Laserscanners In the first mode of the laser scanner 10 10 kann – mittels der Neigungsmesser – vor dem Scanvorgang die Ausrichtung des Laserscanners can - by means of the inclinometer - before scanning the orientation of the laser scanner 10 10 bezüglich der Horizontalen und der Vertikalen geprüft werden. are checked with respect to the horizontal and the vertical. Vorzugsweise weist der Trolley Preferably, the trolley 40 40 Justiermöglichkeiten auf, beispielsweise eine Längeneinstellung des Stützfußes Adjustment possibilities to, for example, a length adjustment of the support leg 46 46 oder eine Neigungseinstellung der Montagevorrichtung or a tilt adjustment of the mounting device 52 52 , um die Ausrichtung des Trolleys To the orientation of the trolley 40 40 und/oder des Laserscanners and / or of the laser scanner 10 10 zu einzustellen. to adjust.
  • Bezugszeichenliste LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 10 10
    Laserscanner laser scanner
    12 12
    Messkopf probe
    14 14
    Fuß foot
    16 16
    Spiegel mirror
    17 17
    Lichtsender light source
    18 18
    Sendelichtstrahl Transmitted light beam
    20 20
    Empfangslichtstrahl Reception light beam
    21 21
    Lichtempfänger light receiver
    22 22
    Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung Control and evaluation
    40 40
    Trolley Trolley
    42 42
    Fahrgestell chassis
    42a 42a
    Querträger crossbeam
    42b 42b
    Lager camp
    44 44
    Rad wheel
    45 45
    Encoder encoder
    46 46
    Stützfuß Support foot
    48 48
    Arm poor
    48 48
    Vierkantprofil Square profile
    49 49
    Handgriff handle
    50 50
    Montageplatte mounting plate
    52 52
    Montagevorrichtung mounter
    52a 52a
    Montageschraube Mounting screw
    A A
    Achse axis
    C 10 C 10
    Zentrum des Laserscanners The center of the laser scanner
    d d
    Distanz distance
    O O
    Objekt object
    P P
    Standpunkt position
    X X
    Messpunkt measuring point

Claims (8)

  1. Vorrichtung zum optischen Abtasten und Vermessen einer Umgebung, mit einem Laserscanner ( An apparatus for optical scanning and measuring an environment (with a laser scanner 10 10 ), aufweisend einen Fuß ( ) Comprising a foot ( 14 14 ) und einen relativ zum Fuß ( ) And a relatively (to the foot 14 14 ) drehbaren Messkopf ( ) Rotatable measuring head ( 12 12 ) mit einem Lichtsender ( ) (Having a light transmitter 17 17 ), der einen Sendelichtstrahl ( ), The (a transmitted light beam 18 18 ) aussendet, einem Lichtempfänger ( ) Emits (a light receiver 21 21 ), der einen von einem Objekt (O) in der Umgebung des Laserscanners ( ), The (a (from an object O) in the vicinity of the laser scanner 10 10 ) reflektierten oder sonst irgendwie gestreuten Empfangslichtstrahl ( ) Reflected or otherwise scattered reception light beam ( 20 20 ) empfängt, und einer Steuer- und Auswertevorrichtung ( ) Receives, and (a control and evaluation device 22 22 ), die für eine Vielzahl von Messpunkten (X) jeweils wenigstens die Distanz zum Objekt (O) ermittelt, dadurch gekennzeichnet , dass die Vorrichtung einen manuell verfahrbaren Trolley ( ) Each determined for a plurality of measurement points (X) at least the distance to the object (O), characterized in that the device (a manually movable trolley 40 40 ) aufweist, auf dem der Laserscanner ( ), On which the laser scanner ( 10 10 ) mittels seines Fußes ( ) (By means of his foot 14 14 ) montiert ist, und der von einem Ruhezustand in einen Fahrzustand überführbar ist, wobei der Trolley ( ) Is mounted and which can be transferred from a quiescent state to a driving state, wherein the trolley ( 40 40 ) eine Wegmessvorrichtung ( ) Is a path measuring device ( 45 45 , . 45 45 ) zur Erfassung seines Weges und ein Fahrgestell ( ) (For the detection of its travel and a chassis 42 42 ) aufweist, das mit wenigstens zwei Rädern ( ), Which (at least two wheels 44 44 ) versehen ist, welche unabhängig voneinander drehbar sind, insbesondere um eine gemeinsame Achse (A), wobei die Wegmessvorrichtung ( is provided), which are independently rotatable, in particular about a common axis (A), wherein the distance measuring device ( 45 45 , . 45 45 ) wenigstens zwei Encoder ( ) At least two encoders ( 45 45 ) aufweist, welche jeweils einem der wenigstens zwei Räder ( ) Which (in each case one of at least two wheels 44 44 ) zugeordnet sind. ) assigned.
  2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Fahrgestell ( Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the chassis ( 42 42 ) mit einem Stützfuß ( ) (With a supporting foot 46 46 ) oder einem dritten Rad, das insbesondere lenkbar ist, versehen ist, wobei das Abstützen des Stützfußes ( Is provided), or a third wheel, which is steerable in particular, wherein the supporting of the support foot ( 46 46 ) oder des dritten Rades am Boden einen Standpunkt (P) definiert. ) Or the third wheel at the bottom of a position (P) are defined.
  3. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2 dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Trolley ( Device according to claim 1 or 2, that the trolley ( 40 40 ) einen Arm ( ) Has an arm ( 48 48 ) aufweist, welcher den Laserscanner ( ), Which (the laser scanner 10 10 ) trägt, wobei der Arm ( ), Wherein the arm ( 48 48 ) insbesondere vom Fahrgestell ( ), In particular (from the chassis 42 42 ) absteht. ) Projects.
  4. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Arm ( Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the arm ( 48 48 ) eine Montagevorrichtung ( ) A mounting device ( 52 52 ) trägt, insbesondere auf einer am Arm ( ) Wears, in particular a (arm 48 48 ) befestigten Montageplatte ( ) Mounting plate attached ( 50 50 ), wobei die Montagevorrichtung ( ), Wherein the mounting device ( 52 52 ) mit dem Fuß ( ) (With the foot 14 14 ) des Laserscanners ( () Of the laser scanner 10 10 ) zu verbinden ist. ) Is to be connected.
  5. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 2 und 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Montagevorrichtung ( Device according to claim 2 and 4, characterized in that the mounting device ( 52 52 ) sich im Ruhezustand des Trolleys ( ) Itself (in the quiescent state of the trolley 40 40 ) vertikal oberhalb des Standpunktes (P) befindet. ) Is vertically above the point of (P).
  6. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Arm ( Device according to claim 5, characterized in that the arm ( 48 48 ) schräg zur Verbindungslinie der Montagevorrichtung ( ) Inclined (to the connecting line of the mounting device 52 52 ) und des Standpunktes (P) im Ruhezustand des Trolleys ( ) And of the point (P) in the quiescent state of the trolley ( 40 40 ) geneigt ist. ) Is inclined.
  7. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Montagevorrichtung ( Device according to one of claims 4 to 6, characterized in that the mounting device ( 52 52 ) sich im Fahrzustand des Trolleys ( ) Itself (in the running state of the trolleys 40 40 ) vertikal oberhalb der Achse (A) der Räder ( ) Vertically above the axis (A) of the wheels ( 44 44 ) befindet oder beim Neigen des Trolleys ( ) Or is (by tilting the trolley 40 40 ) vom Ruhezustand in den Fahrzustand die Vertikale durch die Achse (A) der Räder ( ) (From the idle state to the running state of the vertical through the axis A) of the wheels ( 44 44 ) passiert hat. ) Has passed.
  8. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Trolley ( Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the trolley ( 40 40 ) Justiermöglichkeiten zur Einstellung der Ausrichtung des Laserscanners ( ) Adjustment possibilities for adjustment of the orientation of the laser scanner ( 10 10 ) und/oder des Trolleys ( () And / or of the trolley 40 40 ) aufweist. ) having.
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PCT/EP2011/003264 WO2012013280A1 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
GB201303599A GB2496087B (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
CN 201180046896 CN103154770B (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US13699001 US8699036B2 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
JP2013520990A JP5490321B2 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Apparatus for scanning and measuring the ambient environmental optically

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