DE102009048951A1 - Method for modeling a page register control loop for a processing machine - Google Patents

Method for modeling a page register control loop for a processing machine

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Publication number
DE102009048951A1
DE102009048951A1 DE102009048951A DE102009048951A DE102009048951A1 DE 102009048951 A1 DE102009048951 A1 DE 102009048951A1 DE 102009048951 A DE102009048951 A DE 102009048951A DE 102009048951 A DE102009048951 A DE 102009048951A DE 102009048951 A1 DE102009048951 A1 DE 102009048951A1
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modeling
register
adjustment
controller
machine
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DE102009048951A
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German (de)
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Holger Schnabel
Stephan Schultze
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Robert Bosch GmbH
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Robert Bosch GmbH
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B17/00Systems involving the use of models or simulators of said systems
    • G05B17/02Systems involving the use of models or simulators of said systems electric

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for modeling a control loop (300) for controlling a side register of a processing machine for processing a material web (101), in particular a shaftless printing press (100), wherein at least one machine parameter (v, a) determining the path gain (K S ). influenced, is taken into account in the modeling.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a method for modeling a control loop for controlling a side register of a processing machine and a correspondingly arranged arithmetic unit.
  • Although hereinafter mainly referred to printing presses, the invention is not limited thereto, but rather directed to all types of processing machines in which a web or sporadic material (sheet) is processed. However, the invention is particularly in printing machines, such. As newspaper printing machines, commercial printing machines, gravure printing machines, packaging printing machines or securities printing machines, as well as processing machines, such. As bag machines, envelope machines or packaging machines, can be used. The material can be made of paper, cloth, cardboard, plastic, metal, rubber, in foil form, etc.
  • State of the art
  • For multi-color printing are printing machines with multiple printing units, for example, from the US 4,932,320 known, which are provided with circumferential and side register adjustment devices for register adjustment. In this way, the position of the individual printed color separations can be corrected to each other. In printing machines longitudinal and / or page registers are regulated in order to achieve an optimal printing result. Known controller, such. As P-controller, D-controller, I-controller, etc., as well as any combinations thereof include controller parameters that need to be set. Conventional controller parameters are the proportional gain K P , the integral gain K I , the differential gain K D , the reset time T N , the derivative time T V , delays T, etc. The controller parameters are determined or set manually in the prior art via an evaluation of a step response, This is why the machine operator has control engineering knowledge and must set the parameters individually.
  • If the type of controlled system and its route parameters are known, a calculated parameterization is possible in addition to the manual parameterization. For this purpose, it is necessary to model the observed control loop. The control loop structure consists at least of the two elements controller and controlled system (path behavior). The path behavior of an adjusting movement, for example of a printing unit, is usually modeled as a PT1 element with a path gain K S and a (speed-dependent) path time constant T I or T S. Control technology usually the track behavior is compensated by means of a PI controller such that there is a second-order system. There are different design criteria for the P-gain and the I-share. Use then find known adjustment methods such. B. Symmetrical optimum or root locus method.
  • With regard to the lateral register control, the known methods have the disadvantage that, on the one hand, the controller parameters have to be entered manually, which usually does not lead to an optimal control, and on the other hand, the automatic adaptation methods are not yet so mature that optimum results are achieved.
  • The not pre-published DE 10 2008 035 639 , to which reference is expressly made for further details, describes an improved modeling of a register loop in which dead times of the system are taken into account.
  • Disclosure of the invention
  • Against this background, the present invention proposes a method for modeling a control loop for a processing machine and a computing unit having the features of the independent patent claims. Advantageous developments are the subject of the dependent claims and the following description.
  • Advantages of the invention
  • The invention is based essentially on the recognition that in the case of a side register control special machine or process parameters have a strong influence on the control by influencing the system gain. By taking into account these parameters in the modeling of the control loop, an improved side register control can be achieved. The control loop modeled in this way can be used to automatically determine the controller parameters, in particular by means of known methods. The controller parameters are thus optimally matched to the underlying processing machine and manual input by a user can be omitted. This excludes a significant source of error in machine setup.
  • In an exemplary determination of the controller parameters, the system gain enters the denominator. For example, the controller gain K R is calculated for a PI controller at a PT1 distance (cf. 3 ) according symm. Optimum to:
    Figure 00040001
    where K S is the path gain, T 1 is the path time constant (= T S ) and T S is the sum time constant. Thus, in the calculation of the controller parameters results in a larger controller gain at a smaller loop gain. In the modeling of the control loop, according to the invention, at least one machine or process parameter influencing the system gain is now also taken into account. Thus, the control loop dynamics of the system can be significantly increased and the control can be optimized.
  • In the side register control, the deviation of the printed color separations from each other perpendicular to the direction of material flow is usually determined by measuring the register marks in the material flow direction. Thus, the shape of the register mark influences the relationship between the actual lateral deviation and the detected length deviation (cf. 2 ). If the register mark shape is taken into account, for example, in the form of the angle of a triangular mark, the control quality can be improved.
  • In the side register control, the processing material is moved relative to the processing unit, for example a printing cylinder, perpendicular to the material flow direction. The type of movement is the drive driving this movement, z. B. spindle drive, stepper motor u. Ä., Dependent and often characterized by a fixed at least after setting movement speed (adjustment speed). In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, this adjustment speed is taken into account. It has namely been recognized that the adjustment speed of a side register adjustment device has a direct influence on the path gain K S and thus on the controller parameters. It is K S ~ Verstellgeschwindigkeit. Conveniently, the adjustment, to which also z. B. an adjustment speed of the drive together with a feed constant (spindle pitch) of the mechanism counts, in the inventive computing unit can be entered and / or read out from the relevant drive and / or predetermined in the relevant drive.
  • In the side register control actuators are often used that perform a certain minimum adjustment, for example, because they are pulse-controlled. A maximum adjustment movement per adjustment can, for example, be provided in order not to damage or destroy the material. Advantageously, a minimum adjustment and / or a maximum adjustment of a side register adjustment device are taken into account in the modeling. Thus, the scheme can be improved and the substrate and the machine can be protected from damage. An uneven web run is avoided. A minimum adjustment can be provided as a dead zone in the controller output and / or at the controller input. A maximum adjustment can be provided as a limit in the controller output and / or at the controller input.
  • Expediently, at least one dead time is taken into account in the modeling. Constant, ie not transport speed-dependent and / or speed-dependent dead times are taken into account in order to achieve good results in all speed ranges. For example, a speed-dependent dead time usually has a large influence at low speeds, which decreases with increasing transport speed. However, especially in this speed range, the influence of constant dead times has a particularly disturbing effect since, by definition, they show no speed dependency and can therefore dominate the track behavior in these speed ranges. For further details regarding the consideration of dead times, please refer to the already mentioned DE 10 2008 035 639 referenced, which is incorporated in this application.
  • Expediently, a determination of controller parameters is carried out on the basis of the modeled control loop. This determination can in particular automatically within a computing unit, such. B. a controller or a register controller, done. With this preferred embodiment of the invention, it is thus possible to automatically provide optimal parameterization of the controller at any time of processing by a processing machine.
  • Alternatively, it is advisable to carry out the determination of the controller parameters as a function of a characteristic field. As has already been explained above, only a few variables are used as parameters in the modeling, whereas many variables, such as, for example, As the brand shape, Verstellgeschwindigkeiten, distances, constant dead times, etc., are fixed. For this reason, it makes sense, characteristic curves depending on the variable variables such. B. web speed provide that can be stored for example in a memory device of the arithmetic unit. In this way the automatic parameterization of the controllers can be significantly accelerated.
  • An arithmetic unit according to the invention is, in particular programmatically, configured to perform a method according to the invention.
  • Also, the implementation of the invention in the form of software is advantageous because this allows very low cost, especially if an executing processing unit is still used for other tasks and therefore already exists. Suitable data carriers for the provision of the computer program are, in particular, floppy disks, hard disks, flash memories, EEPROMs, CD-ROMs, DVDs and the like. It is also possible to download a program via computer networks (Internet, intranet, etc.).
  • Further advantages and embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the description and the accompanying drawings.
  • It is understood that the features mentioned above and those yet to be explained below can be used not only in the particular combination given, but also in other combinations or in isolation, without departing from the scope of the present invention.
  • The invention is illustrated schematically by means of exemplary embodiments in the drawing and will be described in detail below with reference to the drawing.
  • figure description
  • 1 shows a schematic representation of a machine designed as a printing machine, for which the inventive method is suitable,
  • 2 shows the principle of taking into account a register mark shape in a page register control and
  • 3 shows a schematic representation of an inventively modeled control loop for a processing machine in a simplified representation.
  • In 1 is a configured as a printing machine processing machine in total with 100 designated. A printing material, for example paper 101 , is by as a printing works 110 . 120 . 130 . 140 trained processing facilities led in the direction of R and printed. The printing units are shaftless and driven by drives 111 fitted. The printing units are cylinder-length or angle-correctable for longitudinal register control, which is indicated by the curved arrows on the drives 111 is hinted at. The printing units are additionally equipped with page register adjustment devices 112 equipped. The side register adjustment devices 112 are perpendicular to the material transport direction R adjustable with an adjustment speed v.
  • The drives 111 and adjusting devices 112 The individual printing units are connected via a data connection 151 with a controller 150 connected. Furthermore, there are several sensors between the printing units 132 . 133 . 134 for registering register marks for the control of the side register (optional longitudinal register), which also with the control 150 are connected. For clarity, there is only one sensor 134 shown connected to the controller. The control 150 In particular, it comprises an embodiment of a computing unit according to the invention and is set up for automatic controller parameterization.
  • In the following it will be described how in the illustrated printing machine in the prior art, a side register control is performed as a color control. In the individual sections of the track between the printing units 120 to 140 and behind printing unit 140 are the sensors 132 . 133 . 134 arranged, the register position of the web 101 determine and, for example, are designed as a brand reader. During the passage of the web 101 , z. B. paper, each of a brand reader the extent of the applied pressure from the associated brand and the first printing unit 110 registered mark in the direction of R (color control). The measured values are fed to a device for register control (register controller). From this, a respective register deviation can be calculated. Detected register deviations are used to position the respective printing unit. The color control has the advantage that in principle one sensor (behind the last printing unit) is sufficient. However, in the case of the color control of the stand, it takes a correspondingly long time until a print mark printed by the first printing unit is transported to the last printing unit. Only then can the page register control of the last printing unit begin to start its control process. For gravure printing machines, this length can be in the range of 100 m.
  • According to the illustrated embodiment, the register controller is automatically parameterized using a method according to the invention. It is understood that the register controller in the arithmetic unit 150 , such as a computer, may be embodied.
  • In 2 the principle of considering the brand form is exemplified. With reference to 1 and, by way of example, using a color balance control, the register mark sensor misses 134 one from the printing unit 110 applied brand 201 as well as one from the printing unit 140 applied brand 202 , The brands 201 and 202 are in the present example designed as right-angled triangles, with only angle a being considered for further consideration. In the Register control will be the extension d1 of the mark 201 and the extent d2 of the mark 202 determined in material flow direction and their difference d1 - d2 used for the side register control. The purpose of the side register control is to regulate the difference d1-d2 to 0 (optionally to a specified reference value, since the markers can be measured with a different width due to their contrast). However, as in the consideration of 2 is recognizable, the difference d1-d2 does not correspond to the actual page register deviation e. The actual deviation e results in the present example of a triangle mark to e = [cosa / sina] (d2 - d1).
  • According to the invention, this difference between the control variable d1-d2 used for the control and the actual register deviation e was recognized and taken into account. The difference is influenced by a machine parameter, in this case the brand shape, and has an effect on the path gain, in the present example with the factor cosa / sina.
  • As a rule, the control deviation d1-d2 is determined in mm (optionally also in degrees) and from this a manipulated variable for the corresponding side register adjustment device 112 certainly. This manipulated variable depends on the adjustment speed v of the adjusting device. If, for example, it is to be adjusted by 1 mm, an adjustment device with an adjustment speed of 1 mm / s requires at least one second, whereas an adjustment device with an adjustment speed of 0.5 mm / s requires at least two seconds for this. In the first case, the system gain is thus greater and thus a smaller controller gain K R better.
  • Furthermore, the side register adjustment devices 112 often designed so that they only a certain minimum adjustment. can perform, for example, because they are pulse controlled. In certain situations, this can lead to constant positioning movements, which lead to a troubled web run. For example, assume that an adjustment device can adjust at least x mm per pulse. In a simplifying assumption, a P controller with gain K = 1 is used and the adjustment is fully effective until the next measurement (line gain K S = 1). If a deviation of + x / 2 mm occurs, an adjustment of -x mm occurs. This leads to a deviation of -x / 2 mm. Now it is again adjusted by + x mm, which leads to a deviation of + x / 2 mm. As a result, a constant adjustment is performed. This leads to a troubled system and can swing up at several coupled controllers in the machine. Furthermore, the adjustment can be worn by constant adjustments. Preferably, these minimum adjustments are therefore taken into account in the controller design. The consideration of the minimum adjustment can be provided by a dead zone at the controller output and / or at the controller input.
  • For a pulse-controlled adjustment device, this dead zone at the controller output can be calculated as follows:
    • (1) dead zone at the controller output = minimum pulse duration · adjustment speed v of the adjustment device.
    • (2) Dead zone at the controller input = dead zone at the controller output / gain of the controller.
  • In (2) only the gain of the controller was considered. With a PI controller, the I component of the controller would also have to be taken into account.
  • By using the dead zone, a constantly oscillating adjustment of the adjustment can be prevented. If the dead zone is located at the controller input, then in an embodiment of the invention, this is dynamically adapted as a function of process variables. For example, depending on the speed, a changing P gain of the controller and thus another dead zone at the controller input will result.
  • In 3 a modeled according to the invention control loop is shown schematically and in total with 300 designated. The control loop may, for example, a printing machine according to 1 underlie. The control loop 300 includes a PI member 310 with a control gain K R and a reset time T N. The track behavior with the track time constant T S and the track gain K S is in a PT1 link 340 modeled. Existing dead times, such. B. a constant dead time, which is caused by the computing time of the computing unit, a speed-dependent dead time, which is caused by the ramp behavior of the manipulated variable, a speed-dependent dead time, which is caused by the distance of the sensor from the printing unit, caused by the measuring time of the sensor constant Dead time and / or caused by the data transmission constant dead time are in a control circuit member 330 summarized, which is characterized by a sum dead time T S.
  • The control circuit link 330 can be approximated by PT1 behavior. It goes without saying that other rules-related approximations are also possible. The position of the control circuit link 330 within the control loop 300 is selectable by the responsible specialist. For example, the control loop member 330 also be arranged in the return.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention go into the model of the controlled system 340 an adjustment speed v of the side register adjustment devices 112 and an angle a of the register marks.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • US 4932320 [0003]
    • DE 102008035639 [0006, 0013]

Claims (13)

  1. Method for modeling a control loop ( 300 ) for controlling a side register (e) of a processing machine for processing a web ( 101 ), in particular shaftless printing machine ( 100 ), wherein at least one machine parameter (v, a) which influences the path gain (K s ) is taken into account in the modeling.
  2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the brand form (a) of a page register mark (a) 201 . 202 ) is considered as a machine parameter in the modeling.
  3. Method according to claim 2, wherein at least one angle (a) of an angular, in particular triangular, side register mark ( 201 . 202 ) is considered as a machine parameter in the modeling.
  4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein an adjustment speed (v) of a side register adjustment device ( 112 ) is considered as a machine parameter in the modeling.
  5. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein a minimum adjustment of a side register adjustment device ( 112 ) is taken into account in the modeling.
  6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein a maximum adjustment of a side register adjustment device ( 112 ) is taken into account in the modeling.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one dead time (T S ) is taken into account in the modeling.
  8. Method according to one of the preceding claims, based on the modeled control loop ( 300 ) a determination of controller parameters (K R , T N ) takes place.
  9. The method of claim 8, wherein the interpretation of the controller parameters (K R , T N ) is carried out for interference behavior.
  10. The method of claim 8 or 9, wherein the guiding behavior is optimized by a pre-filtering of the reference variable, in particular by means of a PT1 filter.
  11. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10, wherein the determination of the controller parameters (K R , T N ) takes place in dependence on a characteristic field.
  12. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the processing machine comprises a printing machine ( 100 ), in particular a gravure printing machine or a flexographic printing machine.
  13. Arithmetic unit ( 150 ), which is adapted to perform a method according to any one of the preceding claims.
DE102009048951A 2009-10-10 2009-10-10 Method for modeling a page register control loop for a processing machine Pending DE102009048951A1 (en)

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DE102009048951A DE102009048951A1 (en) 2009-10-10 2009-10-10 Method for modeling a page register control loop for a processing machine
PCT/EP2010/005676 WO2011042115A1 (en) 2009-10-10 2010-09-16 Method for modeling a side register control circuit for a processing machine
EP10754434A EP2486458A1 (en) 2009-10-10 2010-09-16 Method for modeling a side register control circuit for a processing machine

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Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4932320A (en) 1985-03-08 1990-06-12 Michel Brunetti Method and device for registering colors in an offset rotary press
DE4218761A1 (en) * 1992-06-06 1993-12-09 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Pre-adjustment of registration devices on rotary printing presses - involves standstill or very slow running of sheet feed while registration mark sensors are repositioned
DE19826333A1 (en) * 1997-10-21 1999-04-22 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Registration procedure
DE19919741A1 (en) * 1999-04-30 2000-11-02 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Process for register control when overprinting several partial colors
DE10131957A1 (en) * 2001-07-02 2003-01-16 Nexpress Solutions Llc Method and device for detecting and correcting color deviations in multi-color printing
DE10318571A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-27 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Offset printing machine registration adjustment system has optical sensing of register marks and calculation of adjustment step and speed to suit machine rotation rate
DE102005054975A1 (en) * 2005-11-16 2007-05-24 Siemens Ag Register control in a printing machine
DE102006050743A1 (en) * 2006-10-27 2008-04-30 Koenig & Bauer Aktiengesellschaft Inline sensor's e.g. spectral, densitometric measuring sensor, measuring clock pulse preadjusting method for e.g. sheet-feed offset rotary printing machine, involves finding rotational angle for measuring clock pulse from strips position
DE102008035639A1 (en) 2008-07-31 2010-02-04 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for modeling a control loop for a processing machine

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5735205A (en) * 1996-11-07 1998-04-07 Westvaco Corporation Printing press controller
DE10013876B4 (en) * 1999-04-08 2013-10-02 Heidelberger Druckmaschinen Ag Method for controlling the coloring when printing with a printing machine
DE10309670A1 (en) * 2003-03-06 2004-09-16 Man Roland Druckmaschinen Ag Control device for electrical drive of printing machine, calculates load-side slip error from drive-side slip error, torsion angle of drive shaft, load speed etc.

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4932320A (en) 1985-03-08 1990-06-12 Michel Brunetti Method and device for registering colors in an offset rotary press
DE4218761A1 (en) * 1992-06-06 1993-12-09 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Pre-adjustment of registration devices on rotary printing presses - involves standstill or very slow running of sheet feed while registration mark sensors are repositioned
DE19826333A1 (en) * 1997-10-21 1999-04-22 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Registration procedure
DE19919741A1 (en) * 1999-04-30 2000-11-02 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Process for register control when overprinting several partial colors
DE10131957A1 (en) * 2001-07-02 2003-01-16 Nexpress Solutions Llc Method and device for detecting and correcting color deviations in multi-color printing
DE10318571A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-27 Heidelberger Druckmasch Ag Offset printing machine registration adjustment system has optical sensing of register marks and calculation of adjustment step and speed to suit machine rotation rate
DE102005054975A1 (en) * 2005-11-16 2007-05-24 Siemens Ag Register control in a printing machine
DE102006050743A1 (en) * 2006-10-27 2008-04-30 Koenig & Bauer Aktiengesellschaft Inline sensor's e.g. spectral, densitometric measuring sensor, measuring clock pulse preadjusting method for e.g. sheet-feed offset rotary printing machine, involves finding rotational angle for measuring clock pulse from strips position
DE102008035639A1 (en) 2008-07-31 2010-02-04 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for modeling a control loop for a processing machine

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