DE102010033561B3 - Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment - Google Patents

Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment

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Publication number
DE102010033561B3
DE102010033561B3 DE201010033561 DE102010033561A DE102010033561B3 DE 102010033561 B3 DE102010033561 B3 DE 102010033561B3 DE 201010033561 DE201010033561 DE 201010033561 DE 102010033561 A DE102010033561 A DE 102010033561A DE 102010033561 B3 DE102010033561 B3 DE 102010033561B3
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
trolley
laser scanner
device
characterized
foot
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
DE201010033561
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German (de)
Inventor
Andreas Ditte
Dr. Ossig Martin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Faro Technologies Inc
Original Assignee
Faro Technologies Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Faro Technologies Inc filed Critical Faro Technologies Inc
Priority to DE201010033561 priority Critical patent/DE102010033561B3/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE102010033561B3 publication Critical patent/DE102010033561B3/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/89Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C15/00Surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C13/00
    • G01C15/002Active optical surveying means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C22/00Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers
    • G01C22/02Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C22/00Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers
    • G01C22/02Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator
    • G01C22/025Differential odometers

Abstract

An apparatus for optically sensing and surveying an environment comprising a laser scanner (10) comprising a base (14) and a probe (14) rotatable relative to the foot having a light emitter emitting a transmitted light beam, a light receiver emanating from an object in the vicinity of the laser scanner (10) reflected or otherwise scattered receive light beam, and a control and evaluation device which determines at least the distance to the object for a plurality of measuring points, has a manually movable trolley (40) on which the Laser scanner (10) by means of his foot (14) is mounted, and which is convertible from a rest state to a driving state, wherein the trolley (40) has a Wegmessvorrichtung for detecting its way.

Description

  • The invention relates to a device having the features of the preamble of claim 1.
  • In the US 7,193,690 B2 a device of this type is described in which the laser scanner is mounted on a tripod three-legged. To capture a scene with multiple scans, the laser scanner and tripod are moved to a new location after a scan. According to the post-published DE 10 2009 035 336 B3 For example, a manually moveable cart is used as described in the article Brenneke, Ch. et al .: "Using 3D Laser Range Data for SLAM in Outdor Environments", IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, October 2003 , Pages 188 to 193, the laser scanner is mounted on a self-propelled cart, namely a kart. To register the scans of the scene in a single coordinate system, is in the US 2003/0137449 A1 a laser scanner with a GPS receiver is proposed. In contrast, in the WO 2006/000552 A1 mounted on the manually movable carriage a reflector whose position is detected by means of a fixed geodetic device.
  • The invention is based on the object to improve a device of the type mentioned. This object is achieved by a device with the features of claim 1. Advantageous embodiments are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • The use of a manually movable trolley makes it easier to change the position of the laser scanner relative to the transport of the tripod. It is also less expensive than a self-propelled car. The laser scanner can remain mounted on the trolley during the scan so that no additional tripod is necessary. Positioning the laser scanner vertically above a standpoint of the trolley at rest ensures a secure footing and a defined orientation.
  • When using the term "horizontal" and "vertical" in relation to the geometry of the laser scanner and the trolley, it is assumed that the direction of the weight corresponds to the vertical, that is to say, the vertical direction. H. the trolley is on a horizontal plane. However, the trolley may also be slightly inclined, for example up to 15 ° to the horizontal and / or vertical (i.e., the axes of rotation of the measuring head and the mirror are correspondingly inclined), without problems in performing the scan or its evaluation.
  • Basically, two operating modes of the laser scanner are possible, where the trolley is helpful. In the first mode of operation, an entire scene can be detected with multiple scans from different locations, with the laser scanner performing the scan at each location with the rotating probe and rotating mirror. The trolley is then only used for relocation. In the second operating mode ("helical scan"), while the trolleys are moving, the measuring head can remain stationary and only the mirror can turn to perform the scan. The trolley is then moved during the measurement along a selected path and records by means of at least two encoders, which are each assigned to one of the at least two wheels, position changes. Thus, a method is available to quickly generate summary data along the given path. The precision of the movement can be improved by a higher number of wheels and thus a more stable, uniform movement of the trolley. Compared to a motor-driven trolley, the manually movable trolley is significantly less expensive.
  • In the following the invention with reference to an embodiment shown in the drawing is explained in more detail. Show it
  • 1 a side view of the trolley with mounted laser scanner,
  • 2 another side view of the trolley from a 90 ° opposite 1 staggered direction,
  • 3 a section through the mounting device,
  • 4 a plan view of the mounting device, and
  • 5 a schematic, partially sectioned view of the laser scanner in operation.
  • A laser scanner 10 is as part of a device for optically scanning and measuring an environment of the laser scanner 10 intended. The laser scanner 10 has a measuring head 12 and a foot 14 on. The measuring head 12 is as a rotatable about a vertical axis unit on the foot 14 assembled. The measuring head 12 has a mirror rotatable about a horizontal axis 16 on. The intersection of the two axes of rotation is the center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 designated.
  • The measuring head 12 also has a light emitter 17 for emitting a transmitted light beam 18 on. The transmitted light beam 18 is preferably a laser beam in the range of about 300 to 1600 nm Wavelength, for example 790 nm, 905 nm or less than 400 nm, but in principle also other electromagnetic waves with, for example, a larger wavelength can be used. The transmitted light beam 18 is amplitude modulated with a modulation signal. The transmitted light beam 18 is from the light emitter 17 on the rotor mirror 16 given, deflected there and sent out into the environment. A received light beam reflected from an object O in the environment or otherwise scattered 20 is from the rotor mirror 16 caught again, deflected and onto a light receiver 21 given. The direction of the transmitted light beam 18 and the receiving light beam 20 results from the angular positions of the rotor mirror 16 and the measuring head 12 , which depend on the positions of their respective rotary actuators, which in turn are detected by a respective encoder.
  • A control and evaluation device 22 stands with the light transmitter 17 and the light receiver 21 in the measuring head 12 in data connection, whereby parts of it also outside of the measuring head 12 can be arranged, for example as a foot 14 connected computer. The control and evaluation device 22 is designed for a plurality of measuring points X, the distance d of the laser scanner 10 to the (illuminated point at) object O from the transit time of the transmitted light beam 18 and the receiving light beam 20 to investigate. For this purpose, for example, the phase shift between the two light beams 18 . 20 be determined and evaluated.
  • By means of the (fast) rotation of the rotor mirror 16 is scanned along a circular line. By means of the (slow) rotation of the measuring head 12 relative to the foot 14 is scanned with the circular lines gradually the entire space. The totality of the measuring points X of such a measurement is called a scan. The center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 defines for such a scan the origin of the local stationary reference system. The foot rests in this local stationary frame of reference 14 ,
  • Each measurement point X includes except the distance d to the center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 as a value still a brightness, which also from the control and evaluation device 22 is determined. The brightness is a greyscale value, which can be achieved, for example, by integrating the bandpass-filtered and amplified signal of the light receiver 21 is determined via a measuring period X associated measuring period. Optionally, images can still be generated by means of a color camera, by means of which colors (R, G, B) can be assigned as values to the measuring points.
  • In order to capture a scene from different directions, multiple scans are generated from different locations and then registered with respect to a common coordinate system of the scene. The laser scanner 10 has to change its location, which then in each case the center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 within the common coordinate system. In order to be able to change the location easily, the device has to optically scan and measure an environment of the laser scanner 10 in addition to the above-described, actual laser scanner 10 another trolley 40 on which the laser scanner 10 (constantly) mounted.
  • The manually movable trolley 40 has a chassis 42 with at least two wheels 44 independently rotating around a common (imaginary or physical) axis A and each with an encoder 45 are provided, and a support foot 46 on, which with unmoved trolley 40 define a support at three points. The directions used refer to the (ideally horizontal) plane of this support, where the trolley 40 inclined to drive against its rest position. The point at which the support foot 46 the trolley 40 is supported on the ground, is referred to as position P. Instead of the support foot 46 may also be provided a third wheel, which is the axis A of the other two wheels 44 offset and preferably steerable. In the present case, the chassis has a cross member 42a on, from the two opposite ends depending on a camp 42b perpendicular (down) protrudes, which in each case one of the two wheels 44 (or the axis A) stores, and at the third end of the support foot 46 obliquely (down) protrudes.
  • From the chassis 42 there is also an arm 48 (top) from, in this case two parallel, interconnected square profiles 48a , which on the cross member 42a are attached. From the arm 48 stand on both sides handles 49 from each of the two square profiles 48a one handle each 49 , For example, parallel to the axis A of the wheels 44 , At the upper end of the arm 48 is a mounting plate 50 attached, which in this case has a triangular shape with the two square profiles 48a (screwed down) in two of the three corners. The mounting plate 50 carries a mounting device 52 , one present on the mounting plate 50 (in the area of the third corner) screwed, cylindrical or cuboid block with a rotating mounting screw 52a , The mounting plate 50 has a kink so that the mounting device 52 sloping to the support 48 is inclined. The dimensions of the arm 48 and the cross member 42 and the angle of inclination between the support leg 46 and the cross member 42a on the one hand and between the mounting device 52 and the arm 48 on the other hand, are chosen so that the mounter 52 exactly in extension of the support foot 46 is arranged, being in the rest position of the trolley 40 the mounting device 52 exactly vertical above the viewpoint P and the top of the mounting device 50 is aligned horizontally.
  • The laser scanner 10 becomes with his foot 14 on the top of the mounting device 52 of the trolley 40 arranged and on the mounting device 52 fixed, in this case by means of the mounting screw 52a screwed down, leaving the arm 48 the laser scanner 10 wearing. During a scan is the trolley 40 in its rest position, ie the laser scanner 10 is (ideally) oriented horizontally. Between two scans for a scene can the trolley 40 with the laser scanner 10 be moved manually, including the trolley 40 - by means of the handles 49 - so far around the axis A of the wheels 44 it is inclined that the support foot 46 detached from the ground and the center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 the vertical through the axis A of the wheels 44 reached or this vertical happens, and then the trolley 40 in this (inclined) driving condition at the handles 49 pushed or pulled.
  • Typical dimensions are, for example, that the center C 10 of the laser scanner 10 is 1600 mm above the position P, the wheels 44 spaced 600 mm apart, the support leg 46 between the cross member 42a and the floor is 400 mm long, and the angle of inclination between the arm 48 and the (vertical) connecting line of the mounting device 52 and the position P in the rest position is 12 °. The square profiles 48a can measure 40 mm × 40 mm, and the mounting device 52 with mounting plate 50 can be 64 mm high.
  • The trolley 40 has a path measuring device, which in the embodiment of the two encoders 45 at the wheels 44 and a connection, not shown, of the encoders 45 to the laser scanner 10 , in particular to the control and evaluation device 22 , consists. Each of the two encoders 45 detects the rotation of the assigned wheel 44 , ie its way (depending on the time), so that the length of the path of each wheel 44 directly and the direction of the way of the trolley 40 from the combination of the information of the two wheels 44 results. Alternatively, an optical path measuring device is provided which measures, for example, the optical flow.
  • In the first operating mode of the laser scanner 10 (rotating measuring head 12 , rotating mirror 16 , resting trolley 40 ) can be used for the detection of a scene by means of the distance measuring device of the trolley 40 the change from one location to the next location can be tracked, facilitating the registration of individual scans in the common coordinate system. In the second operating mode of the laser scanner 10 (stationary measuring head 12 , rotating mirror 16 , moving trolley 40 ), during which the scan during the movement of the trolley 40 with - more or less - the same inclination of the laser scanner 10 is generated, the data of the path measuring device of the trolley 40 as further coordinates in the scan. Compared to the first operating mode, the data of the displacement measuring device replace those of the encoder of the measuring head 12 ,
  • The control and evaluation device 22 can evaluate the data of the position measuring device immediately or let it go into the scan for later evaluation or record it separately with the data of the scan. The path measuring device can also have its own control unit which stores the data of the encoders 45 records separately and later the control and evaluation device 22 transmitted.
  • A larger number of wheels, for example, an additional third wheel, which may be steerable, or a total of four wheels, stabilizes the movement of the trolley 40 , in particular in the second mode, in which (by means of three wheels) the inclination of the laser scanner 10 should be maintained. Two encoders 45 on two wheels 44 , which rotate independently, are sufficient for the Wegmessvorrichtung. However, a higher number of wheels with additional encoders can provide - in itself redundant - information for error correction.
  • Preferably, the laser scanner 10 and / or the trolley 40 various sensors, such as thermometer, inclinometer, altimeter, compass, gyrocompass, GPS, etc., preferably to the control and evaluation device 22 are connected. By means of said sensors, the operating conditions of the laser scanner 10 monitored, which are defined by certain parameters, such as geometric orientation or temperature. If one or more parameters have a drift, this is detected with the assigned sensors and can be controlled by the control and evaluation device 22 be compensated. By means of said sensors, a sudden change in the operating conditions can also be detected, for example an orientation-changing impact on the laser scanner 10 or a shift of the laser scanner 10 , If the extent of said change can not be detected accurately enough, the scan must be interrupted or canceled. If the extent of said change in operating conditions can be roughly estimated, the measuring head can 12 a few degrees backwards (until there is an overlap with the area scanned before the sudden change), and scanning continues. The two different parts of the scan can be merged by evaluating the overlapping area.
  • In the second mode, the data of said sensors refines the data of the trolley's path measuring device 40 , In the first operating mode of the laser scanner 10 can - by means of the inclinometer - before scanning the alignment of the laser scanner 10 be checked with respect to the horizontal and the vertical. Preferably, the trolley 40 Adjustment options, for example, a length adjustment of the support foot 46 or a tilt adjustment of the mounting device 52 to the orientation of the trolley 40 and / or the laser scanner 10 to adjust.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 10
    laser scanner
    12
    probe
    14
    foot
    16
    mirror
    17
    light source
    18
    Transmitted light beam
    20
    Reception light beam
    21
    light receiver
    22
    Control and evaluation device
    40
    Trolley
    42
    chassis
    42a
    crossbeam
    42b
    camp
    44
    wheel
    45
    encoder
    46
    Support foot
    48
    poor
    48
    Square profile
    49
    handle
    50
    mounting plate
    52
    mounter
    52a
    Mounting screw
    A
    axis
    C 10
    Center of the laser scanner
    d
    distance
    O
    object
    P
    position
    X
    measuring point

Claims (8)

  1. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment, with a laser scanner ( 10 ), having a foot ( 14 ) and one relative to the foot ( 14 ) rotatable measuring head ( 12 ) with a light transmitter ( 17 ), which transmits a transmitted light beam ( 18 ), a light receiver ( 21 ), one of an object (O) in the vicinity of the laser scanner ( 10 ) reflected or otherwise scattered received light beam ( 20 ), and a control and evaluation device ( 22 ), which determines at least the distance to the object (O) for a plurality of measuring points (X), characterized in that the device comprises a manually movable trolley ( 40 ), on which the laser scanner ( 10 ) by means of his foot ( 14 ) is mounted, and which is convertible from a rest state to a driving condition, wherein the trolley ( 40 ) a path measuring device ( 45 . 45 ) for detecting its path and a chassis ( 42 ) having at least two wheels ( 44 ), which are independently rotatable, in particular about a common axis (A), wherein the position measuring device ( 45 . 45 ) at least two encoders ( 45 ), which in each case one of the at least two wheels ( 44 ) assigned.
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the chassis ( 42 ) with a support foot ( 46 ) or a third wheel, which is in particular steerable, is provided, wherein the supporting of the support foot ( 46 ) or the third wheel on the ground defines a viewpoint (P).
  3. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the trolley ( 40 ) an arm ( 48 ), which the laser scanner ( 10 ), the arm ( 48 ) in particular from the chassis ( 42 ) protrudes.
  4. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the arm ( 48 ) a mounting device ( 52 ), in particular one on the arm ( 48 ) mounted mounting plate ( 50 ), wherein the mounting device ( 52 ) with the foot ( 14 ) of the laser scanner ( 10 ) is to be connected.
  5. Apparatus according to claim 2 and 4, characterized in that the mounting device ( 52 ) in the resting state of the trolley ( 40 ) is located vertically above the viewpoint (P).
  6. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that the arm ( 48 ) obliquely to the connecting line of the mounting device ( 52 ) and the position (P) in the resting state of the trolley ( 40 ) is inclined.
  7. Device according to one of claims 4 to 6, characterized in that the mounting device ( 52 ) in the driving state of the trolley ( 40 ) vertically above the axis (A) of the wheels ( 44 ) or tilting the trolley ( 40 ) from rest to driving the vertical through the axle (A) of the wheels ( 44 ) has happened.
  8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the trolley ( 40 ) Adjustment options for setting the Alignment of the laser scanner ( 10 ) and / or the trolley ( 40 ) having.
DE201010033561 2010-07-29 2010-07-29 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment Active DE102010033561B3 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010033561 DE102010033561B3 (en) 2010-07-29 2010-07-29 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010033561 DE102010033561B3 (en) 2010-07-29 2010-07-29 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
GB201303599A GB2496087B (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US13/699,001 US8699036B2 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
CN201180046896.1A CN103154770B (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
JP2013520990A JP5490321B2 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring the surrounding environment
PCT/EP2011/003264 WO2012013280A1 (en) 2010-07-29 2011-07-01 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102010033561B3 true DE102010033561B3 (en) 2011-12-15

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DE201010033561 Active DE102010033561B3 (en) 2010-07-29 2010-07-29 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment

Country Status (6)

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US (1) US8699036B2 (en)
JP (1) JP5490321B2 (en)
CN (1) CN103154770B (en)
DE (1) DE102010033561B3 (en)
GB (1) GB2496087B (en)
WO (1) WO2012013280A1 (en)

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DE102012109481A1 (en) 2012-10-05 2014-04-10 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
CN103857984A (en) * 2012-01-25 2014-06-11 法罗技术股份有限公司 Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
DE102013110580A1 (en) 2013-09-24 2015-03-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring a scene
WO2015119797A1 (en) 2014-02-09 2015-08-13 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner and method of registering a scene
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US9329271B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-05-03 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring an environment
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GB2521312B (en) 2012-09-06 2016-07-06 Faro Tech Inc Laser scanner with additional sensing device
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JP2013535671A (en) 2013-09-12
US20130070250A1 (en) 2013-03-21
GB2496087A (en) 2013-05-01
US8699036B2 (en) 2014-04-15
WO2012013280A1 (en) 2012-02-02
JP5490321B2 (en) 2014-05-14
GB201303599D0 (en) 2013-04-10
CN103154770B (en) 2015-02-18
CN103154770A (en) 2013-06-12

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