DE102010024558B4 - Transdermal therapeutic system with electrodes - Google Patents

Transdermal therapeutic system with electrodes

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Publication number
DE102010024558B4
DE102010024558B4 DE102010024558.5A DE102010024558A DE102010024558B4 DE 102010024558 B4 DE102010024558 B4 DE 102010024558B4 DE 102010024558 A DE102010024558 A DE 102010024558A DE 102010024558 B4 DE102010024558 B4 DE 102010024558B4
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Germany
Prior art keywords
electrode
transdermal therapeutic
skin
electrodes
reservoir
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DE102010024558.5A
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German (de)
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DE102010024558A1 (en
Inventor
Wolf Dieter Vogel
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AMW GmbH
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AMW GmbH
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0408Use-related aspects
    • A61N1/0428Specially adapted for iontophoresis, e.g. AC, DC or including drug reservoirs
    • A61N1/0432Anode and cathode
    • A61N1/044Shape of the electrode
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/325Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for iontophoresis, i.e. transfer of media in ionic state by an electromotoric force into the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/0002Galenical forms characterised by the drug release technique; Application systems commanded by energy
    • A61K9/0009Galenical forms characterised by the drug release technique; Application systems commanded by energy involving or responsive to electricity, magnetism or acoustic waves; Galenical aspects of sonophoresis, iontophoresis, electroporation or electroosmosis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/70Web, sheet or filament bases ; Films; Fibres of the matrix type containing drug
    • A61K9/7023Transdermal patches and similar drug-containing composite devices, e.g. cataplasms
    • A61K9/703Transdermal patches and similar drug-containing composite devices, e.g. cataplasms characterised by shape or structure; Details concerning release liner or backing; Refillable patches; User-activated patches
    • A61K9/7084Transdermal patches having a drug layer or reservoir, and one or more separate drug-free skin-adhesive layers, e.g. between drug reservoir and skin, or surrounding the drug reservoir; Liquid-filled reservoir patches

Abstract

Transdermal therapeutic system which comprises (i) a combination consisting of at least one active substance reservoir, - an electrode is provided on the skin-remote side or on the side thereof which faces away from the skin, and - on its near-skin side or a counterelectrode is provided on its side facing the skin, the system further comprising (ii) a further electrode (additional electrode) provided for applying an electric field across the skin by means of the counter electrode and short circuiting the combination is separated, wherein the counter electrode is provided with a film or a membrane which is permeable to active substance.

Description

  • Transdermal therapeutic systems with electrodes are already known. In such patches active ingredients are supplied by means of an electric field of the skin. A distinction is made between electrophoretic systems, in which the flow of current in the system takes place, and iontophoretic systems, in which the current flows through the skin. This difference becomes clear, for example EP 1 457 233 B1 5 explained.
  • US 5 533 995 A relates to a transdermal therapeutic system comprising a carrier foil ( 23 in 1 ) with an electrode or an electrode collective ( 14 in 1 ), wherein the film is drug-impermeable, a reservoir ( 12 in 1 ) for the active ingredients to be applied, between the cover film and a counter electrode or a collective of counterelectrodes ( 13 in 1 ), and has an optional membrane (column 5, line 30) which is permeable to active substances to be administered. The known system can be applied to the skin with an adhesive, for example with a bioadhesive (column 7 lines 3-6). Furthermore, the known system can additionally be equipped with a battery ( 17 in 1 ), a programmable control element ( 16 in 1 ) and a connecting element ( 22 in 1 ), which selects a predetermined program (column 8 lines 34-39) and which is provided on the cover (column 8 lines 31-33) and on the one hand with the control element and on the other hand with the counter electrode or a counter electrode collective in combination stands.
  • EP 1 457 233 B1 also describes a system in which at least two oppositely charged electrodes are spaced above each other with respect to the skin. The active substance migrates in the field between the two electrodes in the direction of the skin in such a way that an increased active substance concentration builds up close to the skin, which in turn facilitates the penetration of the active substance into the skin.
  • Likewise concerns DE 101 36 403 B4 an electrically active patch in which two oppositely charged electrodes ( 7 and 8th in 1 ) are spaced one above the other with respect to the skin.
  • On the other hand describes DE 696 32 131 T2 an iontophoretic system in which two reservoirs ( 26 and 28 in 1 ), each with an electrode ( 24 and 26 in 1 ) and are sufficiently isolated from each other to short circuit, come into contact with the skin. Reference should also be made to the prior art of iontophoretic systems DE 37 03 321 C2 . US Pat. No. 3,991,755 A . US 4 141 359 A . WO 87/04 936 A1 . WO 91/16077 A1 and WO 92/04 938 A1 ,
  • Finally describes DE 699 27 388 T2 an electrode assembly for electroporation of a tissue surface, comprising a first electrode ( 46 in 4 ) and a second electrode ( 54 in 4 ) for applying an electric field, and further an apparatus for trans-surface transfer of molecules, comprising said electrode assembly, and also another electrode assembly having at least one anode and one cathode. On the distal (skin-remote) side of the electrode assembly is provided a reservoir, for example a patch for molecules to be transferred into a tissue (page 5/9 and claims 15-16).
  • Such iontophoretic systems are superior to the described electrophoretic systems in that the current flows through the skin and the active ingredient undergoes a forced migration into the skin. In the described electrophoretic systems, the increased drug concentration formed in the vicinity of the skin must be reduced by diffusion into the skin. However, these systems are more sensitive to the sensitivity of the skin.
  • The object of the invention is to provide an electrically activatable or electrically active transdermal system (TTS), which takes into account both the sensitivity of the skin and more effective to the skin or near-skin drug that has possibly even enriched near the skin administer.
  • In one embodiment, this object is achieved by a transdermal therapeutic system that combines an electrophoretic system with an iontophoretic system. This combination allows
    • - To allow drug accumulated near the skin more quickly penetrate into the skin and / or
    • - Provide shorter electrical fields in the skin than in the previously known iontophoretic systems and / or
    • - To achieve the iontophoretic drug application with comparatively low voltage and / or
    • - to combine the duration and the strength of the electric fields and to coordinate with each other so that at the lowest possible field voltages (and thus low energy consumption) an effective administration of the active substance,
    whereby the skin is relieved.
  • This combination also allows
    • - that the dose, the duration and the time interval of the drug delivery are influenced by the user (user activated transdermal system) and / or
    • - to combine the duration and the strength of the electric fields and to coordinate with each other so that at the lowest possible field voltages (and thus low energy consumption) an effective administration of the active substance,
    which saves active ingredient, the drug delivery profile is adapted to the requirements.
  • Thus, according to the invention, a transdermal therapeutic system is provided which comprises in combination
    • (I) at least one active ingredient reservoir, - on the skin far side or on its side, which faces away from the skin, an electrode is provided, and - on its near-skin or on its side, which faces the skin, a Counter-electrode is provided, wherein the system further comprises
    • (ii) a further electrode (additional electrode), which is provided for applying an electric field through or via the skin with the aid of the counter electrode and is short-circuited from the combination.
  • The additional electrode may be provided together with a reservoir of a biocompatible electrolyte. Thus, the electrolyte reservoir may be a salt reservoir, such as a sodium chloride reservoir.
  • In one embodiment, a transdermal therapeutic system is further provided, which comprises a plurality of combinations of drug reservoir with its electrode and counter electrode as a pair of electrodes and with additional electrode.
  • Thus, each drug reservoir with its electrode and counterelectrode, the pair of electrodes, honeycomb-like surrounded by additional electrodes, which in turn may be in turn surrounded by honeycomb of drug reservoirs with their electrode pairs. In the edge region of a transdermal therapeutic system, each electrode pair is paired with at least one additional electrode and vice versa; see. 1 ,
  • Likewise, each active substance reservoir with its electrode and counterelectrode can be surrounded in a circle by an additional electrode, which in turn can in turn be surrounded in a circle by an active substance reservoir with its electrode pair; see. 2 ,
  • Likewise, the arrangement of the active ingredient reservoir with its electrode and counter electrode to the additional electrode can be strip-shaped, wherein the arrangements can be repeated or ranked; see. 3 ,
  • In either combination, the electrodes of the electrode pair and / or the auxiliary electrode may be made of an electrically conductive metal or an electrically conductive alloy using copper or a noble metal, such as silver, gold, platinum or palladium. Relevant prior art US 4,752,285 A . US 5 135 477 A and US 5,415,629 A ,
  • The electrodes of the electrode pair can also consist of graphitic or electrically conductive polymeric material. For additional electrodes and silver chloride is also considered.
  • The electrodes of the electrode pair can also be made of textile materials such. B. woven or laid, wherein the fibers may be wholly or partially electrically conductive coated or equipped or may consist wholly or partly of electrically conductive material.
  • In the transdermal therapeutic system according to the invention, a covering film may be provided on the side facing away from the skin, this film being impermeable to active substance.
  • The skin remote or skin remote electrodes can be provided with the cover, be worn by this film.
  • Thus skin-remote electrodes may be printed onto the skin-facing side of the cover film and / or the film is partially or fully electroconductively coated / finished and / or the film consists partly or completely of conductive material. Furthermore, printed electrodes can form rasters (electrode rasters) ,
  • Skin-facing electrodes or skin-near electrodes (counterelectrodes) may be provided with a foil or a membrane, for example, carried by this foil or membrane, this foil or membrane being permeable to active substance.
  • The counterelectrodes can be printed on the drug-permeable film or membrane, where they can form grid (electrode grid).
  • For the cover film and for the drug-permeable film or membrane plastic materials come into consideration, for example, polyester-based. You can also choose such a material to isolate the counterelectrodes of the electrode pairs from the opposite pole additional electrodes electrically or against short circuits.
  • Furthermore, the transdermal therapeutic system according to the invention may be provided with a battery and a programmable controller or a microcomputer, in particular with printed electronics. The electronics of the controller may be partially or entirely implemented as Printed Electronic, which is applied directly to the skin-distant side of a cover. As a result, the entire electronics can be made as flexible as possible, resulting in a flexible TTS. Likewise, a flexible battery can be used. A flexible TTS has a high wearing comfort; In contrast, a rigid TTS is less preferred because it always produces a marked foreign body sensation and is therefore less comfortable to wear.
  • The controller can be designed so that
    • - drug delivery to the patient (eg dose and time course) is constant or according to a predetermined profile and / or
    • - The controller can control the strength and timing of the electric fields so that the predetermined profile of drug delivery efficiently (eg low energy requirements and / or low residual drug content of the TTS after the application) and as gentle as possible and / or
    • - The controller can measure the current active substance content of the TTS and / or
    • - The controller can display the current active substance content of the TTS and / or
    • The parameters for delivering the active substance to the patient (eg dose and time course) can be preset as required for the duration of the application, for example by connecting the controller to a programming unit (eg via plug or a radio connection ) and or
    • The parameters for the delivery of active substance (eg dose and time course) can be influenced by the patient himself as required, for example by the patient changing the parameters via sensors on the TTS or by means of a remote control and / or
    • - the controller's records of the course of the drug application can be separately evaluated after or during the application.
  • Furthermore, the transdermal therapeutic system according to the invention may have on the skin-remote side a covering film which covers the active substance reservoir with electrode pair and additional electrode or the active substance reservoirs with electrode pairs and additional electrodes and which is additionally connected to a detachable lobe-like support for the controller. This carrier may be made of the same material as the cover film. In order to separate the carrier from the covering film, a predetermined tear seam or a perforation line can be provided, or the carrier can be adhesively bonded again in a detachable manner or mechanically fixed in a releasable manner (eg clips or Velcro). After separation of the carrier records of the controller can be evaluated separately over the course of the drug application.
  • The drug reservoir can be provided as a matrix, gel or liquid reservoir. Reference is made to the prior art DE 37 03 321 A . DE 40 40 911 A1 . EP 0 532 451 A1 . US 5,415,629 A . WO 93/03 790 A1 and WO 94/16765 A1 ,
  • The medium of the active substance reservoir can be selected from the group formed by liquids, in particular water, gels, in particular hydrogels, and polymer matrices.
  • In the transdermal therapeutic system according to the invention, the area of the electrodes of a pair of electrodes and / or an additional electrode may be 0.5 to 5000 mm 2 , preferably 10 to 1000 mm 2 . The distance between the counter electrode and the additional electrode which are responsible for the iontophoretic active ingredient administration may be less than 10 mm, preferably less than 5 mm.
  • The area of a transdermal therapeutic system may be 1 to 50, for example 10 to 25 cm 2 . Smaller systems are less technically feasible, and larger ones are less user-friendly.
  • Applicable drugs are ionizable. Examples are 4-aniline-piperidines, such as fentanyl and some of its derivatives, such as sufentanil. These weak bases form cations in an acidic environment.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail by an example with figures.
  • Examples 1 to 3
  • 1 shows in plan view 7 Electrodes of electrode pairs, each of which is honeycomb-like surrounded by additional electrodes (white hexagons), the interstices are to be filled with insulating material filled. For the sake of simplicity, the contacts of the electrodes and the edge region of the transdermal therapeutic system are not shown.
  • 2 shows in plan view 2 Electrodes of electrode pairs, which are each annularly surrounded by additional electrodes (wide white rings), the annular spaces are to think of filled with insulating material. For the sake of simplicity, the contacts of the electrodes and the edge region of the transdermal therapeutic system are not shown.
  • 3 shows in plan view 4 rectangular electrodes of pairs of electrodes, each flanked by rectangular additional electrodes (white rectangles), the interstices are to think of filled with insulating material. For the sake of simplicity, the contacts of the electrodes and the edge region of the transdermal therapeutic system are not shown.
  • Example 4
  • 4 shows on average a drug-impermeable plastic film 1 that broke away on both sides. The foil 1 can be made of polyester. In the slide 1 are adjacent two recesses 2 . 3 trained, who can be different deep. These recesses can be provided, for example, mechanically by milling or by photochemical etching. On each of the base or end faces of the two recesses 2 . 3 is an electrode 11 . 21 printed. Both electrodes 11 . 21 act in the representation as an anode. The deeper recess 2 is with a polymer matrix 4 filled, for example acrylate-based, such as DuroTak 287-2097 or 287-2287 , The polymer matrix 4 should the electrode 11 cover. About the slide 1 is a permeable plastic membrane for the drug 5 placed. This membrane 5 is vis-à-vis the electrode 11 with a counter electrode 12 printed, which acts in the representation as a cathode.
  • The membrane 5 can be provided with a drug-permeable pressure-sensitive adhesive (not shown); see. approximately US 5 533 995 A (Column 7, line 5).
  • For the sake of simplicity, the contacts of the electrodes are also not shown.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the drug-impermeable film 1 the two electrodes 11 . 21 isolate against each other and at the same time they can serve as cover.
  • As can be deduced from the figure, a transdermal therapeutic system according to the invention can comprise a multiplicity of combinations of drug reservoir with electrode pair and further electrode (additional electrode).

Claims (16)

  1. Transdermal therapeutic system comprising (i) a combination consisting of at least one active substance reservoir, - On the skin far side or on its side, which faces away from the skin, an electrode is provided, and - On the near-skin side or on its side, which faces the skin, a counter electrode is provided, the system further comprising (Ii) a further electrode (additional electrode), which is provided for applying an electric field across the skin with the aid of the counter electrode and short-circuited from the combination, wherein the counter electrode is provided with a film or a membrane, which is drug-permeable.
  2. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 1, wherein the additional electrode is provided together with a reservoir of a biocompatible electrolyte, in particular a salt reservoir as an electrolyte reservoir, preferably a sodium chloride reservoir.
  3. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 1 and / or 2, comprising a plurality of combinations of drug reservoir with its electrode and counter electrode (pair of electrodes) and of additional electrode.
  4. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 1, 2 and / or 3, wherein each drug reservoir with its electrode and counter electrode (pair of electrodes) honeycomb-like surrounded by additional electrodes, which in turn are honeycomb-like surrounded by drug reservoirs with their pairs of electrodes.
  5. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the electrodes of the electrode pair and / or the additional electrode of An electrically conductive metal or an electrically conductive alloy using copper or a noble metal, such as silver, gold, platinum or palladium, or - Of textile materials whose fibers are coated or equipped electrically conductive or at least partially made of electrically conductive material, or - Of graphitic or electrically conductive polymeric material consist.
  6. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of claims 1 to 4 with silver chloride electrode (s) as additional electrode (s).
  7. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein, on the side facing away from the skin, a cover film is provided, this film is impermeable to active substance.
  8. The transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 7, wherein the skin-remote electrode (s) is (are) printed on the cover film or the cover film is at least partially electrically conductive or the cover film consists at least partially of electrically conductive material.
  9. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 8, in which the printed electrodes form rasters (electrode rasters).
  10. The transdermal therapeutic system of claim 1, wherein the counter electrode is provided with a foil or membrane from which it is carried.
  11. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 10, wherein the electrode (s) is (are) printed on the drug-permeable film or membrane.
  12. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the system is provided with a battery and a programmable controller or a microcomputer, in particular with printed electronics.
  13. Transdermal therapeutic system according to claim 12, wherein the system on the skin-remote side has a cover which covers the drug reservoir with electrode pair and additional electrode or the drug reservoirs with electrode pairs and additional electrodes and which is additionally connected to a detachable flap-like support for the controller ,
  14. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the medium of the active substance reservoir is selected from the group formed by liquids, in particular water, gels, in particular hydrogels, and polymer matrices.
  15. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the area of the electrodes of a pair of electrodes and / or an additional electrode is 0.5 to 5000 mm 2 , preferably 10 to 1000 mm 2 .
  16. Transdermal therapeutic system according to at least one of the preceding claims, an area of 1 to 50 and in particular 10 to 25 cm 2 .
DE102010024558.5A 2010-06-22 2010-06-22 Transdermal therapeutic system with electrodes Active DE102010024558B4 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014012652A1 (en) 2012-07-20 2014-01-23 Grünenthal GmbH Electric-field assisted administration of tapentadol
EP3421080A1 (en) * 2017-06-28 2019-01-02 Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation Device and method for controlled and monitored transdermal delivery of active agents and use thereof

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EP1457233B1 (en) * 2003-03-12 2007-07-11 Novosis AG Transdermal drug delivery system with mesh electrode

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